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The Circle banner. [volume] (Circle, Mont.) 1914-1939, January 04, 1918, Image 3

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leiEW OF THE WORLD WAR AND OTHER
Entrance of United States Into Conflict Outstanding Development of
Past Twelve Months—Political Upheaval in Russia Affects
Struggle—British and French Smash Teuton Lines
on West Front—Austro-Germans Launch
Drive Against Italy.
By DONALD F. BIGGS.
THE WORLD WAR.
After three and a half years of the
most sanguinary fighting in history,
the groat nations of the world, togeth
er with many of the smaller ones, are
still at death grips, with less prospect
of an early peace than was thought to
exist a year ago.
Undoubtedly the greatest develop
ment of the year was the entrance of
the United States of America into the
conflict. The throwing of the tre
mendous resources and man power of
the American republic Into the balance
on the side of the entente allies, in the
opinion of military experts, has more
than off-set the advantages gained by
Germany and her allies during the past
twelve months and has made possible
the continuance of the conflict until a
time when a definite military decision
can be obtained.
There have been a half dozen or
more outstanding events in the past
Some of these have been of
year.
purely military significance and others
have been occurrences of a political na
ture which have hud a far-reaching ef
fect upon the titanic conflict.
Chief among the political upheavals
of the year was the Russian revolution
which resulted In the overthrow of
Czar Nicholas and culminated during
the closing-months of the year in a
counter-revolution which practically
eliminated Russia from the ranks of
the nations opposed to the central pow
ers. From a military standpoint the
chief events of the year have been
the launching of the German ruthless
submarine campaign, which was di
rectly responsible for the entry of the
United States Into the war; the Brit
ish offensives on the west front, first
In the Arras sector, later in Flanders
und still later on the 35-mile front be
tween Arras and St. Quentin ; the Ital
ian offensive against Austria from
Tolmino to the Adriatic and the sub
sequent offensive of the Germans and
Austrians against Italy, which resulted
in the overrunning of northern Italy
by the Teutonic allies.
The entry of China, Cuba, Brazil,
Siam and other countries into the war
on the side of the entente allies, the
ove» throw of King Constantine of
Greece on !he demand of France and
her allies and other events important
in themselves were overshadowed by
the greater developments of the year.
American Peace Effort Fails.
As the year opened the only military
movements of importance in progress
were those aimed by Germany and !.er
allies to complete the annihilation of
Koumauia and attention was centered
upon the request that had been made
by President Wilson that -the various
belligerent nations state the terms up
on which peace might be discussed.
The replies seemed to preclude any
further action by the United States as
a peacemaker, but on January 22 Pres
ident Wilson in an address before the
senate laid down the principles which
lie declared should guide the United
States in participating in a league to
enforce peace at the close of the pres
ent war.
On January 31, Germany announced
the inauguration of ruthless submarine
warfare.
President Wilson acted promptly,
severing diplomatic relations with
Germany on February 3.
The Canard liner Laconia was sunk
•without warning off the Irish coast
February 25 with the loss of 13 lives,
including those of two American wom
en.
On February 28, it was announced
that the United States government was
in possession of a communication ad
dressed by the German foreign minis
ter to tiie German minister at Mcx
to pro-1
Germany
ico City, instructing him
pose an alliance between
and Mexico, and to suggest that
as soon as war with the United States
was certain, the president of Mexico
communicate with Japan, offering to
mediate between Japan and Germany.
As a reward Mexico was promised gen
eral financial support from Germany
and the reconquest of lost territory in
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.
The United States department of
state announced, March 12, that it
had determined to place armed guards
upon all American merchant vessels
sailing through the'German w ar zone.
March 14, it was learned that the
American steamship Algonquin had
been sunk without warning by a Ger
man submarine.
On the same day
( iiina severed diplomatic relations
with Germany and seized German mer
chant ships in the harbor at Shanghai.
Czar Nicholas Dethroned.
