OCR Interpretation


Bloomington herald. [volume] (Bloomington, I. T. [Iowa]) 1840-1849, December 23, 1848, Image 3

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85050801/1848-12-23/ed-1/seq-3/

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tt
,|nr ^frfrh should be*paid
LoOflnflr jpirvayor, be appointed on
i* '9 desirablik.Ujai the a
tb« P*1* cjinppn^^Uon they shall receive
tie
prescribed by h«, and/Hot left as
lb®"'® to Ex*c«,«V0 discretion.
*'J[ g0r's were adopted at the earfiesl peri-
organize "the territorial government of
n authorised by the Act of the 14th
0rsf° "I'he Governor.j|nd Marshall of
last.
C^Terfi"iry'
a«*eo*np»»i«4 by a small escort,
the of Missouri in September last
i! tdOk 'he »****»."• route bj way of Santa
(in |n,» river Gila, lo California, with
|^*'intenti-n of |)f«»c^diujj tbencH on one of
vessel* toth-ir destination. Tne Govern-
(ai|y advised -of the greal importance
^bisear'y arriv.il in that country, and it is
confidently believed'he may reach Oregon in
oe latter partjof the present month, or early in
e nest, Tne ether oflieara for the territory
3yP
proceeded by s#a.
In ihe month of May last, communicated
nfjruiation .to Congress, that an Indian War
dad broken out in Oregon, and recommended
.bat authority be given to raise an adequate
is umber of Volunteers, to proceed without de
lay, to the asaiatance of our fellow citizens in
iltatTerritoiy and the authority to raise such
a fofcei, not bivittg been granted by Congress
s» soon aa their service could be dispensed
with in Mexico, orders were iesoed to the
Reffiiftent «f Mounted Riflemen to proceed to
Jeffer«on Barracks, in Missouri, and to pre
pare (O march to Oregon as soon a9 the neces
sary- pfavMoas co»ld be made. Shortly be
fore it was ready to march, it was arrested by
ih# provision of the Act parsed by Congress
)iv» MfcftfUf •esaioiw &•
/BClwU»L»lijM»ntCoaimi»»ioned officer*, mil
simian?, or privates in that regiment, who had
been,to eerviee be discharged. The effect of
this "ro«i*ioR was to disband the rank and
file of the regiment, and before their places
(•mild hefcHed by recrnita, ibe season had so
f4r advanced that it was impossible to proceed
until «h% opening of next curing.
In the month of October 'asi, the accompa
nying communication was received from the
Governor of the temporary government of Or
•goo, giving information of the con inuation
of ih* Indian disturbances and of ihn destitute
and defenceless condition of the inhabitants.
Order* w«KS immediately transmitted to the
commander of i.nr squadron in the Pacific, to
despatch to their assistance a part ot the na
vy on that station, to furnish them with arms
and ammunition, and to continue to give them
such aid and protection as the navy could af
ford, until the army could reach the country.
In the policy of humanity, and one which
haa always been pursued by the U. S tocul
livate the good will of Aboriginal tribes of
the coin inent, and to restrain tlieui from tnak
ing war, and indulging in excesses, by mild
means rather than by force I'hat this could
have been with the trihes in Oregon, had that
Territory been bronchi under the government
of our law® at an early period, and had suita
ble measures been adopted by Congress, such
as now exi«t« in our intercourse with the oth
er Indian trihes within our limits, cannot be
doubted.
Indeed,
the immediate and only
eause of the existing hostility of the Indians
of Oregon, are represented to have been the
long delay of the U. S in making to them
some trifling compensation, in such articles as
they wanted for the country now occupied by
our emigrants, which the Indians claimed, and
over which they formerly roamed. This com
pensation had been promised to them hy the
temporary government established in Oregon,
but its fulfilment had been postponed from
titye to time, for two years, whilst jh«i*e who
male it (lid" been anxiously awaiting* for Con
gress to establish a Territorial Government
over ihe country.
The Indian* became at length distrustful of
their good faith, and sought redress by plunder
aod massacre which led to the present difficul
ties. A few thousand dollars in suitable pres
ents as compensation for the country which
had been taken possession of hy our cnzens
would hevo satisfied the Indians, and have
prevented the war. A small amount distrib
uled, it is confidently believed, would restore
quiet. In this Indian war our ft: Itow-fitizjns
of Oregon were compelled to lake the fi^ld in
their own defence, have performed valuable
military service and have h^en subjected to ex
pen aes which have fallen
heavily
upon them
so justice demands that provision should be
made by Congress, to compensa e them tor
their service, or to refund to them the necessa
ry expenses which they have incurred.
I recommend that similar provisions be made
as regar Is the tribes inhabt ling Northern IVx
aa and New Mexico, California, and the ex
tensive region lying between our settlements
and possessions, as the more effective means
of preserving peace upon our borders, and
within die acquired territory.
The Secretary of the Treasury will, in his
annoal report, exhibit a highly satisfactory
atatement of the condition ot the Finances.
