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Image provided by: University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Newspaper Page Text
AUSTIN'S HAWAIIAN WEEKLY.
Agricultural Developmemt of the Hawaiian Islands,
(BY FRANKLIN AUSTIN.)
It Is proposed under the title " History of the Agricultural Deveop
nient of the ilnwull'iu Islands," to prepare a carefully written work
upon the history of the uigur Industry and other agricultural resources
of these Islands. Such a wen k has never before been undertaken with
anything like the detail or l.iithtulness to facts that I propose In the
present work. All mi car men with whom I have talked concerning the
work, agree that Mich u hook will prove to be exceedingly valuable If
care is taken in the gathering of material and It is compiled In such a
manner as to he of intrust to the general public, as well as to those in
terested in (he planting of saigar cane and manufacture of sugar. I shall
take great caio m the propatatlon of the work to avoid too much tech
nicality, yet it will l)e Mililclcntly so to be of value to planters.
The history of eveiy plantation In the Islands will be written. It is
a matter of fact Hint no two sugar estates are alike, although their
lands may adjoin inch other. Conditions of soil and climate are likely
to vary almost within a mile end the success of a plantation depends In
a most ovtir.onliiiuiy degice upon the good judgment of Its manager.
This is, to be sure, true of an;' business, but it is ten fold more a factor
of success In the s-ugar business than In any other lino of Industrial
woik. So great a laetor, nuiecd, is it that successful managers a'.e paid
extraordinarily largo salaiirs, yet these salaries are in no waj out of
proportion to the mormons losponsibilitics that fall upon the shoulders
of the head of a sugar plantation.
The sugar liulustiy was hist introduced in Hawaii by Chinamen In a
very small and emdc way upon lands which they were permitted to oc
cupy for the purpose of imn'rniice of the chiefs, as early as 1830. But
the 'ndustiy received its Hist impetus and official recognition by Kame
li'imeii.i III In 1S;;:i, when Koloa plantation was started on Knual by
Uuld ,t Co , who were at thai time the largest trading concern in the
Islands. Major Hooper, one of the partners in Ladd & Co., was the pro
moter and malinger of the enterprise. As this was before the mahele
(distribution of lands,) I. add & Co. held tenure to the land only by
concession of the King and the native laborers who were then serfs had
to b3 hired from the chiefs in the vicinity. In his diary, a copy of which
is in my possession, Major Hooper recounts the trials and tribulations
in the attempt to make the natives work. It was only after he hit upon
the plan of treating them as freedmen and paying each man who did
good work a real tl2', cents) a day, in addition to the stipulated sum
paid the chiefs, that he was enabled to get a satisfactory day's work
out of thcin. It was the experience he had with native labor at Koloa
Rice Alill at Waiahole, property of Minister Lansing.
H'liuiu ''S Il.'inn.i.
tlu't prompted Major Hooper to urge upon Kamehnmeha III the wisdom
of emancipating the serfs, which was effected in 1S3S.
The sugar industry received a very serious set back In 1843 through
the failure of l.add Co., which was brought about by the repudiation
by the govt rnment of (he Belgian contract, which, by the way, was one
iiiiiiiiBHnHniHn,iMSKM.;v. 'wrv . :, ;, ,
Ahuimanu Ranch and Dairy of Henry Macfarlane, Esq.
Il'hoto by H.mnn.
Rice : . I . i Waiahole.
LI'holu by Manna.