Ou Mardi 15, the Russian revolu
tionary movement, which had begun
with food riots and strikes, culminated
In the abdication of Czar Nicholas both
lor himself and his son. Pending the
meeting of a constituent assembly the
government was vested in the execu
live committee of the Duma and a i
newly chosen council of ministers with |
Prince Lvoff as premier.
The German forces on the west
front, on March 17, began a general I
retireraent on a front of 85 miles from I
south of Arras to Solssons, falling [
:
back to new lines which had been pre
pared.
The relations between Germany and
the United States were further strain
ed March 18 by the receipt of reports
of the sinking of three American
steamers, the City of Memphis, Illi
nois and Vlgiiancia, fifteen of the lat
ter's crew being lost.
On March 21, President Wilson Is
sued a proclamation calling congress
in special session on April 2.
The American steamer Healdton
was torpedoed without warning, March
22, 21 men including seven Ameri
cans, being lost.
United States Declares War.
On April 2, President Wilson ap
peared before a joint session of con
gress and called for a declaration of a
state of war with Germany. On April
4, the senate passed a resolution de
claring the existence of a state of war.
The resolution was adopted by the
house of representatives April 6 and
was signed by the president the same
day. At the same time 91 German
owned vessels in American ports were
seized by the government. Cuba de
clared war on Germany on April 7.
The following day, Austria-Hungary
severed diplomatic relations with the
United States. ;
The British forces on the west front
began the first great offensive of 1917
on April 9, penetrating the enemy po
allions north and south of Arras to a
depth of from two to three miles.
The French forces launched an of
fensive against the enemy on a 25-ralIe
front between Solssons and Reims,
April 16, and after three days' fighting
reported the capture of more than 17,
000 prisoners.
The first American casualties in the
war were reported April 28, when the
armed American tank steamer Vacuum
was sunk by a submarine and several
American gunners were lost.
American Fleet in Action.
It was learned on May 16, that a
squadron of American destroyers un
der Roar Admiral Simms had safely
crossed the Atlantic and had been pa
trolling the seas in war service since
May 4.
The United States array draft bill
became a law May IS when President
Wilson affixed his signature to the
measure and issued a proclamation fix
ing June 5 us registration day.
During the early part of June grow
ing unrest in Russia began to attract !
the attention of the allies. On June 1,
workmen and soldiers seized Kron
stadt, the Russian fortress defending j
Petrograd, and repudiated the provis- !
lonal government. On June 3, the .
American confmlsslon to Russia, head
ed by Elihu Root, and the American
railroad commission, headed by John
F. Slovens, arrived safely at Russian
ports. On June 7, the Russians in
possession of Kronstadt yielded to
negotiations and recognized the pro
visional government.
In the meantime the American prep
arations for the war were proceeding
rapidly. On June 5. nearly 10.000,000
men of military age registered for mili
tary service under the selective draft
law. On June 8, Major General John
J. Pershing, who had been selected to
head the American expeditionary
forces in France, arrived with his staff
in London. On the same day Wash
ington reported the safe arrival in
France of 100 American aviators, the
first American fighting forces to reach
that country.
King Constantine Dethroned.
A solution, of the Greek situation,
which had endangered the operations
of the allies in the Balkans, was reach
ed June 12 when on the demand of
France, Great Britain and Russia, King
Constantine abdicated In favor of bis
second son. Prince Alexander, who was
[known to be favorably inclined toward
the allies. London reported another
big raid by Zeppelins on June 13. in
which 157 persons were killed and
many injured.
The subscriptions to the first Ameri
can Liberty loan closed June 15. the
loan bring oversubscribed by $750,
000 , 000 .
On June 20, it was announced that
the first contingent of American troops,
under command of Major General Si
bert. had arrived safely in France.
The new Greek cabinet, headed by
Eleutherios Venizelos, went into office
on June 27 and two days later the new
government severed diplomatic rela
tions with Germany, Austria-Hungary,
Bulgaria and Turkey.