The imports of the ft.-™) year ending on the
30th of June last, were of the value ot $154,
977,876. of which the a,'i)'ii nt exported was
•tH,123,010. leaving $133,319,S»if in the
country for domestic use.
The vain* of theexooris for the same period
was$l54,032.13l. consisting of domestic pro
ductions, amounting to $132,904,121, and
$£1.128,010 unsold of f»rei gn articles.
The receipts into the Treasury for the same
period, exclusive of loans, amounted to $39.
436, 750 59, of which there was derived from
customs $35,755,050 95 from sales ot public
'and $3,3^8,612 56 and from miscellaneous
and incidental sources, $351,037 07.
It will be perceived that the revenue from
theiaat fiscal year exceeded hy $797 070 96,
the estimate of the Secretary of the Treasury
in his last annual report and that the aggre
gate receipts during the same period f'om cus
toms, lands and miscellaneous sources, also
exceeded the estimates by the sum of $536,
750 76, indicating, however, a very near ap
proach in the estimate to the actual result.
The expenditures during the^ca! year end
rngon tbe 3()th of Jane last, including those for
the war ami exclusive of the payment of princi
pal and interest of tbe public debt, were $42,*
511.970 03.
It is estimated that the receipts into th
treasury for the fiscal year ending on the 30h
of June, 1849, including the balance in the
treasury n the fir-it of July las', will amonni
to the sum of $57,043 969 90 of which $12,
000.000,-t is estimated will be derived from
custom, $3 000 000 from the sale of public
lands, and $1,200,000 from miscellaneous and
incidental 6ources, including the premiums on
the loans, and the amount paid, and to be paid
into the treasury on account of military con
tribntione in Mexico, and ihe sales of arm*
and vessels and other public property, render
•d unneresary to the Government by the ter
tarnation of the war, and $20.6S5,435 30 from
toaaa already negotiated, including the treas
ury notes funded wbiob, together with the
mak« the sum estimated.
The expenditures for the aame period, in
eluding the necessary payment on account of
principal and interest of the fir9t install
ment due to Mexico on the 30th of May next,
and other expenditures growing out of the war
to be paid during the present year, will amount
(including the reimbursement of the treasury
notes) to the som of $54,195 275 06, leaving
an es imated balance in the treasury on the
1st of July, 1849. of $285,394 84
The Secretary «f the Treasury will present,~as
soon ns required iiv law. the estimates of the receipts
and expenditures for the next fiscal year. The ex
penditures as estimated, for that year, amount to
$3 ^,799.102 18, for the interest on the public debt,
and $13,000,540 for the principle and interest due
to Mexico on the 31st of May, 1850} leaving the
sum of $25,874,050 35, which it is believed, will
be ample for the ordinary peace expenditure.
[Here follows a lonjj and fulsom eulogy of the
TaViffof '46 and the Su!-Treasury, which,
commanding
On the re'nrn of peace our force* WBffl with*
drawn from Mexico and the volunteers and
that portion of the regular arrnv engaged for
the war were discharged Orders were is
sued for stationing the forces of onr perma
nent establishment at various points in our ex
tended country, where troops may be requir
ed. Owirg to the remoteness of some ol
their positions,the detachments have not reach
ed their destination. Notwithstanding the lim
its of our country and the new territories, it
is confidently believed, that our present mill
tary establisnmeni is sufficient for all exigen
cies, so long as our peaceful relations remain
undisturbed.
Of the amount of military contrihntions col
lected in Mexico, the sum of 769,650 was ap
plied toward the payment or the first instal
ment due under the »rea»y wtth Mexico. The
further sum of 316.369 30 has been paid into
the tieasury. An unexpended balance still re
mains ir the hands of disbursing officers, and
these are engaged i the collection of thos^
moneys. Af'er the proclamation of pe ice, no
further disbursements were made of any
unexpended monies arising from this source.
The balances on hind were directed to be
paid into the Treasury, and the individual
claims will remain unadjusted until Congress
shall authorize their settlement and payment.
These claims are not considerable in number or
in amount. I recommend for your favorable con
sideration, the suggestions of the Secretary of War
and the Navy, in regard to the legislation on this
subject. Our Indian relations are presented in a
most able vicw.*in the report from the War Depart
ment. The wisdom of our policy in rejaul to the
tribes within our limits, is clearly manifested hy
their improved, and rapidly improving condition.—
A most impor'ant treatv with the Menominces has
been recently negotiated by the Commissioner of
Indian Atf irs. in person, hy which all their land in
the State of Wisconsin, being above four millions of
acres, has been ceded to the Lnited States. This
treaty will be submitted to the Senate for 'heir lati
fication, at an early period of your session With
in the last four years, eisht impoitant treatres have
been negotiated with different tribes and at a cost
ot $1,S42.000. Indian lands lo the amount of more
than 18.500.000 acres have been ceded to the U.
Slates, and provision has been nnde for settling in
the country west of the Mississippi, the tribes which
occupied this irge extent of domain. The title to
*11 the Indian lands within the several Stales of our
Union, with the exception of a tew small reserva
tions, is now extinguished, and a vast region open
ed for settlement and cultivation.
