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IO THE HONOLULU REPUBLICAN, SUNDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1900.
One Investigator Loses His Xiife and Another
Develops a Pronounced Case, Leading the -
Medical Officers to Adopt this Theory.
TJe Philadelphia Medical Journal
for Normnber ptiittishoa an article
liy Dr. Walter Rood, surgeon ct
Umj United States army, who tras
ity Dr. Jame Carroll, Dr. A.
and Dr. Jeee W- Lazear, assistant
srgeor of the arraj. showias
Uwt moMmitooB propagate yellow
Tbey conducted investigations
fn Qcmadoe and Havana, Cuba, upon
Uw direction of the surgeon general
of tho array.
From their study of the disease they
report that they drew this conclusion:
"The mosquito serve as the
host for tho parasite of
yellow fever, and it is highly probable
hat the disease is only propagated
through the bite of this insect."
This conclusion is regarded as cf
high importance in the medical profession,
particularly as the army surgeons
had an excellent opportunity 10
ntHdy the disease last summer during
the epidemic at Qucmados and among
tho patients in Las Animas Hospital,
Havana. The discovery of Dr. Reed
and his assistants will be of great
help in fighting the disease.
The army surgeons say that they
wore Induced to give their attention
to the theory of the propagation of
yyllow fever by means of the mosquito
"a theory flrt advanced and Ingeniously
discussed by Dr. Carlos J.
Finloy, of Havana, In 1S31 '
by reason of the well known facts
connected with the cpidomlnology of
this disease, and, of course, by the
brilliant work of Ross and the Italian
observers In connection with the theory
of tho propagation of malaria by
A feature of the report of the medical
officers is that of Dr. Jesse W. Lazear,
one of their number, developed
a fatal attack of yellow fever from a
mosquito bite, and that Dr. James
Carroll, another member of the special
hoard was stricken with the fever
through the medium of the insect, but
Bitten by Another Mosquito.
In Dr. Lazcar's case he had been
bitten on August ICth by a contaminated
mosquito of the culox fasciatus
nriety. but no appreciable disturbance
of health followed tho Inoculation. On
September 13th, while Dr. Iizcar was
collecting blood from yellow fever patients
for study in Las Animas Hos
W. H. RICE
Best and Most Modern
HORSE SHOEING DEPT
pital, he was bitten by a cslex mosquito
whose Tariety has been undetermined.
As Dr. Lazear had been previously
bitten by a contaminated Insect without
after effects, he deliberately allowed
this mosquito to remain until It
had satisfied its hunger. Five days after
the bite Dr. Lazear was taken til
with progressive and fatal yellow fevr
and died on September 25th.
The board's comment in this case is-
I" As Dr. Lazear was bitten by a mos
quito while present in the wards of a
yellow fever hospital, one must at least
admit the possibility of this insect's
contamination by a previous bite of a
yellow fever patient."
Dr. Carroll was bitten by a mosquito,
rules faciatus, on August 27. This
particular mosquito has bitten two severe
and two mild cases of yellow fever
beforo attacking Dr. Carroll. Fire
days after being bitten Dr. Carroll was
down with severe yellow fever, from
which he recovered.
Dr. Carroll's movements before '''e
was taken ill were traced to show that
It "was the mosquito which transmitted
the disease ..o him. It was admitted
that Dr. Carroll during the period
of incubation had been in the epidemic
zone twice, but the facts of his case
led the board of officers to believe that
thehiosquIto gave Mm yellow fever.
"X. Y.," an American resident of Columbia
Barracks, at Quemados. was bitten
by four contaminated mosquitoes,
lie developed a well pronounced case
of yellow fever, but recovered.
Experiments on Other Persons.
Dr. Reed and his assistants give a
detailed account of the experiments
with contaminated mosquitoes of the
culex fasciatus variety on nine other
non-immune individuals, who did not
develop yellow fever principally because
the mosquitoes had bftten only
mild cases of the disease.
The medical officers add:
We now invite attention to the fact
that from August 17th to October 13th,
a period of fifty-seven days, only three
cases of yellow fever have occurred
among this population of 1,100
Americans (Columbia Barracks,
which was outside of the epidemic
zone at Quemados) and we con
sider it important to note that two of
those had been bitten within five days
of the commencement of their attacks
States;. The bosEty or oae cent a
pound granted by the act of 1537, .n
Michigan, so stimulated the production
of sugar beets and investment cl
capital in. th- factories that last season
there were nine establishments In
operation, which tamed oat over
pounds sugar, demanding payment
of over ?33tf,000 la bounties.
This payment was contested with, the
result of an adverse decision of the
court of last resort.