On the first of July, the Russian
forces, tinder the personal leadership
of War Minister Kerensky, electrified
the allies by launching a powerful of
fensive on an 18-mile front in Galicia,
capturing many strongly fortified
towns and taking thousands of pris - 1
oners. For two weeks the Russians
continued t« advance along a front
that widened to 100 miles, but on July
119 the Russian offensive collapsed and
turned into a rout, when many Rus
sian regiments
premier of Russia on July 20.
The first political crisis in the Ger
rann cabinet during the war resulted
on inly 14 in the resignation of Chan
mutinied and fled.
Kerensky succeeded Prince Lvoff as
cellor von Bethmann-Hollweg and the
appointment us his successor of Dr.
Georg Michaelis. On July 22. Siam
declared war against Germany, and
Austria-Hungary, bringing the number
of the allied nations to sixteen.
British Launch Great Offensive.
The British launched their second
great offensive of the year on the
Flanders front on July 31, attacking
on a 20-raile front from Dixrnude to
Warneton, after three weeks of In
tense artillery preparation. The Brit
ish forced their way into the German
lines to a depth of two to two and a
half miles, taking ten villages and
more than 5,000 prisoners.
Pope Benedict, on August 14, trans
mitted peace proposals to all belliger
ent and neutral governments.
The Italian forces opened a grand
offensive on August 19, attacking on
a front 40 miles long from Tolmino to
the Adriatic sen. On August 25, the
Italians captured Monte Santo, an Aus
trian stronghold on the Isonzo front.
Xwo more nations entered the war on
the side of the allies in August. Li
beria declaring war on Germany Aug
ust 7, and China declaring war on
both Germany and Austria-Hungary
August 14. On August 28, President
Wilson's reply to the pence proposals
of Pope Benedict was made public. It
declared that "we cannot take the
word of the present rulers of Germany
as a guarantee of anything that is to
endure, unless explicitly supported by
such conclusive evidence of the will
and purpose of the German people
themselves as the other peoples of
the world would be justified in accept
Ing." Other allied governments later
adopted President AVilson's note as
their own reply to the pope.
Early in September the Italians con
tinued to make progress in their drive
on the Isonzo front, announcing on
September 1 the capture of 14 strongly
fortified mountains, causing an 11
mile breach In the Austrian lines and
resulting in the capture of 27,000 pris
oners.
Chaos Threatens in Russia.
Conditions In Russia grew more cha
otic during the month of September.
General Korniloff, commander in chief
of the Rusian armies, on September
10 demanded that all civil and mili
tary pMvers be placed in his hands.
Premier Kerensky immediately de
posed General Korniloff and civil war
threatened as Korniloff, at the head
of a large force of troops, marched on
Petrograd. The rebellion collapsed,
however, on September 13 when
General Korniloff agreed to surrender
to General Alexieff, chief of staff of
the Russian array.
The first American casualties in
France were announced on September
4, when four Americans were killed
in a German raid on American hos
but made no definite concessions,
pltals in France. America's war prepa
rations were continued rapidly, the
first contingent of five per cent of the
new National army arriving at their
cantonments September 5.
The replies of Germany and Austria
Hungary to Pope Benedict's peace pro
posals were made public September 21.
They accepted the pope's offer as a ba
sis for the beginning of negotiations,
Italians Driven Back.
The groat Austro-Germun offensive
against the Italians was launched
along the Isonzo front October 24, and j
within ten days the Teuton forces had
retaken nil the territory won by the
I Italians in two months' fighting and
had overrun all of northern Italy.
The United States began to take a
more active part in the fighting during
October, the first American troops go
ing into the first line trenches in
France on October 23. On October 17
the American transport Antilles, re
turning from France, was torpedoed
and sunk, with a loss of 67 lives. The
second American Liberty loan of
$3.000.000.000 closed October 27 with
an oversubscription of nearly $2,000,
000.000. Several more South Ameri
can nations took a decided stand in
favor of the allies in October. Peru
broke off diplomatic relations with
Germany October 6 and Uruguay took
similar action the following day. On
October 26 Brazil declared the exist
ence of a state of war with Germany.