Tbe accompanying report of the Secretary
of the Navy gives a satisfactory exhibit of
the operations of that branch of the public
service.
A numbet of amall vessels suitable fa# en
tering 'he mouths .of rivers were judiciously
purchased during the war and gave grpat effi
ciency to the squadron in the Gulf of Mexico
On the return of peace, when no longer suit
able for naval purposes, and liable to constant
baUnee in the »reaeurf- Hw4at of Juty tad, ^deterioration, rtiey were sold and the money
as
arguments have been, time and again, reiterated by
every Iih*o foco coflee-house politician in the coun
try, we take the liberty to omit.—Ed. Herald.]
In my message to Congress of the 6'h of
July last, transmitting to Congress the rati
fied treaty of peace with Mexico, I recom
mended the adoption of measures for the
speedy payment of ihe public debt. In sub
mitting the recommendation I referred yon
lo Ihe considerations presented in that message
to its support. The public debt including that
authorized to be negotiated in pursuance of ex
isting laws, and including I reasnry notes a
mounted at that time to $65,778 450 41.
Funded stock of the United States amount
tag WHHM
purchased as authorised by law, since that i
period, and the public debt has thus been re
duced, the details of which will he presented
in the report of the Secretary cf the Treasury-
The estimate of expenditures for the next
fiscal year, p'esented by the Secretary of the
Treasury, it is believed will be ampla for all
necessary purposes. If the appropriation made
by Congress shail not exceed ihe amount es
timated, the means in* the Treasury will he
sufficient to defray all the expanses of the
Government lo pay off the next instalment of
$3,000,000 to Mexico which fall due on the
the 30th May next, and still a considera
ble surplus will remain, which should he ap
plied to further purchases of the public stock
and reduction of the debt. Should oilier ap
propriations be made, llie necessary conse
quence will be :o postpone the payment of
the debt. hough cur debt as compared with it
that of most o'her nations of the world,is small,
is our true policy and in harmony with the na
lure of our insiintions, that we should pre
sent to the world the rare spectacle of a great
Republic,possessing vast resources.and wealth
wholly exempt from indebtedness and it
would add still more to our strength, and give
to us a still more
his
position among
the nations of the earth.
The expenses should be economical, and
confined to such objects as are clearly within
the power of Congress. All such as are n
absolutely demanded, should b« postponed.
I'he paymenwof the public debt at the earliest
practicable period, should be a cardinal prin
cipal of our public policy,
Fnrihe reasons assigned in my last Annual
Message, I repeat my recom nnndauon, that a
branch of the mint of the
United
Stales be
established at the city of New York. The im
portance of this measure is greatly increased
by ihe acquisition of ihe rich mines of pre
ions metals in New Mexico and California,
especially the latter.
I repeat the recommendation heretofore made
in favor of the "graduation and reduction in
price of ench of the public lands as have been
long offartd in the market and have remained
unsold, and in favor ot extending the rights (,t
pre-emption to actual feitlers.on the uusurvey
ed as well as the surveyed lands.
The condition and operations of the army
and the state of the other branches under tha
supervision of Ihe WartDcpiirtnient are satis
facforily presenied in th** accomp'iiijfinj re
port of the Secretary of VV ir.
placed in the treasury
The number of men in the naval servicp, au
thorised by law during the war, has been redu
ced by discharges below ihe maximum fixed
for ihe peace establishment. Adequate sqad
rons are maintained in several quarters of the
globe, where experience has shown their ser
vices may be most usefully employed and the
naval service was never iri a condition of high
er discipline or greater efficiency.
I invite attention to the recommendation of
the Secretary of the Na«y, on the subject of
the Marine Corp. Tim reduction of the corps
at ihe end of the war required that four offi
cers of three of ihe lower grade should be
oropped from the roll. A bo.»rd of officers
made ilie selection, and those designated were
necessarily dismissed, but without any alleged
fault. 1 concur in opinion with the Secretary
that the service would be improved hy redu
cing the number of landsmen a:ni increasing
the marines. Such a measure would justify
an increase of the number of officers to the
extent of the reduction by dismissal, and still
the corps would have fewer officers than a cor
responding number of men in the army.
The contracts for the iransporation of the
mail in steam ships, converted into war steam
ers promise to realize all the benefits to our com
merce and to the navy, which were anticipa
ted. The first steamer which was secured to
the government, was launched in January.
1848. There are now seven, and in another
year iliere will probably be no less than seven
teen afloat. While the great national advan
tage is secured, our civil communication and
intercourse are increased and promoted with
Germany, Great Britain and oth^r pans of
15urope— with all the countries of the west
cast of our continent—and especially with
Oregon and California, between the northern
and southern sections of the west. Considera
ble revenue may be expected from postage
but ihe connected line from Cnagres and
thence across the Is hmus f) Oregon can
not fail to exert a most benefi ial influence not
now to he estimated in the intercourse of the
manufacture, commerce, navigation and cur
rency of ihe United States. As an important
pari oi the System, I recommend to your la
vorable consideration the establishment of the
proposed line between New Oreaus and Ven
Cruz. It promises the mo i h-ippy resu'is in
cementing friendship between the wo Kepub
lics, and extending reciprocal advantages to
the trade and manufactures in both.
