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l' SI I J I .. f ti K R wmmmmmm '? . .--V' ,,Tj ' mtJtmj&Ui&mtl)m 'i MtwM ' '!M0a'JS v 1 IO THE HONOLULU REPUBLICAN, SUNDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1900. MOSQUITOES PROPAGATE DREADED One Investigator Loses His Xiife and Another Develops a Pronounced Case, Leading the - Medical Officers to Adopt this Theory. TJe Philadelphia Medical Journal for Normnber ptiittishoa an article liy Dr. Walter Rood, surgeon ct Umj United States army, who tras ity Dr. Jame Carroll, Dr. A. and Dr. Jeee W- Lazear, assistant srgeor of the arraj. showias Uwt moMmitooB propagate yellow Tbey conducted investigations fn Qcmadoe and Havana, Cuba, upon Uw direction of the surgeon general of tho array. From their study of the disease they report that they drew this conclusion: "The mosquito serve as the host for tho parasite of yellow fever, and it is highly probable hat the disease is only propagated through the bite of this insect." This conclusion is regarded as cf high importance in the medical profession, particularly as the army surgeons had an excellent opportunity 10 ntHdy the disease last summer during the epidemic at Qucmados and among tho patients in Las Animas Hospital, Havana. The discovery of Dr. Reed and his assistants will be of great help in fighting the disease. The army surgeons say that they wore Induced to give their attention to the theory of the propagation of yyllow fever by means of the mosquito "a theory flrt advanced and Ingeniously discussed by Dr. Carlos J. Finloy, of Havana, In 1S31 ' by reason of the well known facts connected with the cpidomlnology of this disease, and, of course, by the brilliant work of Ross and the Italian observers In connection with the theory of tho propagation of malaria by the mosquito." A feature of the report of the medical officers is that of Dr. Jesse W. Lazear, one of their number, developed a fatal attack of yellow fever from a mosquito bite, and that Dr. James Carroll, another member of the special hoard was stricken with the fever through the medium of the insect, but recov ercd. Bitten by Another Mosquito. In Dr. Lazcar's case he had been bitten on August ICth by a contaminated mosquito of the culox fasciatus nriety. but no appreciable disturbance of health followed tho Inoculation. On September 13th, while Dr. Iizcar was collecting blood from yellow fever patients for study in Las Animas Hos W. H. RICE m Best and Most Modern Livery Rigs Delivered For : ? 5 t : HORSE SHOEING DEPT ll J J i FYBlf pital, he was bitten by a cslex mosquito whose Tariety has been undetermined. As Dr. Lazear had been previously bitten by a contaminated Insect without after effects, he deliberately allowed this mosquito to remain until It had satisfied its hunger. Five days after the bite Dr. Lazear was taken til with progressive and fatal yellow fevr and died on September 25th. The board's comment in this case is- I" As Dr. Lazear was bitten by a mos quito while present in the wards of a yellow fever hospital, one must at least admit the possibility of this insect's contamination by a previous bite of a yellow fever patient." Dr. Carroll was bitten by a mosquito, rules faciatus, on August 27. This particular mosquito has bitten two severe and two mild cases of yellow fever beforo attacking Dr. Carroll. Fire days after being bitten Dr. Carroll was down with severe yellow fever, from which he recovered. Dr. Carroll's movements before '''e was taken ill were traced to show that It "was the mosquito which transmitted the disease ..o him. It was admitted that Dr. Carroll during the period of incubation had been in the epidemic zone twice, but the facts of his case led the board of officers to believe that thehiosquIto gave Mm yellow fever. "X. Y.," an American resident of Columbia Barracks, at Quemados. was bitten by four contaminated mosquitoes, lie developed a well pronounced case of yellow fever, but recovered. Experiments on Other Persons. Dr. Reed and his assistants give a detailed account of the experiments with contaminated mosquitoes of the culex fasciatus variety on nine other non-immune individuals, who did not develop yellow fever principally because the mosquitoes had bftten only mild cases of the disease. The medical officers add: We now invite attention to the fact that from August 17th to October 13th, a period of fifty-seven days, only three cases of yellow fever have occurred among this population of 1,100 Americans (Columbia Barracks, which was outside of the epidemic zone at Quemados) and we con sider it important to note that two of those had been bitten within five days of the commencement of their attacks States;. The bosEty or oae cent a pound granted by the act of 1537, .n Michigan, so stimulated the production of sugar beets and investment cl capital in. th- factories that last season there were nine establishments In operation, which tamed oat over pounds sugar, demanding payment of over ?33tf,000 la bounties. This payment was contested with, the result of an adverse decision of the court of last resort. OOO The decision was la effect that Jrs law provided for appropriating public money to a private use, for whieh the Legislature had no authority. The law in this State, passed also in. 1SS7. shows a bounty of one cent a pound on the production of beet sugar, provided the grower of the beets receive not less than 5 a ton for his prodat. Its purpose 4s tb establish a new industry In the State and foster its growth until it Is able to maintain it self, or its ability to do so has be:n