There were evidences of internal dis
turbances in Germany during the
month, a mutiny of German sailors at
Ostend being reported October 18. On
October 30 Count George von Bertling
was made imperial chancellor of Ger
many, Chancellor Michaelis having re
signed.
On the sea the chief event of the
month was the sinking by two German
raiders of two British destroyers and
12 Scandinavian merchantmen they
were convoying in the North sea on
October 17. On October 31 the Ameri
can transport Finland, returning from
France, was struck by a torpedo and
eight men were killed.
Italians Stop Invaders.
Big events crowded fast upon each
I
other during the month of November,
The Italians, after reforming their
lines back of the Tnglinraento river,
were forced to execute a further re
treat, falling back to the Piave river.
The Italians, re-enforced by British
and French armies, which reached the
Itiiilun front November 25, withstood
repeated attacks launched by the Aus
tro-German armies, holding their lines
at all points along the Piave.
On November 20 the British opened
the greatest offensive of the year on
the west front between St. Quentin and
the Scarpe. In a surprise attack, be
gun without the usual artillery prepa
ration, the British Infantry under Gen
eral Byng, headed by a large force of
tanks, smashed through the Hinden
burg line toward Cambrai, taking many
towns and thousands of prisoners.
Russia was thrown into civil war
during the month by a counter-revolu
tion by means of which the bolshevlkl,
under the leadership of M. Lenine.
seized the government at Petrograd on
November 8. Premier Kerensky fled
from Petrograd, and other members of
the cabinet of the provisional govern
ment were arrested. On November 10
the rebel government made Leulne pre
mier. Kerensky, at the head of a body
of loyal Cossack troops, attacked Pe
trograd November 12, but was badly
defeated. The bolshevlkl were appar
ently In full control of Russia by No
vember 22, when the Lenine govern
ment proposed a general armistice to
all belligerents.
American troops on the west front
suffered their first casualties on No
vember 3 when German troops raided
a salient held by the Americans, kill
ing three, wounding five and taking
12 prisoners. On November 5 the
American patrol boat Alcedo was sunk
by a torpedo and 21 were lost.
During the last days of November
and the early part of December the
Germans made determined efforts to
regain some of the territory captured
by the British around Cambrai but the
British held a large portion of the
ground taken, inflicting heavy losses
on the Germans. The Austro-Germun
forces began a new offensive in Italy
early in December, forcing the Italian
lines back for a distance' of several
miles at some points.
Early in December it was announced
that a large number of national guard
troops from the United States hud ar
rived in France, units from every
state being inc i U ded. on December 7,
the United States congress declared
(-he existence of a state of war with
Austria-Hungary. The following day
p- was announced that the American
destroyer Jacob Jones had been sunk
bv a German submarine with a loss
of 64 men.
The Russian situation was further
complicated by a new revolt against
the bolshevik! government launched
by Generals Kaledines and Korniloff,
Cossack leaders.
British, French and Italian troops on
December 10, captured Jerusalem,
which for 673 years has been under the
undisputed sway of the Moslems.
Oa December 16, it was announced
that Russian and Teuton emissaries
had signed a four-weeks' armistice, one
provision of which was that pence ne
gotiations should begin Immediately.
THE WAR CONGRESS
The first "war session" of the Sixty
fifth congress which opened on April
2, was the most momentous session in
the history of the United States up to
that time.
The first war bill passed by congress
was one authorizing the issuance of
bonds to an amount not exceeding $5,
000.000,000 and authorizing the secre
tary of the treasury to purchase se
curities of governments at war with
Germany to the amount of $3,000,000,
000.
The army conscription act was
passed by the house April 28 by a vote
of 397 to 24 and by the senate on May
1 by a vote, of 81 to 8.
The first big war appropriation bill,
carrying appropriations aggregating
$3,281,094,541.00 for the army and
navy, was passed in the house May 2
with one opposing vote and in the sen
ate May 19 without a roll call.