The report of ihe Postmaster General will
make known to you the operations of the de
partmeni for he past year.
It is gratifying lo find (he revenues of the
Department, under the rates of postage now
established by law, so ra,.idly increasing. The
gros9 amount of postage during ihe last fi-ca!
year amount lo$4,371,077, exceeding the an
nual average receipts lor the nine years nnme
diately preceediug the passage ot the act of
the 3 1 of March, 1816, by ihe»um of $16,453,
and exc*eJing the amount received the year
en:!ing ihe 30th June, 1847, by the sum of
$425 184.
The expenditures for tt.e year, excluding
the sum ol $24,672 a -wed by Congress,
at its lad session, to individual claimants, and
including the nam of $100,500, paid for the
services of line steamer* between Bremen
and Nhiv York, amounted to$4.198,845,which
is less than the average ot nine years previous
to the act ot 1615, by $300,748.
The mail routes on the 30th day Jane
last, were 163,208 miles in extent— being an
increase during the last year of nine thousand
'hree hundred and ninety miles. The mails
were transported over them during the same
term 4I,0!2 579 mt'es, mnkirtg an incr»a»e *f
transportation for the year of 2,124,680 mile,
whilst ihe expense was le«s that ot 'he pre
vious year by four thousand two hundred aod
thirty five doilar-i.
The increase in ihe mail transportation with
in the last three years, has been 5 378.310
miles, whilst the expenses were reduced £456.
737—making an increase of service at the
rate of 15 per cent. During the past year,
there have been employed In contracts with
the Post Office Department two ocean steam
ers in conveying the mails monthly between
NVw York and Bremen and one since Octo
ber last, performing semi monthly services be
tween Charleston and Havanna.
A contract has been made for the transmis
sion of ihe Pacific, mails across the Isthmus,
from Chagres to Panama. Under the authori
ty given to the Secretary of the navy, three
ocean steamers have been constructed and
sent to the Pacific, and are expbded to enter
iri the mail sorvice between Panama and Ore
gon, and ihe intermediate point*, on the first
of January, of next year and a fourth is been
engaged by him, for the services between
Hrtvanna and Chagres, so that a regular mail
line will brt
kepi up,
af er that time between
the United Slates and our territories on the
the Pacific.
Notwithstanding the great increase in the
mail service, should the revenu« continue to
increase ihe present y^ar, as it did in 'he last,
there will he received nearly four hundred and
fifty thousand dollars more than the expenses.
The considerations have san-fi- the Post
master General that, with certain rnodifica
itons of ihe act of 1845, the revenue may be
further iucre tsed, and a reduction of postage
made lo a uniform rate of five cenia, without
any interference of the principle which has
been constantly and properly enforced, of mak
iiicr that Department sustain itself.
A well digested postage system is ihe best
means of diffusing intelligence among the
people, and is of so much importance in a
country so extended as ibis of the U. States,
thai I recommend to your favorable considera
tion, the suggestions of the Postmaster Gen
eral for its improvement.
Nothing can retard the onward progress of
our country and to prevent us from assuming
and maintaining the first position among na
tions, bot a disregard of the experience of the
past.
The introduction of the new policy was for
a time favored by the condition of the coun
try, by the heavy debts which had been con
tracted during the war, by the depression of
ihe public credit, by he deranged state of the
finances and currency and by the commercial
and pecuniary emharassment which extensive
ly prevailed. These were not the only causes
which ledto its establishment the events of the
war with Great Britain, and the emharass
ment which had attended its prosecution had
left on the minds of many of our statesmen
the impression that onr government was not
strong enough, and that, to work its resour
ces successfully in great emergencies, and es
pecially in war, more power should be concen
trated into its hands. This increased power
they did net seek to obtain by the legitimate
and prescribed mode—an amendment of the
Constitution—but by construction. They saw
governments in the Old World based upon dif
ferent orders of society, and so constituted,
as to throw the whole power of naiions
into tli" handsa^Oeu
ed. the many, without responsibilty or restric
lion. In that arrangement lht-y conceived the
Strength of nations, in war consisted there
waa, also, something facinaling in this luxnry
and display of the higher orders, who drew
heir wealth from the toil of tbe laboring mil
lions. The authors of this system drew their
political e^onowv, fr^m what they had wit
nessed in Kurope and particularly in Great
Britain. They had viewed the enormous
wealth concentrated in a few hands, and had
seen the splendor of the overgrown establish
ments of ine aristocracy, which was upheld
by the restrictive policy. They forgot to look
dowa upon the poorer classes of the English
population, whose dally and hourly labor in
the great establishments they so much admit
ted. sustained and supported. They failed to
perceive that tbe scanty fed, and the half clad
operatives were not only in abject poverty hut
bound in chains of oppressive servitude, tor
the benefit of Ihe favored classes—the exclu
sive objects of tbe care of the government.