fairly tested. Whether that would be held to a legitimate public purpose under our constitution would depend upon the view taken of the question by our own courts.The factory at Lyons is the third one established since tei law was passed. There Is one at Rome with a capacity of 200 tons of beets a day. -and one at Binghamton with a capacity of 350 tons. It takes about twelve tons of beets to produce one ton of sugar. OOO This country consumed in the year 1SS9, 2,031,610 tons of sugar. Of this only 249.960 tons were of domestic production 160,000 tons of cane, 79,- 36S beet and 5,000 maple sugar. Of the 1,S39,642 tons imported, 1.560,764 was foreign cane sugar, and 272.913 raw and 5.935 refined beet sugar. According to the statistics of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1S99, our import of sugar were valued at $94,964,120. which is about two-thirds the value of our exports ofjvheat and flour. How-far we might go in producing this saccharine supply for ourselves is an interesting inquiry. OOO Let us see where our imported sugar chiefly comes from. We get worth of beet sugar from Europe, mostly from Germany. Of the cane sugar imported, $2S,22S.503 in value is brought from the West Indies, of which S16,412,0SS s from Cnba and $2,-495.690 from Porto Rico. From South Vmerica we get $C.156,9S0 worth, and little more 'than v00,000 from Mexico and Central America. From all Asia we get sugar to the value of of which ?19,S17,G46 comes from the Dutch East Indies. From our'own Hawaiian Islands we import in sugar and about $1,000,000 worth from the Philippines. About 4,000,000 worth comes from Africa, mil driblets from other- parts of the world. The figures for 1900 would piobably show a slight increase. Here, then, is evidence that we import nearly nine-tenths of all the sugir HONOLULU STOCK -President and Called For Up-to-date work and the proper squanug, straighten ing, etc., of your horse's gait, try our mechanics. ligation -will show they have no superiors in their line. K IL Iry contaminated mosquitoes." Dr. Heed and his assistants obtained the contaminated mosquitoes with which they conducted their experiments from Dr. 'Carlos J. FIcley, of Harass, for whose courtesy they express gratitade. The Conclusions of the Surgeons. The medical oiScers say. in concluding their report: "For ocrseives we have been Impressed with tie mode of and with lie results that followed the bite of itrer mosquito In these tnree cases. Our results would appear to 'throV new light on Carter's observations in Mississippi as to the period required between the introduction of the first unfeeling) case and the occurrence of secondary cases of yellow-fever. "Since we here for the first time record a case in whfeh. a typical attack of yellowj fejrer; has followed the bitg of an infected mosquito, within the usual period of incubation of th diseases and in-which other sources of infection can eiduded, we feci confident that the publication of these observations must excite renewed interest In the mosquito theory of the propagation of yellow fever, as first proposed by Finlay. "From the first part of our study of yellow fever we draw the following conclusions: "First The blood taken during life from the general veinous circulation on various da s of the disease, in eighteen cases of yellow fever, successively studied, has given negative results as regards the presence of "Second Cultures taken from the blood and organs of eleven yellow fever cadavers have also proved negative as regards the presence of this bacil lus. "Third Baciitusteroides (Sanarelli) stand in no causative relation to yellow fever, but, when -present, should be considered as a secondary invader in this disease. "From the second part of our study of yellow fever we draw the following conclusion: "The mosquito serves as the intermediate host for the parasite of yellow fever, and it is highly probable that the disease is only propagated through the oite of this insect." GAN WE MAKE BEET SUGAR TO ADVANTAGE? From X. Y. Mail and Express. The announcement that a new beet-sugar factory has been started at Lyons, in this state, costing $500,000, and having a capacity of fifty tons of raw sugar a day, and the recent decision of the Supreme Court of Michigan, declaring unconstitutional the bounty on beet sugar in that State, oi a biiecmi mierest 10 me question whether this industry can be made permanently profitable in the United COR, KING that we caasaae, drawing it from the most widely separated parts- of the earth. On taost of it a duty is paid, which, in some measure, is. Intended jasa. protection,, primarily to the Loit islasa planters. This does not how apply to the Hawaiian product, and only to x small extent to that of Porto Rico, and it may ultimately be remitted from that of Cnba and the Philippines. In that case there would doubt less be an increased production in those islands and a still larger increase in the Troportioa of our supply derived trom them- There would still be more than half our snpplyC valued at some $50,000,000 a year at the present time. Here is sufficient scope for a large domestic production of beet sugar for our own market -If the conditions are favorable enough to ma'ce it profitable without payment of botin.5 ties, which is not likely to be kept p permanently In any state. o c o The industry is undoubtedly in its infancy, but has attained considerable growth already, and it is comparatively flourishing in California. Utah and some other Western states without-the help of bounties. There arc eight factories in successful operation in California, with an aggregate capacity cf 9,250 tons of beets, or nearly 770 tons of sugar daily. There is one factory of moderate capacity in Oregon and one in Utah, which are together capable of using up 1.330 tons of beets a day. Thero are three factories in Nebraska, where one "legislature a law providing for a bounty and the next refused to appropriate the money to pay it. A beginning has also been made in Colorado and New- Mexico, where no bounty has been offered, and one factory has been established at Pekin. 