The measure known as the espion
age act, intended to prevent disloyal
acts on the part of residents of the
United States and also containing pro
visions giving the president power to
■ the development of the air service was
j passed without a record vote by the
| senate on June IS and by the house
| on June 28.
place an embargo on exports, was
signed by the president June 15.
A bill appropriating $640.000,000 for
broad powers were given to the presi
dent for tile regulation of tile sale of
food and fuel, was passed in the house
June 23 by a vote of 365 to 5 and in
the senate July 21 by a vote of 81 to C.
- The second great bond issue act,
authorizing the issuance of .bonds to
the amount of $7,538,945,640 and war
savings certificates to the amount of
$2,000,000.000, was passed in the bouse
September 6 and in the senate Septem
her 15.
The food control act, under which
The revenue act, first introduced in
the house May 9, was passed by the
liouse May 23, but was Hot passed by
the senate until September 10. Che
conference report was accepted Octo -1
her 2. The message provides for the
raising of nearly $3,000,000.000 anuu
ally, largely from Income and excess
profits taxes.
The second big war appropriations
lic*. carrying a total of $5,350.666,
016.93, including
for the emergency shipping fund, was
approved by the president October 6.
The second session of the war eon
gress opened December 3, and tile foi
lowing day President Wilson delivered
a message declaring that nothing will
turn the United States aside from its
task until the war is won.
During December both houses of con
gress opened far-reaching investiga
tions into the war preparations of the
war and navy departments.
DISASTERS ON LAND AND SEA
The year 1917 was marked by many
disasters on land and sen, aside from
those resulting from the land and
naval operations of the countries at
Thousands of lives were lost
war.
and millions of dollars worth of prop
erty was destroyed by fires, explosions,
earthquakes, tornadoes and other de
structive agencies in all parts of the
world.
On January 5, an earthquake In For
mosa caused the death of 300 persons.
On January 25, an earthquake killed 50
persons on Bali Island, Malay archl
pellgo.
On February 2, an explosion and fire
in a Chicago tenement killed 25. On
Februury 3, 30 were killed and 344
hurt In a ship explosion at Archangel.
On the same day an explosion at Yo
kohama killed 100. On February 21,
the British transport Mendl was sunk
in a collision, 625 South African la
borers being lost.
On March 11, a tornado in east cen
tral Indiana killed more than 20 per
sons and on March 23, 38 were killed
and more than 200 injured when a tor
nado wrecked part of the city of New
Albany, Xnd.
Explosions in a Kussian ammunition
plant near Chester, Pa., killed 132 per
sons April 30. An explosion in the
Hastings mine near Ludlow. Colo.,
April 27, caused a loss of 119 lives.
May 22, the city of Gyoenyoes, Hun
gary, was devastated by fire. Thirty
lives were lost and great damage was
done by a storm in Kansas May 25 and
the following day tornadoes in central
Illinois killed 150 persons and destroy
ed property worth millions of dollars.
May 29, many persons were killed In
tornadoes in southern Illinois, Ken
tucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Arkan
sas.
San Salvador, capital of Salvador,
and a number of surrounding towns
were partially destroyed by volcanic
eruption! earthquake and fire June 7.
More than 150 men perished in a blaz
ing mine at Butte, Mont., June 9. Thir
teen were killed and many injured
when a water tank fell on the steamer
Christopher Columbus at Milwaukee,
Wis., June 30.
A Niagara Gorge trolley car plunged
into the rapids, July 1, and 28 were
killed. A mine explosion at New Wa
terford, Cape Breton, killed 62 men
on July 25.
A mine explosion at Clay. Ky.,
caused the loss of 31 lives on August
4. Nineteen were lost when the Brit
ish steamer City of Athens, carrying
missionaries to Africa, was sunk by a
floating mine on August 10. Eighteen
were killed in a trolley, car collision
near North Branford. Conn., August
13. On August 18, a disastrous fire
swept Saloniki. Greece, destroying a
large part of the city.