It was not possible to construct society
in the United States upon the European plan,
There was a written constitution, hy wbich
orders and titles were not recognised or tolera
ted. A system of measures was devised cal
culated if not intended, to withdraw power
gradually and silently from the States and the
mass
of if.e people anil by construction, to ap
proximate our government lo European models,
and instituting an aristocracy of wealth for
that of order and titles
Without reflecting upon the dissimilarity
of our institutions, and of the condition of our
people, and those of Europe, they conceived
tlie vain i4ea- of bcilding up in the United
States a system similar to that which they ad
mired abroad. Great Britain had a National
Bank, with a large capital into whose hands
was concentrated the monetary and financial
power of the tt3tion an institution wielding,
almost kingly power, and exerting vast influ
ence upon all the operations of trade, and upon ihe
policy of the Government itself. Great Britain had
an enormous public debt, and it had become a part
of her public po'iry to regard this as a public b!es
sing* Great Britain had a contracted policy, jrhich
placed fetters and burdens upon trade, and trammel
led the productive industry of the mass of the na
tion. Bv
her
combined syMem of policy, the land
lords and other property-holders were protected and
enriched, bv th« enormous taxes which were levied
upon the labor cf the country, for their advantage.
Imitating tiiie foreign policy, the first step to
wards establish!:ig the new system, was the creation
of a National
Bank.
Not foreseeing the disastrous
power and countless evils which auch an institu'ion
might entail upin the country, nor perceiving the
connection which it was designed to form between
the bank anil 'he other branches of the mis-called
American system", but feeling the embarrassments
of the Treasury, and of the business of the country,
consequent up the war, some of our statesmen
who had held different anil sounder views, were in
duced to yield their scruples, and, indeed, settled
convictions of its unconstitutionality, and give il
their sanction, as an expedient which they vainly
hoped might produce relief. It was a most unfor
tunate error, as he subsequent history and ultimate
catastrophe of the dangerous and corrupt institution
have abundantly proved. The Bank and its num
erous branches, ramified into thfl States, soon bro't
many of the active politicians and influential men.
in different sections of the country, into the rela
tion of debtor to it and dependent upon pecuniary
favors-} thus ditDising throughout the mass of soci
ety a great number of individual* of power and in
fluence, to give tone to public opinion, and to act
in concert in csie of emergency. The corrupt pow
er of such a political engine is no longer a matter
of speculation, having been displayed in numerous
instances but most signally in the political strug
gle ot
lS32-'3-*4,
in opposition to the public will
represented by't fearless and patriotic President.
But the Bank was but one branch «»f this new
system. A public debt of more than $120,000,000
existed, and it is not to be disguised that many of
the authors of ihe new system did not regard its
spee.lv pavmen' as essential to the public prosperi
ty. but
looked
up -n i's continuance as no national
evil. Whilst the debt existed, it furnished a limit
to ihe National Bank, and rendered increased tax
ation necessary, to the amount of interest exceeding
seven millions of dollars annually.
The next branch of the new system was a high
pi otective tariff This was to off ml bounties to
favored classcs and particular persuits, at the ex
pense of all others. A proposition to tax the whole
people for the purpose of enriching a few, was too
monstrous to be openly made. 'J'h« scheme was,
therefore, veiled under the plausible, but delusive
pretext, of a "measure to protect home industry,"
and many of our people were, for a time led to be
lieve that a tax which in the main, fell noon labor,
w is for the benefit of ihe laborer who paid it. This
branch of the system involves a pattne-hip be
tween the Government and the favored classes-—
The lormer receiving the proceeds of the tax im
posed on articles imported, and the latter the in
creased price of similar articles produced at home,
causal by such tax. It is obvious, that the portion
to he received by the favored would, as a general
rule, be increased in proportion to the increase of
the rates of tax imposed, and diminish1 as they
were reduced to the revenue standard required by
the wants of the government. The rates required
to produce a sufficient revenue for the ordinary ex
penses of the government for necessary purposes
were not likely to give the private partners in this
scheme, the profits to satisfy their cupidity and
hence a variety of experiments, in pretext, were re
sorted to for the purpose of enlarging the expendi
tures, and thereby creating a necessity for keeping
a high protective tariff.
Another branch of this sys'em was a comprehen
sive scheme of internal improvements, capable of
indefinite
enlargement,
and sufficient to swallow up
as many millions.annually, as could he exacted from
the foreign commerce of the country. This was a
convenient and necessary adjunct of the Protective
Tariff. It was 'o bo the grt.at absorber of any sur
plus which might, at any time, accumulate in the
Treasury, and of the taxes levied on the people, not
for necessary revenue, but for the avowed object ol
affording protection to the favored classes.
Auxiliary to the sam™ end. it it was not an es
sential part
of the system
Other expedients were devised to take the money
out of the Treasury, and to prevent its coming from
any other source than a protective tariff. 1 he au
thors mid supporters of the system were the advo
cates of the largest expenditures—whether for ne
cessary or useful purposes, was not material, be
cause the larger the expenditure th* greater was the
pretext for high taxes, in the shape of protective du
ties.
