Deceases n, ira
I TBS OTI2KN
A non-partisan fairlly Mvipapar publkh4 trurj Tharsdsy by
BIBEA PUHLIIHINO CO. (IncOTSorawe)
MAMMA IX B. VAUGHN, BStf J A
atorW M Hi mteAr m Brna,
Om tm, Si. t mmtka, M mu; Urn Mvlkk M mtm. ttrmh Hi senim.
N Awrtmn InnwaMUn.
The Crime of Lynching
Now that the Dyer Anti-Lynchlng Bill is dead, it U Incumbent
upon the lUU and county authorities of every state in the Union
to use every legal means within their power to nee that the crime
of lynching ia blotted from the Ame-ican life.
There is not a civiliied nation under the sun that carries year
after year on her records a list of lynching! as treat as that of
the United Sta rs Punishment of crime is a state and county
matter ard should be itate and county pride. Every human be
big, alien or citizen, black or white, who lives within the bound
aries of the United SUtes, is entitled to the protection of the
laws thst are on the statute books of the various states. When
a criminal has been brought before a court of justice, it ia proper
that hia rare should be given a thoro Investigation. He should
be treated as a human being, and if found guilty beyond any rea
sonable doubt, suffer the penalty that goes with his crime. No
Individual, or group of individuals outside of constituted govern
mental au hority, has a right to Jeopardize the property or tho
life of any other individual; and any person found guilty of mal
treating any other person, whether it be under the hood of the
Ku-Klux-Klan, or a maiked face, or in the open daylight, should
be convicted and dralth with acccording to the laws governing
This Issue of The Cititen contains a letter from Robert R. Mo
ton, lrircipal of Tuskegee Institute, set ing forth the sUtus of
lynching in the United SUtes during the rast year. It is humil
iating to know that fifty-seven persons were lynched. However,
it ia gratifying to learn that seven fewer were lynched this year
The right of the s'aU to make iU own laws and punish its
own crimes has never been denied; and according to Principal
Motoa'a Utter real earnest effort to protect prisoners was exerted
by many officers where lynchings were attempted. More lynch
ings were prevented by efforts of the officers than were com
mitted thru the overpowering of officers. Thst is a s'ep in the
right direction, and there is no other institution in America that
la doing more to establish the proper relations between the blacks
and whites than Tuikrgre Institute.
The Ciitsen wishes Tuskegee Institute continued and growing
success, and at any time we can be of service we are willing to
raise our voire in behalf of t.at great institution and in protest
against the crime of lynching.
Winter, the Time to Go to School
Winter ia the most favorable season of the year for attending
school. It ia the shut-in season when the grest out-of-doors has
the least attrac .ion when a warm, cosy room calls for continued
occupancy and long nights are conducive to study. It is under
stood that the average person should spend from one to two
tours in preparation for each recitation. It is difficult to dj this
during the summer when the nights are short and the rooms arc
hot. Winter ia also the time when labor on the farm is least
rroductive. In most localities it is considered the leisure tesson
of the year the marginal period.
The way a person uses hia marginal time almost always de
termines the character of the person. Some of us do most of our
reading and mental expansion during the marginal time, whet
we are not occupied at the routine of making a living. The
des'iny of thousands of young people thruout America will i
determined by their decision to spend this winter in school.
TO TUB OLD YEAR
Good Bye. Old Year! With noisless
steps and alow
You slip into the darkness and the
!!tshed clou-ten of forgetfulneu
The vague and shadowy myth of
And where the Silence of the vanish
Breaks into voice upon the windless
Vfu enter peaceful havens, neni
To toss upon the tempests of wild
But there are furrows sown with
your old seed
To burst in bloom again tho you
And light acain for me the olden
Deep in my heart are left old songs
That raptured hopes of all your
No other year can give to my de
sire. TUB QUESTION
The bells thst toll at midnight
To call the ear away,
They lure my heart in dreaming
To fields of yesterday.
O little churchyard clustered .
Against the swaying pine,
I'o New Years mornings whisper
To your heart as to mine?
O littlo lot Beloved
Long absent from my knee,
There in the churchyard quiet
Do you grow old wl h me? '
We sometimes make fun of the en
'husiasm for other days, as we see
orly the bright and happy side Is ra
nembered. But -that ia the wonJfr
ot life. The sorrows fade away, but
the joys abide.
t When the year is ended we shall
mish to remember only such abi.l'nif
things as love and faith and gladness
and beauty. Let us therefore put
these things Into the year at its be
II PI H. M3NHARDT, MsMslnc Utar
Rf .. m
Tk Awmmm frm.AMarlaikw.
BOOSTING FOR BEREA
We are boosting for Berea. We
want the business men in Berea to
get the buciness. We want them to
prosper, of course we do. We be
K ve in cooperation. We believ
ma-- ii you worn wun us and we
work with you, the year 1923 will be
a prosperous year for us all.