Many persons were killed in a ty
phoon and flood at Tokio, October 2,
and a thousand persons were reported
drowned in great floods In Natal,
South Africa, October 28.
About 1,200 persons were killed and
millions of dollars woith of property
destroyed December 6 by an explosion
and fire which followed a collision in
the harboi at Halifax, N. S., between
Mont Blanc, a French munition ship,
and the Imo, laden with supplies for
the Belgian Relief Commission.
INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC
Industrial unrest was apparent in
the United States throughout 1917,
largely as a result of war conditions
and in spite of efforts made by the
government, aided by leaders of organ
ized labor, to prevent strikes which
would delay the nation's war prepara
tions.
Early in the year a nation-wide
strike of the skilled railroad employees,
which had been averted in 1916 by the
passage of the Adamson law. providing
indirectly for an increase in wages.
was again threatened, owing to the
fact that the placing of the Adamson |
law In operation was delayed pending j
a decision by the United States Su- j
The
its validity.
preme court on
threatened strike was averted March |
18 by the capitulation of the railroad
On the following day the
managers.
United States Supreme court handed
down a decision holding the Adamson
law constitutional.
Serious troubles wore precipitated In
the Arizona copper fields July 1 when
the miners struck. Disorders were re-
ported from several points and on
Ju]y 12 the peop i e of Bigbee, Ariz.. de-
p0 rted 1,200 members of the Industrial
workers of the .World, who it was
charged bad fomented the strikes in
tbe copp( . r mines.
w w . j ea ders were deported from
Gallup> x. M. On August 1. Frank Lit
tle> j w w . leader, who had been
pr ô min eur in t he Arizona troubles, was
Ivnched at Butt e, Mont., where he had
J gone t0 take part in a str jke of miners
| and where he was alleged to have
On July 31, 32 I.
; ma d e speeches attacking the govern
| nJ enr.
A serious tie-up of all shipbuilding
threatened
plants in the country was
in August and September. Machinists
ani ] boilermakers in Eastern ship- i
yards went on strike August 21 and I
25,000 skilled mechanics and other
workmen struck in Sun Francisco Sep- :
tember 17. On September 20. Presi- I
dont Wilson named a commission, j
headed by Secretary of Labor Wilson
an( j representing both employers and
.employees, to act as ids personal rep
resentatives in allaying labor troubles
during the war. The strike in the San
Francisco shipyards was ended Sep
tember 26 through the efforts of the
government mediators.
Leaders of organized labor in the
United States took a decided stand
throughout the year in support of the
government preparations for war and
against antiwar propaganda. At the
annual meeting of the American Fed
eration of Labor in Buffalo in Novem
ber, union labor pledged its solid sup
port to the government in the prosecu
tion of the war.
The railroads of the country faced
another crisis during the closing
months of the year when demands
were made by the four brotherhoods
for wage increases averaging 40 'per
cent, affecting, directly and Indirectly,
approximately 2,000,000 railroad em
ployees.
Labor troubles of the year were
closely allied with economic develop
ments, growing out of the increased
cost of living in the United States. In
order to prevent further increases in
prices government regulation of many
Industries was undertaken as a war
On May 19, President vv 11
measure.
son selected Herbert C. Hoover, chair
man of the Belgian relief commission,
as head of a food control board, and
later, on August 11. following the pass
age i*y congress of a food-control bill,
Mr. Hoover was made food admlnis
On August 21, President Wll
trator.
son Issued an order fixing the basic
prices for bituminous coal in the pro
ducing districts of the country. On
August 23, President Wilson appointed
Dr. H. A. Garfield fuel administrator
for the United States. On August 30
the United States wheat committee
fixed the basic price for the 1917 crop
at $2.20 a bushel.
DOMESTIC AFFAIRS
The Danish West Indies, purchased
from Denmark for $25,000,000, passed
under the jurisdiction of the United
States January 27, and were renamed
the Virgin Islands.