These several measures were sustained by popu
lar names and plausible
sands
wa3
arguments,
equalize
by which thou­
were deluded. Tbe Bank was represented to
be an independent fiscal agent, for the government
was to
exchange*, and to regulate and fur­
nish a sound currency, always and everywhere of
uniform value. The "protective tariff" was to give
employment
to"American labor" at advanced prices
to protect "home industry," and furnish a
steady market for the fanner. Internal improve
ments were to bring roads to every neighborhood,
and enhance tbe value of every man's property
The distribution of the public money was to enrich
the States finish their public works, plant schools
throughout thetr borders, and relieve them froQ tax*
the treasury for these objects, a much larger sum
wis tran-i'erred from the pockets of the people to
the favored etas*en, w ts continually concealed, as
was also tbe tciidrncv.if not ihe ultimate
design,ot
th e system, to Iniild up an aristocracy of wealth, to
control tl»e masse* of society, and monopolise the
poiiiicai power of the country. The several branch
es of the svstem were so intimately blended togeth
er that, in their operations, each sustained and
strengthened the other.
Their int operation was to add new burdens of
taxation, and lo encourage a largely increasing and
wasteful expenditure of jtublic money. It waa the
interest of the Bank tin tbe revenue collected, arid
disbursements made by the government, should bo
larg- Ixioau-H.- being the rep.sitorv of ihe public
money, the greater would bo the ink protiu by
its use. It w.i* the interest of the favore I classes,
who were enriched, to have the rates oflhat protec
tionashigb as possible for the higher th*se rates,
the greater would be their advantages- It was the
interest of all thes^ jK*rs nsnnd localities, who ex
pected to be benefitted by expenditures for internal
improvements, that th« amount collected should be
as hrge as possible so that the sum disbursed might
be also larger. The States being the beneficiaries
in the distribution of tbe land, many had an interest
in the rates proposed by a protective tariff. That
they should bo targe enough to yield a suffi.-ient re
venue from that source to meet the wants of Gov
ernment, without disturbing or taking from tbe land
funds
so thai each of the branches constituting the
system had a common interest in swelling the pub
lic expenditures. They had the direct interest in
maintaining the public debt unpaid, and increasing
its amount, because this would produce an annual
ly increased drain upm the Treasury, to the amount
of ihe interest, and render augmented taxes necessa
ry. The operation and necessary effect of the
whole system, were.*o encourage large an I unnec
essary expenditnre* nnd thereby increase the public
patronage, and maintain a rich and expensive Gov
ernmenc. at the expeose of a taxed aud impoverish
ed
people.
It is manifest that this scheme of enlarged taxa
tion and expenditures, had it continued to prevail,
must soon have converted the Governmen' of the
Union—intended by the framers to be a plain, cheap
and simple confederation of States, united togethe
for common protection, and charged with a few spe-r
cilic duties, relating chiefly to our toreign affairs,
into a consolidated empire, depriving the States of
their reserved rights, and the people of their just
rights and control in the administration of their
government. In this manner the whole form and
character of the government wculd be changed, not
by an amendment of the constitution, buhby resort
ing to an unwarrantable and unauthorized construc
tion of that instrument.
The indirect mode of levying the taxes by a duty
on imports, prevented the masses of the people from
readily perceiving the amount they pay, and has"
enabled the few who are thus enriched aud who sejk
to wield the political power of the country, to de
ceive and delude them. VV ere the taxes a diiect
levy upon the people, aa is the case in the States,
lhi could not occur.
The whole system was resisted from its inception
hy many of our ablest statesmen, and someol whom
doubted its constitutionality and expediency, while
oihers believed it was, in ail its branches, a flagrant
and dangerous infraction of the constitution.
That a National Bank.a Protective Tariff, levied,
not to raise the revenue needed, but for protection
merely Intern il Improvements, and »he Distribu
tion of the proceeds of ihe sales of the public lands,
are measures without the warrant of ihe constitution
would, upon the maturest consideration, seem ap
parent. It is remarkable lhat no one of these meas
ures, involving such momentous consequences, are
authorized by any express grant of power in the
consiitqjion- No one of them is incident to, as be
ing necessary and proper for ihe execution of the
specific powers granted by the constitution. The
authority under which it has been attempted to jus
tify each of them, is derived from inferences and
construction of the constitution, which its letter and
its jvbole object and design do not warrant Is it
to
ite
conceived that such immense pawers woulfl
have been left by the framers of the constitution to
mere inference and doubtful construction, had
l»een intended to confer them on the federal govern
ment? It is but reasonable to conclude that it would
have hfen done by plane and unequivocal grant3
This was not done but the whole structure of
which ihe "American system" consisted, was rear
ed on no other or better foundation than forced in
terpretation and
inferences
it
of power which its au­
thors assume might be deduced by construction
from the constitution.
But it has been urged that the National Bank
(which, as constituted, is so essential a branch ol
this confirmed system of measures,) was not a new
measure, and that its constitutionality was sanction
ed in 1791, and had the official signature of Presi
dent Washington. A few facts will show the jnst
weight to which this precedent should bo entitled,
as bearing upon the question of its constitutionality.
