AUSTIN'S HAWAIIAN WEEKLY.
growers that more care should be taken to return to the soil
the ingredients exhausted by the crop. Various prepar
ations of fertilizers prepared in the United States were
experimented with, but as these preparations were made
without an j' knowledge of the analysis of Hawaiian soils
the' did not in all cases produce satisfactory results.
Such were the conditions in regard to fertilization
when Dr. Averdam arrived in Honolulu in 1893. lie came
out from Hamburg for the purpose of investigating the
Guano islands. Dr. Averdam has for many years held the
very highest reputation in Europe as a chemist in the
special line of fertilizers. For many years he was employ
ed as the expert for the Chamber of Commerce in Hamburg.
Hamburg is one of the largest manufacturing centers,
for fertilizers in the world and in the interest of its Chamber
of Commerce, he lias travelled in Africa, South America
and in nearly every country of the world making scientitic
Alter his return from the Guano islands Dr. Averd.im
became impressed with the necessity for scientific attention
to the preparation of special fertilizers to meet the require
ments of sugar planters. Dr. Averdam has had experience
in the preparation of fertilizers for sugar countries extend
ing over a period of twenty years. His investigations in
the Guano islands lead him to the conclusion that guano
properly treated and mixed with the proper sulphates,
nitrites and other ingredients would .meet all the necess
ities of sugar. As tlie islands are apaitofthe II uvaiian
group, although removed from 500 to 1000 miles, Honolulu
was the nalur.d point for the manufacture of fertilizers for
home consumption. He succeeded in interesting Messrs.
H.ickfeld ct Co. in the enterprise and in i8y4 work w..s
begun upon the buildings of The Pacific Guano and
Fertilizer works. Several of the guano islands were leased
from the government and a gang of men shipped to the
island of Laysan to establish a permanent camp. The
guano is dug and shipped to Honolulu only during the
summer months and stored iu the great warehouses at the
works. Six thousand tons are taken up every year.
Owing to the distance from foreign market a very large
and expensive stock has to be kept constantly on hand
and a large working capital is necessary to conduct the
The works are located very advantageously on the
lailroad about three miles from the cit'. The numerous
buildings comprising the works make a very imposing
appearance together with the long and commodious ware
houses. The O.iliu li. & L. Co. tracks are laid be
tween the w.i rehouses and also through the packing room
so that all hauling is done away with and
handling is reduced to a minimum. In the main
building are the crushing wi'iks, dissolving
works and great packing and store room. The tall build
ings in the fore-ground of the accompanying illustra
tions are the acid works, having a capacity of 5000 tons
of acin per annum. The guano is first crushed, then dis
solved by the application of sulphuric acid;then potash salts
and sulph. te of ammonia are added in the desii ed quantities.
The capacity of the works is 20,000 tons of prepared
fertilizer per annum.
The plant foods in the fertilizer when thus prepared, are
soluble in water and upon application to the soil are
thoroughly and evenly distributed, which is impossible
with insoluble manures. The plant foods are absorbed by
the soil and are stored for the use of the plant during the
whole period of its growth. The insoluble parts of the
fertilizers such as gypsum and considerable quantities of
organic matter highly improve the mechanical condition of
the soil also serving in a smaller measure as plant food.
It is the solubility of the fertilizers turned out at these
works that determine their value and all price.
At the outset Dr. Averdam was compelled to depend
entirely upon his own experience and judgment in pre
paring soluble fertilizers but by the establishment of the
experimental station, under the direction of Prof. Maxwell,
he has received very material aid in determining the pro
portional distribution of the various ingredients in the fer
tilizers best suited to restore to the soil the elements
exhausted by the growing of sugar cane- The ingredients
most in use are guano as a basis, potash salts, and soda of
ammonia, besides hood and other organic matter.
The Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Works are con
veniently located below the government road at Kalihi and
the site comprises twenty acres. All the employees live on
the premises in pietty cottages built by the company.
Water is furnished from an artesian well which has a
surface flow with about a ten foot head. Everything about
the factory is substantially built and special thought has
been given to provide e 'ery convenience.
The Mormon Settlement.
I Ph )ln l. II, inn 1.
THE LHTTER DHY SAINTS'. MIBSIEIN.
Py all odds the most interesting thing one finds in
travelling around the Island of Oahu is the self-supporting
mission at Laie established by the Latter Day Saints in 1865.
The Mormons first sent missionaries to these' islands in 1S50,
shortly after their location in Utah. The lirst missionary
was elder the Hon. George P. Cannon, father of United
States Senator Cannon. The first mission was located at
Kula, on Maui, but headquarters were removed to Laie,
when that place was started in 1865.
Laie is situated on the north side of the island, occupying
a very picturesque spot sloping to the sea from the pretty
low lying foot-hills at the foot of the main range of mountains
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