The decision was la effect that Jrs
law provided for appropriating public
money to a private use, for whieh the
Legislature had no authority. The
law in this State, passed also in. 1SS7.
shows a bounty of one cent a pound
on the production of beet sugar, provided
the grower of the beets receive
not less than 5 a ton for his prodat.
Its purpose 4s tb establish a new industry
In the State and foster its
growth until it Is able to maintain it
self, or its ability to do so has be:n
fairly tested. Whether that would be
held to a legitimate public purpose under
our constitution would depend upon
the view taken of the question by
our own courts.The factory at Lyons
is the third one established since tei
law was passed. There Is one at Rome
with a capacity of 200 tons of beets
a day. -and one at Binghamton with a
capacity of 350 tons. It takes about
twelve tons of beets to produce one
ton of sugar.
This country consumed in the year
1SS9, 2,031,610 tons of sugar. Of this
only 249.960 tons were of domestic
production 160,000 tons of cane, 79,-
36S beet and 5,000 maple sugar. Of
the 1,S39,642 tons imported, 1.560,764
was foreign cane sugar, and 272.913
raw and 5.935 refined beet sugar. According
to the statistics of the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1S99, our import
of sugar were valued at $94,964,120.
which is about two-thirds the value
of our exports ofjvheat and flour. How-far
we might go in producing this
saccharine supply for ourselves is an
Let us see where our imported sugar
chiefly comes from. We get
worth of beet sugar from Europe,
mostly from Germany. Of the cane
sugar imported, $2S,22S.503 in value is
brought from the West Indies, of
which S16,412,0SS s from Cnba and $2,-495.690
from Porto Rico. From South
Vmerica we get $C.156,9S0 worth, and
little more 'than v00,000 from Mexico
and Central America. From all Asia
we get sugar to the value of
of which ?19,S17,G46 comes from
the Dutch East Indies. From our'own
Hawaiian Islands we import
in sugar and about $1,000,000
worth from the Philippines. About
4,000,000 worth comes from Africa,
mil driblets from other- parts of the
world. The figures for 1900 would
piobably show a slight increase.
Here, then, is evidence that we import
nearly nine-tenths of all the sugir
For Up-to-date work
and the proper
ing, etc., of your
horse's gait, try our
ligation -will show
they have no superiors
in their line.
Iry contaminated mosquitoes."
Dr. Heed and his assistants obtained
the contaminated mosquitoes with
which they conducted their experiments
from Dr. 'Carlos J. FIcley, of Harass,
for whose courtesy they express
The Conclusions of the Surgeons.
The medical oiScers say. in concluding
"For ocrseives we have been
Impressed with tie mode of
and with lie results that followed
the bite of itrer mosquito In these
tnree cases. Our results would appear
to 'throV new light on Carter's observations
in Mississippi as to the period
required between the introduction of
the first unfeeling) case and the occurrence
of secondary cases of yellow-fever.
"Since we here for the first time record
a case in whfeh. a typical attack
of yellowj fejrer; has followed the bitg
of an infected mosquito, within the
usual period of incubation of th diseases
and in-which other sources of infection
can eiduded, we feci confident
that the publication of these observations
must excite renewed interest
In the mosquito theory of the propagation
of yellow fever, as first proposed
"From the first part of our study of
yellow fever we draw the following
"First The blood taken during life
from the general veinous circulation
on various da s of the disease, in eighteen
cases of yellow fever, successively
studied, has given negative results as
regards the presence of
"Second Cultures taken from the
blood and organs of eleven yellow fever
cadavers have also proved negative
as regards the presence of this bacil
"Third Baciitusteroides (Sanarelli)
stand in no causative relation to yellow
fever, but, when -present, should
be considered as a secondary invader
in this disease.
"From the second part of our study
of yellow fever we draw the following
"The mosquito serves as the intermediate
host for the parasite of yellow
fever, and it is highly probable that the
disease is only propagated through the
oite of this insect."
GAN WE MAKE BEET
SUGAR TO ADVANTAGE?
From X. Y. Mail and Express.
The announcement that a new beet-sugar
factory has been started at
Lyons, in this state, costing $500,000,
and having a capacity of fifty tons of
raw sugar a day, and the recent decision
of the Supreme Court of Michigan,
declaring unconstitutional the
bounty on beet sugar in that State,
oi a biiecmi mierest 10 me question
whether this industry can be made
permanently profitable in the United
that we caasaae, drawing it from the
most widely separated parts- of the
earth. On taost of it a duty is paid,
which, in some measure, is. Intended
jasa. protection,, primarily to the Loit
islasa planters. This does not how
apply to the Hawaiian product, and
only to x small extent to that of Porto
Rico, and it may ultimately be remitted
from that of Cnba and the Philippines.