Serious race riots in East St. Louis,
Mo., July 2, resulted In the killing of
more than 20 negroes and two white
men and a heavy property loss by fire.
The riots were followed by prosecu
tions by state officials and a congres
sional investigation.
Soldiers of the Twenty-fourth U. S.
infantry (colored) started a race riot
at Houston. Tex., August 23, resulting
in the death of 15 whites and several
negroes.
Interest in the general elections on
November 6 was centered in New
York and Chicago, where Socialist
tickets were defeated by large majori
ties. Judge Hylan, Democratic nomi
nee, was elected mayor of New York
over fusion, Republican and Socialist
candidates.
In Milwaukee, Wls., November 23.
ten policemen and a woman were kill
ed by the explosion of a bomb found
in a church and taken to police head
quarters.
Thirteen negroes, convicted by court
martial of participating in the race
riots at Houston, Tex., August 23, were
hanged at San Antonio, December 11.
Forty-one others were given life sen
tences.
The house of representatives, on De
cember 17, adopted a resolution, al
ready adopted by the senate, submit
ting to the states a constitutional
amendment for national prohibition.
MEXICO AND UNITED STATES
The friction between the United
States and Mexico, which had threat
ened for two years or more to result
in open warfare, began to disappear
early in 1917 and when the atten
tion of the people of the United States
was focused upon more important
matters by the entrance of the
United States Into the world war. the
Mexican "crisis" faded from the public
view.
Despite the failure of negotiations
with the Carranza government Presi
dent Wilson ordered the withdrawal of
the American troops from Mexico and
on February 5, General Pershing and
his troops marched ont of Mexico af
ter having been in that country almost
a year.
On March 11, General Carranza was
formally elected president of Mexico;
From this time on conditions in Mexi
co became more tranquil and there
were evidences that President Carran
za was succeeding In restoring order
in the republic. It was not until late
in the year that Villa again became ac
| live. On November 13. troops led by
| Vllia's aids, captured Ojinaga. on the
American border, after a hard fl.'ht.
i Several hundred Carranza soldiers tied
across the border and were Interned
in the Unit«! States.
an attempt to restore the monti-hy.
j were influenced partly by tin war
POLITICS IN FOREIGN LANDS
A spirit of unrest was apparent lu
many widely separated countries In
1917, leading in some cases to revolu
tion and civil war. The revolution in
Russia, resulting in the abdication of
Czar Nicholas and the forced abdica
tion of King Constantine of Greece
were events closely allied with the
war. Disturbances in China, incladine
Conditions in China were unsettled un
111 June 30. when under the influence
of monarchists. Hsuan Tung. Manch«
emperor, announced his resumption ol
Civil war im
the throne of China,
mediately broke out and on July 1C
the attempt to restore the monarch)
collapsed. On July 13 the monarchist
array, led by Chang Hsun. surrendered
after a battle at Peking. The repub
»fan government was firmly establish
ed and later declared war on
;
| Germany and Austria-Hungary,
j Civil " nr in Cuba threatened to dis
j r «Pt that country during the ear.)
I months of the year. The rebels wert
hadly defeated in several engagements
nm i on March 7, Gomez, their leader,
The rebellion was
was captured,
stamped out quickly after the capture
of Gomez.
Great Britain continued to wrestle
with the Irish problem throughout the
The Irish nationalists, on March
year.
7, demanded immediate home rule and
marched out of the house of commons
On July 25 a convention
in a body,
proposed by Premier Lloyd George and
representing all factions in Irela;« met
for the purpose of drafting a home
rule constitution for Ireland.
Some misunderstandings between
the United States and Japan over far
Eastern matters were cleared away by
the signing by diplomatic representa
tives of the two countries on Novem
ber 2 of an agreement by which the
United States recognizes the fact that
Japan has special interests in China
because of its proximity but guaran
teeing the territorial integrity of
China and the maintenance of the open
door policy in that country.
(Copyright 1917 , by the McClure New*pa
per Syndicate)

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