If you are dissatisfied with the
sort of psper your publisher is put
ting out, remember thst it is not all
his fault. He is doing the best h
rsn with the amount of money you
hnve inveited in him. You do not
want your local paper to be support
ed by advertisers In neighboring
towns. This is bad business. It pulli
people away from Berea, and it
doesn't look good to those in other
parts of the country.
This leads us to cay that The Citl
sen is getting out for distribution
thruout this locality a very attractive
almanac for 1923. This almanac wiU
be distributed to every Citizen sub
scriber in Madison and neighboring
counties, and to every family in Be
rea, and also there will be free dis
tribution of these almanacs to peo
ple in the outlying neighbohoiwi
who are not readers of The Citizen.
We want this almanac not only to
signalize the energy of thij Berea
I'uMiHhirg Company, but we want I',
to stand for the business enthusiasm
of the people of Berea. We do nut
wont thia almanac to contain only
advertisements from business men in
Richmond and neighboring towns.
When our representative culls on
ycu for an ad. in the next day or so
for this almanac, get one ready for
hint, and if you are not now a sub
scriber for your local paper, start
the New Year right by sending m
ycur subscription at once.
Assuring you of our sincere wishen
for your prottperity and happlnea
during the year 1923, we beg to re
main, BKREA PUBLISHING CO.
We cannot change the old year, but
we can do what we wish to with tbo
Vocational Education Demanding Right-of-Way
Horn Making and Farming
The term "vocational education" is
new to a great many people in fact,
it is new to practically all of us. A
great many people in the past Just
picked out a profession and in more
ot less haphazard way began to ply
their trade. If he happened to be
doctor, he sometimes went Into the
under aking business on tho side, Iff
it was a very profitable business In ban-hrs, but with no sense of values j
connection with his major profession, in building up a home. In the first I
If he chose to be a teacher, he con- place, they cannot cook a decent
vinced the local trustee that he coull meal, and if they were worh a mil
read and cipher, and he was given 'ion dollsr.s could not tell the cook
the home school. If he preferre hew to do it. In the second plec,
bUrksmithing, he learned by the they do not know the art of decora t
trial and failure method un'il he be- ing a home, and the more money the;
rrme some kind of a blacksmith. If have to spend upon it, the more,
he failed to temper the as properly crt.dy and unsightly it becomes,
virile welding on a new blsde, he Then the question arises, "Is homo-j
charged to bad luck or the dark cf making a science ?" It most assured-.
the moon. Most of our pioneer pro- ly is, and one that no girl shoul I be
fesrions were filled in the same way, al'owcd to finish college withovt
and the good people trusted to a kind tnaste-irg. The highest mission of
providence to make it come out all
It is regrettable that some of the
most Important professions of life
are still conducted In the same way.
I: is within the memory of our youn
men that the Science of Ag-irul are
became recognized by people other
than the Schools of Agriculture,
rarmera in many places piant rneir siuay in a scienunc way tne art oi
potatoes according to the condition risking a home? Standing on th
of the moon. The rcientfiic farmer pinnacle of all the professions today
does not plant hia po'atoes In the are the Church and the Home, and
moon he plants them in the ground, they S"e the professions thst make
The unscientific fa-mer will not de- tho least requirements of the).
horn his ralvea during dog days, for leaden.
he claims it will settle in their heads Berea College, wVh its many other
He doea not say what will settle in departments of educstion, realizes the
their heads. He has Just, followed need of better Agriculture and bet
the supers ition and allowed his con- ter Home Makers. It also realizes
duct to be governed accordingly. The that the pursuit of scientific studies
scientific farmer, by process of studj along these lines gives inspiration
and analysis, leama when the condi- atd vision. These studies determine
tion of his soil is right and the sea- the abifity of young people just as
son proper, then he plants his seeds. 1 much as the study of the classics and
Science in Agriculture does not mathematics; and if young men and
teach you that all the old method j ytung women are not able to master
are wrong but it teaches you the them, they cannot expect to rise to
reason why all the old successful great heigh a in other lines. Let us
methods were successful. It ceases become nation-builders by beginning
to become supe-stition and guess with the two greatest needs of our
work ard becomes a science. pierent day Better Homes and Bet
Another important profession that ter Agriculture.
The Foundation School of Berea College hat Demonstrated that
One ia Never too Old to Learn
"The education of a child properly
begins with his grandfather." Diat
quo ation cannot be taken too literal
ly, altho it is true that inheritance
plays a great part in the training of
children. We have records of edu
crted men and women who cannot
point to a single ancestor whose ed
ucstion was obtained in the conven
ts nal schools of the day. Because
ycur father or grandfather did not
go to school is no reason why you
should not harbor an ambition for an
education. In tru'h, it has been only
a few generations since all of our
fathers and mothers were colonial
pioneers without formal education.