Great division of opinion on the subject existed
in Congress. It is weil known thu President
Washington entertained serious doubts both as to
the constitutionality and expediency of th,? measur
and while the bill was before him for his official ap
proval or disapproval, so great were th«e dou'its
that he required "the opinion in writing" of the
numbers of his cabinet, to aid him in arriving at a
decision. His cabi..ef gave their opinion arid were
divided upon the subject—General Hamilton in fa
vor, and Mr. Jefferson and Mr Ilandolph being op
posed to its constitutionality and expediency. Il is
well known also, lhat President Washington re
tamed the bill from Monday, the 14:h. when it was
presented to him, until Friday, the 24th of Februa
ly, berng the last moment permitted him by the
:onstitution, when he finally yielded to give his re
luctant assent aud gave it his signature, It is cer
tain that as late as the 23d of February—being the
9th day after the bill was presented[to him—he had
arrived at no satisfactory conclusion, for cn that
day he addressed a note to Gen. Hamilton, it. which
he says that "this bill was presented to me by the
committee of Congress, at 12 o'clock on Mon
day, 16th inst., and he requested his opinion as to
what precise period, by legal interpretation of the
constitution, could the President retain it in his
possession, before it become a law by the lapse of
the ten days.
joint
itself, was a scheme which
at a later period, obtained, *r distributing the pro
ceeds of the sales of the Public Lands among tbe
States.
If the proper construction was that the day on
which the bill was presented to the President, and
the day on which his action was had upon it, were
both to be counted inclusive, then the time allowed
within which it would be competent for him to re
turn it to the House in which it originated, with
his objections, would expire on Thursday, the 26th
of February. Gen. Hamilton, on the same day,
returned an answer, in which he states: '*1 give it
as my opinion that you have ten days, exclusive of
that on whica »hc bill was handed to vou.and Sun
days. Hence, in the present case, if it is returned
on Friday.it will be in time." By this construc
tion, which the President adopted, he gained anoth
er flay for deliberation, and it was not until the 24th
of Fejruary that he signed the bill thus offering
conclusive proof that he had at least gained his own
consent not without great and almost unsupyorta'.»Ie
difficulty.
Additional light has recently beer,
8
hed upon the
serious doubts which he had on 'ne s'^'oject, amou
nting at one time to the convection that it was his
duty to withhold his appr»* val tr that bill. This
is found among the m'.ouscri ^t papers of Mr. Mad
ison, authorized t» '.e purc
na8
this original drift, in :Mr. Madison's own bandwri
ing. was carefully preserved by him, and «t amonif
the letters lately pu'ch isod bv Congress. It id pre
ceded by a note written on tbe saiue sheet, aud U.
also in Mr. Madison's own handwriting:
"Feb. 21, 1791—Copy of a paper mad* out aid'
?cnt to the President, at bis request, to be ready III
case his judgment should finally decide against
bill for incorporating a National Bank, the bill be1-*
ing then before him."
Among the objections assigned in this pa per to*
the biil. and which were submitted for tbe vou»iJk*'
ration or the President, are the following:
"I object to the bill because it is an essentia) prfc*
ciple of this government, ttiit pjwer not delefiktt-*
by the constitution cannot be rightfully exercis^ 1
because the poiver proposed by ilm bill to be ex4«
cised is no: expressly delegated and because I ctfljh""
not satisfy myself that it results from any expres^*
power, by fair and sate rule* of interpretation."
The weight of the precedent of the Bank of 17
and the sanction of the great name of Washingto^
which has tn*en so often invoked in it* supitort, Dy
developments of these facts, should satisfy the cot#*'
try lhat it ought not to be continued. It woiilL
have been fortunatj for the country, and saved th.iiM
sands from bankruptcy and ruin, hul our pulij£:
men resisted the temporary pressure of the tum
upon our financial and pecuniary interests, and rf
fused to charter the bank. Of the second bink tfc"
country became abundantly satisfied at the closet
its twenty year's duration, as in the ease of the fife}
bank, aud it also ceased to exist under the rep ai#
vetoes of President Jackson it reeled and (ell—aft
a subsequent attempt to charter a similar institutio,
was arrested by the veto of President Tyler.
Mr. Madison, in yielding his signaturta to tt
charier of 1816,did so upon the ground of rcsp^
due to precedents—and as he subsequently dec! trcdu
the Bank o the United States, though on itie
ginal question held to be unconstitutional, receivcJ
tbe executive signature.