111., though a bill providing for a bounty was vetoed and did not become a law. Several new factories are in course of construction or projected in Colorado. Utah and Iowa, in the last named state encouragement has been given to the industry by exempting beet sugar factories from taxation for ten years. OOO This subject has been investigated by a special agent of the agricultural department at Washington, who has made a favorable report on the prospects of the industry, provided due care is taken in the choice of land for growing the beets and the modes if cultivation. Taking Iowa as an example, he states that a fair estimate of the cost of raising beets is $30 per acre, upon whieh from twelve to fif teen tons can be raised, commanding $4 a ton. This would make it an ex ceptionally profitable crop for the farmer, and the value of the sugar and of the pulp for feeding cattle would make it profitable for the manufac turers. He concludes that "trade relations between this and other countries and legislation affecting the same" remaining as they are, "a beet sugar factory can be capitalized and built and run on its own merits at v YA RDS CO., SOUTH STS. v . - Jl h Iff n) CARRIAGE REPAIRING reasonable charges. their patronage. Parties wishing: Dromrat service, workmanship, should give us material usea. carriage painting a specialty. HARNESS DEPARTMENT Fancy Coact Harness, Light Single Buggy, and Track Harness our specialty. Hack, Dray Dump Cart and Light Wagon Harness made to order on short notice. Prices to suit. All kinds of Harness Supplies. Agent for the renowned Cosby Collars and McKerron. Horse Boots. Plantation Supplies at wholesale. IsEWEk STOGE JMPitKTMEOST ALL kinds of Live Stoek bought sold or exchanged either for use or breeding purposes. Large assortment constantly on hand. Special orders filled promptly. Correspondence solicited. 'mte fair profit, where coaeitiofis arc favorable, withost the stimulus of a bonjs being; paid by the local parties." and he has found conditions favorable in many- partaof the Tke matter is of SBSrfent importance certainly to, laduee ageaeral interest In the sow going on. GREAT FUTURE FOR MANILA. Judge Taft Thinks the Possibilities of ifcePhilippin Boundl CINCINNATI. Nor. IS. A manufacturer of this city who has been in correspondence on the subject of tariffs in the Philippines with the Hon. Wm. H. Taft. of the Philippine commission, has received a letter from Judge Taft dated Manila. September 21. in which he says; "I was much Interested to have your letter and am glad you took the trouble to send a paper on the tariff which we are about to make up. We have just passed a civil service law. Is on the whole, I think, the strictest law that has been passed under American auspices. "I have no doubt we shall be able to work out successfully the problems before us if McKinley is elected. I do not mean to say thereare not a great many difficulties with the policy of the government toward these islands to jc settled, but I do mean to s-ay there are none of them insuperable. We certainly need new banking facilities hen; and wo need better harbor facilities. We shall appropriate $2,000,000 (Mexican) this week for the completion of the harbor, a work much of which- was done by the Spaniards, but which remains useless without its completion. When the harbor facilities are better doubtless direct American lines will Ik established to Manila. I feel confident .Manila will become one of the great ports of the Orient. Only the surface of the possible prospective and -business of these islands has been scratched. "When you speak of letting into these Islands you touch a question that has a great many dangers connected with it and I could not now express an opinion on tho subject. "I hope there is no doubt about election." Are They True? From the Louisville Courier-Journal. If the Berlin reports of the barbarities of the German troops in China are true, they are only consistent w ith the no quarter speech of that spokesman of Christian civilization, tho Kaiser. Looks That Way. There may be any number of people running for office, but the only way most of them will ever get out -A breath is when they die. The Honolulu Republican delivered y carrier, 75 cents per month. Tropical CKjnr' is the FINEST AND BUST 5g. CfGW Sold in Honolulu i IK.S.?S H j ! 1 -I SKM 3& ky O m &m ?S- . C3 i-0. I ik. c ;r -J m3&4? "-&. JSJ fir T7t j ?-"-. r 11111 S" IN -K F ss - " - -i I tsS?r"r 1 &)&ttt 1ii - l"T uTTT O tliiX.tNE Aj- ...!, MM - 3s?SRje tr A BsSa mr GAS & ELECTRIC CO., LIU MAGOOX BUILDING, Corner Mo chant and Alnkeu StreoL oPEur oBxrr THE ISLAND CIGAB AND CURIO STORE JAMES STEINER 11C Hotel StrL ) Ltd - - Manager J Service celled Tandem, and i ; a Specialty t ""- DRAYAGE f Excavating Contracts, our 5 the lowest W. S. WITHERS Boarding Wagonette, Four-in-hand Parties " For Teaming, and Filling figures are and Only The... t t I fiBnBB hi I IHKfl&rS PI I IHHkVoh I II I EiHRl&alfts I 1 I - n W; f ' R wM m I : ' -; -V h lt , "Vfc "A at- z BSr3ga.Si vs ; . rfJ'jS.