The history of successful men up
st ts all preconceived no iona of the
"fixed" plan of getting an education
or getting ahead in the world.
Some will tell you that the day of
great adventure in business is paU
and that the business world Is so
bound a-ound with red tape as to
make it next to imporsible for a new
person to break thru. Others will te'l
you that your education depends up
on the s art you have gotten, and if
you have not kept the prescribed
grsdes in school abreast with your
growing years, you should not try for
a complete education. There is no
deadline In educational pursuits for
the ambitious boy or girl. If you
hnve reached your seventeenth birth
day and are a' ill in the grades, you
Tuskegee Institute, Als.,
Dec. 31, 1921
I send you the following concerning
lynchings for the past year aa com
piled at Tuskegee Institute in the Do
pur ment of Records and Research,
Monroe N. Work in charge. I find,
not including those killed in strikes,
riots, etc., that there were 67 per
rons lyrched in 1922. This is 7 less
than the number 64 for the year 1921.
Tt irty of the persons lynched were
taken from the hands of the law, 11
from jails, and 17 from officers of the
luw outside of juils.
I also find that there were 68 in
stances in which officers of the law
prevented lynchings.. Fourteen of
tin e instances were in Northern
States and 4t we-e in Southern
States. In 64 of the cases the pris
oners were removed or the guard
wi re augmented or other precaution
'aken. In the 4 other instance,
a'mcd force was used to repel the
wculd-be lynchers. In 10 Instances,
convictions csrrying penitentiary sen
tences were secured against alleged
Of the 67 persons lynched In 1922,
51 were Negroes and 0 were whites;
call for Specialized Training
is run on a haphazard plan It that
of housekeeping. Poor housekeeping'
is not found only amqng Ignorant j
people. Many of us have been chag-1
rined and disappointed at the mc ti
ros of housekeeping among the so-1
called intellectuals people with col-;
lege degrees and high social stand I
ir.g, of culture In the academic ,
woman is building a horn
there is something wrong with the
g'rl who does not have that as her
ultimate ambition. If she is still
living in the hopeful stage of life.
her highest hope is to build a home
With this premise fundamental to
the life of a woman, then is it not
reasonable to ask that ahe ahould
Just laugb at the philosopher who
tells you that it is too late to be
gin. Time and space will not permit us
to enumerate the men and women
who began their education late in
A very important department in
Berea College is the Foundation
School, for it deals with the funda
mentals of education and eliminates
a lot of children's plsy that is neces
sary in the average graded school ii
keep the youngcters still. The stu
dents of the Foundation School are
past the restless period. They do
not require busy work to keep them
still, for they are young men and
wemen with a conviction of their
needs and have found a place to
meet those needs.
If a young man has more years to
his credit than he has grades in
school, it is no hardship in Berea, for
age is not the main consideration.
Ambition and desire for an educa
tion are the great requirements. Do
you desire to improve your educa
'ion? Do you crave to get away
from home for a few montha and get
i acquainted with other people? Do
you wnn vo gei invo a cruwa oi young
people very like yourself in age and
purpose? If you csn say "yes to
ali the above questions, there is n
place in the Berea Foundstion School
li or one-third of those put to desth
were charged with rape or attemp ed
rape; 6 of the victims were burned
to death; four were put to death and
then their bodiea burned. The
cha-gea against those burned t-
death were, murder, 2; rape, 4.
The offenses charged against the
whites were: murder, 2; fighting, 1;
charges not reported, 3. The offends
against the Negroes were: murder,
9 murderous assault, 4; rape, 14;
attempted rape, 6; killing officer of
th luw, 3; horse stealing, 2; being
i'ltiniate with woman, 2; no special
cra-ge, 2; killing man in altercation.
1; striking man in quarrel, 1; robbing
and striking a woman, 1; cattle steal
ing, 1; using insulting language, 1;
for bring a s rike breaker, 1; mis
taken identity,' 2; indecent exposure
of pe-son and frightening woman
and rhi'dren, 1; intimidating officer
of the law, 1.
The nine states in which lynchings
occurred and the number in each
State are as follows: Alabama, 2;
Arkansas, 6; Florida, 6; Georgia, 11;
Louisiana, 3; Mississippi, 9; Oklaho
ma, 1; South Carolina, 1; Tennessee,
2; Texas, 18.
Very truly yours.
R. R, Moton, Principal
Look at These Prices
Ford Touring Car $298.00 r. o. b. d
This is the lowest price at which the Ford Tour
ing car has ever sold, and with the many new im-
Erovements, including the one-man top, it is a
igger value than ever before.