Il probable lhat neither the bank of 1791, nat»
that of IS 16, would have been chartered but fur ilia
embarrassment of the Government n its finances
the derangement of the currency. Tbe pressuts
which existed—the first in consequence of the w|r
of the Revolution, the second the consequence
the war of 1812—both were resorted to in the dcUfc
sive hope that they would restore public ciedil
afford relief to the Government and to the bunine**^
of the country. Those of our public men who o|»-*
posed the whole "American system" at iis coitKf
mencemeut, and throughout its progress, foresaijh
and predicted lhat it was fraught with incalculable
mischief, and must result in serious con*equanc|Kt
to the best interests of the country throughout a sf^
ries of years. These wise counsels were unheard*,
and ihe system was established. It was soon ap^
parent that its practical operation was unequal arw#
unjust upon diffeient portions of the country, anal
upon the people engaged in different pursuits. All
were equally entitled vo the favor and protection
Government. It fostered and elevated the monied
power, and enriched the favored few at the expense
of the many. Its effect was to ''make-the rich riefc.
er and the poor poorer its tendency was to vealt
distinctions in society, based upon wealth, and ftt.
give the favored classes undue control and sway la^
the Government. It was an organised monied post
er, which resisted the popular will, and sought J©
shape and control the public policy, b) taxing lib*.
Under the pernicious working of thts coinbinffP
system" of measures, the country witnessed altern
ate seasons of temporary apparent prwperity of uft*
due and disastrous commercial revulsions of un
precedented fluctuations of prices, and of the op#
pression of the greatest interests—of agriculture afl»lr
commerce—of pecuniary suffering and final bank-
ruptcy of thousands.
After a severe struggle of anore thin a quarter
a century the system was overthrown.
The Bank has been succeeded by a practical ajf,
tem of finance, conducted and controled salcly
the government. The constitutional currency has
been restored, the public credit maintained uniot*
paired, even in a period of foreign war, and tlm
"whole country has become satisfied thet Banks-""**
National or State—are not necessary as fiscal agents
of the Government. The revenue duties have tdi-.
en the place of a protective tariff The distribution
derived from the sales of the public land:- has been
abandoned, and the corrupting system of internal
improvements, it is hoped, lias been effectual
checked. s
Il is not doubted lhat if this whole train of meas
ures, designed to take wealth from the many aftd
fasten it upon the few were to prevail, the effect
would be to change the entire character ot tbe gov
ernment. One only danger remains it is the se
duction of that branch of the system which consitM*
in internal improvements. Holding out as it doe*
inducements to the people of particular sections and.
locations to embark the government in them wiU^.
out stopping to calculate the inevitable consequen
ces. This branch of the system is so evidently
linked and combined with the others that assurer
as an effect is produced by an adequate cause, if it
is sustained and firmly established, it requires no
sagacity to foresee that it will necessarily and speed
ily draw after it iho establishment of a National
Bank—the revival of a protective tariff—the distri*
bution of ihe laud money—and not only the poig|
ponemcnt to the future of the payment of the pita-'
sent national debt, but its amount will annually if#-'
crease.
I entertain a solemn conviction that if the int#*
n»l improvement branches of the "American sya
tem" be not firmly resisted at this time, the whole
aeries of measures composing it will be speed Hy
established, and the country will be thrown back*
from its present high state of prosperity, which Ida
existing policy has produced, aud be destined agaiu
to witness all the evils, commercial revulsions, and
depression of prices and pecuniary embarra*smente
through which we havo passed during the last
sot*
enty years.
To guard against consequences so ruinous, tsflljg
object of high national importance, involving in qpjr
judgment the continued prosperity of the country.
[The unfathomable pit of words into which wa
have fallen, this week, quite overwhelms all our re
sources in the way of space. In giving up two en
tire pages of the Herald to the anticipated message
we thought Mr. Polk would accord us the praises
due a generous soul. But, we weie deceived and
must apologise for not reserving another page.—
Here is a slight essay, of some three or four coU
utnns in length, in defense of the veto, which we
are constrained to set aside for our next paper.-Ejj.]
Duting the period I have administered the Exec*
utive department of the Government, great and im
portant questions of public policy, foreign and do
mestic, have arisen, upon which it was my duty to
act.
It may indeed be tr'j'iy said that my administra
tion has fallen ii^ eventful limes. I have felt most
sensibly the weight of the high responsibilities de
volving u'jon mo With no other object than the
rvublic 'yood, the enduriog fame and permanent pros^
per/ty of my country. I have pursued tbeconvic
ions of my own test judgment. The impartial sr
bitrament of enlightened public opinion 'n jbe prc
sent and future, will determine how far the public
policy I have sustained, and rhe measures I have
recommended,
may have tended
......i.
to
your deliberations,
«d for the use of the
Government bv an net jf the last Session, and now
for the first time vcssible to the public. From
these, i« appears that President Washington, while
he v'jt held th,c bank in his own hands, actually re
quested Mr. Madison, at lhat time a member of the
House oi Representatives, to prepare the draftjrf«•
veto rneesage for him, Mr. Madison, at hts request,
and
advance or retard
public prosjierity at home, and to elevate or depraia
the estimate of our national character abroad.
Invoking the blessing of the Almighty
God
at
u£*
your
eftneert, you may be guided to wise
such as will redound to the happiness, hoflfar mm
gloiy of our beloved country.
God and Liberty!
Washington,
..
present
important sel^
ion my ardent hope is that, in a spirit of harmonv
-Ik
JAMBS K. POLK.

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