In that case there would doubt
less be an increased production in
those islands and a still larger increase
in the Troportioa of our supply
derived trom them- There would still
be more than half our snpplyC valued
at some $50,000,000 a year at the present
time. Here is sufficient scope for
a large domestic production of beet
sugar for our own market -If the conditions
are favorable enough to ma'ce
it profitable without payment of botin.5
ties, which is not likely to be kept p
permanently In any state.
o c o
The industry is undoubtedly in its
infancy, but has attained considerable
growth already, and it is comparatively
flourishing in California. Utah and
some other Western states without-the
help of bounties. There arc eight factories
in successful operation in California,
with an aggregate capacity
cf 9,250 tons of beets, or nearly 770
tons of sugar daily. There is one factory
of moderate capacity in Oregon
and one in Utah, which are together
capable of using up 1.330 tons of beets
a day. Thero are three factories in
Nebraska, where one "legislature
a law providing for a bounty and
the next refused to appropriate the
money to pay it. A beginning has also
been made in Colorado and New- Mexico,
where no bounty has been offered,
and one factory has been established
at Pekin. 111., though a bill providing
for a bounty was vetoed and did not
become a law. Several new factories
are in course of construction or projected
in Colorado. Utah and Iowa, in
the last named state encouragement
has been given to the industry by exempting
beet sugar factories from taxation
for ten years.
This subject has been investigated
by a special agent of the agricultural
department at Washington, who has
made a favorable report on the prospects
of the industry, provided due
care is taken in the choice of land for
growing the beets and the modes if
cultivation. Taking Iowa as an example,
he states that a fair estimate of
the cost of raising beets is $30 per
acre, upon whieh from twelve to fif
teen tons can be raised, commanding
$4 a ton. This would make it an ex
ceptionally profitable crop for the farmer,
and the value of the sugar and
of the pulp for feeding cattle would
make it profitable for the manufac
turers. He concludes that "trade relations
between this and other countries
and legislation affecting the
same" remaining as they are, "a beet
sugar factory can be capitalized and
built and run on its own merits at v
YA RDS CO.,
v . - Jl h Iff n)
Parties wishing: Dromrat service,
workmanship, should give us
material usea. carriage painting a specialty.
Fancy Coact Harness, Light Single Buggy, and Track Harness
our specialty. Hack, Dray Dump Cart and Light Wagon Harness
made to order on short notice. Prices to suit. All kinds
of Harness Supplies. Agent for the renowned Cosby Collars
and McKerron. Horse Boots. Plantation Supplies at wholesale.
IsEWEk STOGE JMPitKTMEOST
ALL kinds of Live Stoek bought sold or exchanged either for
use or breeding purposes. Large assortment constantly on hand.
Special orders filled promptly. Correspondence solicited.
fair profit, where coaeitiofis arc favorable,
withost the stimulus of a bonjs
being; paid by the local parties." and
he has found conditions favorable in
many- partaof the Tke matter
is of SBSrfent importance certainly
to, laduee ageaeral interest In the
sow going on.
GREAT FUTURE FOR MANILA.
Judge Taft Thinks the Possibilities of
CINCINNATI. Nor. IS. A manufacturer
of this city who has been in correspondence
on the subject of tariffs
in the Philippines with the Hon. Wm.
H. Taft. of the Philippine commission,
has received a letter from Judge Taft
dated Manila. September 21. in which
"I was much Interested to have your
letter and am glad you took the trouble
to send a paper on the tariff which
we are about to make up. We have
just passed a civil service law.
Is on the whole, I think, the strictest
law that has been passed under American
"I have no doubt we shall be able
to work out successfully the problems
before us if McKinley is elected. I do
not mean to say thereare not a great
many difficulties with the policy of the
government toward these islands to jc
settled, but I do mean to s-ay there are
none of them insuperable. We certainly
need new banking facilities hen;
and wo need better harbor facilities.
We shall appropriate $2,000,000 (Mexican)
this week for the completion of
the harbor, a work much of which- was
done by the Spaniards, but which remains
useless without its completion.
When the harbor facilities are better
doubtless direct American lines will Ik
established to Manila. I feel confident
.Manila will become one of the great
ports of the Orient. Only the surface
of the possible prospective and -business
of these islands has been scratched.
"When you speak of letting
into these Islands you touch a
question that has a great many dangers
connected with it and I could not
now express an opinion on tho subject.
"I hope there is no doubt about
Are They True?
From the Louisville Courier-Journal.
If the Berlin reports of the barbarities
of the German troops in China are
true, they are only consistent w ith the
no quarter speech of that
spokesman of Christian civilization,
Looks That Way.
There may be any number of people
running for office, but the only way
most of them will ever get out -A
breath is when they die.
The Honolulu Republican delivered
y carrier, 75 cents per month.
FINEST AND BUST
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