Ford Runabout $269.00 o. D.trit
Where can you find a greater value than the Ford
Runabout at tins new low price. Time saving, ab
solutely dependable travel at the minimum cost.
At the new low price the Ford Sedan represents
& greater value than has ever been offered. It pro
vides closed car comfort in a dependable quality
product at a minimum cost. Your order place
now will insure reasonably prompt delivery.
Ford Coupe $530.00 f.o.b.d..c
The world has never known an enclosed car of
this type at a lower price. No car at any price has
ever offered a greater value.
Place your order now to insure early delivery
Terms if desired
Our new gasoline filling station is now in operation.
Indian Gasoline and Havoline Oil.
Berea Motor Company
THE UNION CHURCH
Rev. Esrl F. Zeigler, Pastor
Sunday morning, December 31st,
sermon at 11. Subject, "Yesterday,
Today and Tomorrow."
At 7 p. m. there will be a special
musical service in the auditorium.
H. E. Taylor will play several organ
numbers, and Professor Rigby is
preparing the choir for special num
All who were present last Sunday
evening enjoyed the beautiful candle
light service given by the choirs of
the church. Sunday-rchool children
formed a processional with the elec
tric cardies and placed them around
be balcony balustrade. Concealed
choirs sang the Christmas carols.
The organ, the solo by Miss Baker,
and the special choral numbers,
united to make a service of rare
beauty and very worshipful.
Ob Tuesday evening Professor
Raine's Sunday-school class of giih
gave a Christmas play before a
crowded house. The scenic effects
were well done, and the story of the
play a distinct message. A short so
cial period followed the play.
Mrs. Cowley and Mrs. Griffith's
classes are planning some'. king of
pagentry in the near future.
The Junior C. E. are expecting new
books for their work beginning with
January. They are making fine
The Sunday-school entertainment
oi laat Saturday evening was well
planned and as well carried out.
Everyone present received a treat
and Santa Claua made his usual ap
MEN'S BIBLE CLASS
The Men's Bible Class next Sundav
at Union church will discuss "Good
Resolu ions for 1923." A remarka
ble article in The American for Jan
unry shows that men in middle life
can learn as well as children. It ts
not too late for anybody who will to
be "changed into another man.
Come and listen and discuss.
CHRISTIAN CHURCH EXERCISES
The Christmas tree and the Christ
mas program given at the Christian
church Mondsy evening was a grsv
success. The program was good mi
beautifully carried out. The order
was perfect and good will attended
the whole time spent together.
To Our Many Customers
May othera be as good to you in
the approaching New Year as you
hnve been to us in the year that is
now slipping away. Our policy jr
the coming yenr, as it has beti In
the past, is to search the wholesale
markets for the goods that we are
si're will give our customers tho best
service and satisfaction and to buy
there goods at the lowest cash figure
and share these benefits with our
Best wishes for your future prosperity,
J. M. Coyle & Co.
F. O. B. Detroit
Ford Af eats
Everyone of the children were made
happy by presents, and the parent
were not forgotten. Mr. Bender, the
superintendent, and his wife are Vt
be congratulated on the success of
the Sunday-school Christmas tree, and
Mrs. R. H. Chrisman especially
thanked for getting up such a beau
tiful program at such short notice.
DELIGHTFUL STUDENT PARTT
Mies Blanche Weir entertained
number of her friends last Friday
evening at her home on North Main.
An enjoyable evening- was spent by
the young people playing games aaJ
pulling candy. Nine-thirty came all
to quickly, but this is the hoar ap
pointed by the "powers higher p"
for all student parties to end, and the
fun had to come to a close, to the
deep regret of all present.
ELECTION OF OFFICBRS
Berea Masonic Lodge No. 617 F.
at A. M. elected the following officers
foi the ensuing year, December 27,
1922: Leon Lewis, master; W. C
Ei.gle, S. W.; W. B. Jones, J. W.;
D. N. Welch, trees.; E. T. Fish, sec;
M. D. Bowling, S. D.; L. L. Ander
son, J. D.; W. S. Johnson, tyler.
Justice Holmes of the U. S. Su
preme Court, speaks of the neeersity
among all men of correcting "the
ignoble excess of noble feeling."
There is a wise and true phrase.
Most men are righteous in their impelling-
motives, but as we become
splendidly aflame with our cause, we
are prone to forget that even a good
cause does not justify either intoler
ance or insanity.
Speaking of a certain famous per
sonage, a very just man said the
other day: "His ideal is splendid,
but it is impractical; it will take the
world a hundred years or more to
catch up with it." Ah, but how poor
and drab a thing life would be if now
and then some man did not set above
tho thought of the world a noble vis
ion of something better and truer
than is contemporaneously possible.
Thank God for the Dreamers and the
Are we too old-fashioned if we be
lieve that a woman looks better in an
apron and embonnet than in furs?
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