Newspaper Page Text
Treasure State Farm and Livestock -- HERE IS A REAL MONTANA FARM PAGE - The leading articles on this page are prepared by experts of the State Agricultural College at Boze man, where the state and federal governments are expending large sums of money in experimentation determine the best tillage methods for Montana, and these articles are descriptive of the results of this work. Every farmer reader of this newspaper is urged to file these articles away. to BREEDING UP COWS FOR PRODUCTION From Montana State College T O BRING up the dairy herd from mediocrity to high production does not necessarily mean a rafli cal departure from the ordinary me thod of conducting the business nor does it mean a lot of additional ex pense, says J. O. Tretsven, dairy spe cialist of the Montana State College Extension Service, dairy farmer or the farmer with dairy cows feels that herd improvement is desirable but that it entails too much expense for him to attempt. Actually the maintenance of a herd of poor producers entails too much expense for the owner not to carry on a sys tematic work of improvement. A recent report of the United States department of agriculture points to the fact that last year, dairy production and the consumption of dairy products had just about reached a balance. This means, said Mr. Tretsven, that the point of high com petition in the dairy business has Too often the been reached and that from now on the efficient producer will stay in business and the poor one will be eliminated. The increase in compe tition means that the cows and herds that are keeping the average produc tion per cow in this country at its present low level will have to drop out of the race and their owners will have to develop higher producers or drop out also. Interesting and vital are the fig ures recently disclosed as the result of an investigation carried on in Ore gon. It was found that it costs at least one dollar more to produce 100 pounds of milk in a herd where the average production is less than 6,000 pounds of milk per year than where annual production is 7,000 pounds or better. There are a great many herds in Montana that are losing that extra dollar per hundred pounds of milk and this in itself speaks eloquently for the need of improvement. Dairy herd improvement is not ne cessarily expensive and a simple sys tem can be worked out without dis rupting the present methods or cost ing a lot of extra money. To illus trate a simple and economical method of herd improvement, Mr. Tretsven cites the case of H. B. Mitchell, mayor of Great Falls, and owner of the Ayrshire Dairy of that city. Mr. Mitchell's own words at a recent State "I first started keeping records of my cows in 1918. The average for that year was 5,723 pounds per cow, and the next it was 5,842. In 1920 the herd had increased to 85 cows and the average production increased to 6,674. In 1921 the average pro Auction for the same number of cows was 6,875; in 1922 the average was 6,323 and last year, 1923, the aver age production had increased to 8,438 pounds. To further illustrate the im provement, in 1920 we had one cow that gave over 11,000 pounds, six that gave over 9,000 and ten that meeting men's Association, best tell the story. MAY 31, 1924 We Want Your Poultry The market is good, never was bet ter... Stop your work long enough to ship your poultry. Prices, f.o.b. Butte Heavy Hens, dressing over 4fb....21c Ught Hens, dressing under 4lb.,..17c Stags and old roosters Springs. 1 to 21b. in. ,25c Tag your next can of cream and crate of poultry to HENNINGSEN COMPANY Butte, Mont. WE WANT YOUR WOOL HIDES PELTS HIGHEST PRICES PAID QUICK CASH RETURNS Ship to the "Old Reliable" and get a Square Deal. Write for price list. CRAGO Trap No. 4 McMillan y FUR & WOOL CO. Minneapolis, Minn. . V Most successful de vice ever invented for trapping GOPHERS NOW MINK, MARTEN, and RATS this fall. Price By Mail MISSOULA CLUTCH TRAP COMPANY MISSOULA, MONT. Also new "LIVE TRAP for catching ani mals for breeding purposes 75c 1 li FATTENING FM P ASTURES have been generally considered as playing an import ant part in the production of pork but heretofore there have been no figures available telling how much pastures were worth in dollars and cents when so used. Now Dr. W. E. Joseph of the Montana Experiment Station has completed an experiment which tells definitely whether or not the use of pasture is wise economy, how much grain the pasture will re place and whether or not the use of pasture results in efficient produc tion. In this experiment it was found that the pasture was worth $6.25 per acre, based on the amount of grain it replaced in the hog ration during a period of 48 days. Dr. Joseph's report on the hog pas ture experiment is as follows: Without pasture the amount of feed required for eight sows and their spring litters from farrowing to weaning time for each pound of weaned pig was as follows: Number of pigs and litters Number of pigs raised_ Age when weaned_ Average weight of pigs when weaned _ 8 52 83 days 49.2 lbs. Feed eaten by sows and litters per pound of weaned pig: Barley _ Skim milk ... Alfalfa hay _ .._ 3.7 lbs. .... 0.2 lbs. ._ 0.5 lbs. The total feed per pound of pig at weaning time was slightly less than the equivalent of four pounds of con centrates. Aside from the loss in gave over 8,000. cows gave over 12,000, one o'ver 11, 000, ten over 10,000, 18 over 9,000 and 17 over 8,000, or a total of 49 cows that gave over 8,000 pounds of milk for the year. Last year three "Our methods are simply the keep ing of records and the breeding up of the herd through the use of regis tered bulls from high producing cows —we get the best Ayrshire bull calves we can find. The only differ ence between our methods and those usually recommended by dairy au thorities is that our record keeping is simpler. Each cow is numbered by a brand made in our blacksmith shop. We weigh the milk morning and evening one day in each month and assume that is the daily average production for the month. Multiply 1 ing this figure by the number of days in the month we call that the total for the month. Weighings are made on the 15th of each month so that they come just a month apart. But terfat tests are taken three times a year and we assume that this gives us a fair representation of the amount of butter fat in each cow's milk. "We do not content that this is a scientific method of keeping records, but we do claim that it answers the purpose just as well as more elabor ate testing would, as results show, We know that our figures so arrived thei a r e totai r with° the^figures ^St* m the milk house which show the exact quantities of milk produced each day, I month and year. The method is so simple that any dairyman can follow It with very little additional work, I "At no time have we made any effort to make particularly high rec lords, and at no tirae'was any special feeding attempted, culling out of the cows and the Except for the j poor j breeding up through better bulls, the conditions of care and feeding are j practically the same as they were j when we started keeping the records, except, of course, that cows giving i more milk have to have more feed." -o REAT FILL (Continued from Feature Page.) and maintained there during the several following weeks. The ex plorers now found themselves fac ed with their first real difficulty, the absolute blocking of naviga tion. To determine how they could get around the falls Captain Clark on June 17 set out with five men to explore the country, leaving Lewis to explore the river and its fine series of cataracts and cas Captain Lewis named two of the series of falls, Great Falls and Crooked falls. Black Eagle falls, beside which the Anaconda Cop per Mining company's smelter is now located, w r as just below the falls and mentioned by him in his diary. The island still remained as late as 1872 and still harbored eagles, for Captain Roberts, who saw one there in that vear, gave the falls their On June 29 Lewis discovered Giant Springs which he called a fountain. In his journal he de name. weight by the sows these pigs were grown to practically 50 pounds in weight with less feed than the aver age requirement for putting on equal amounts of gain in growing them from 50 to 200 pounds. The sows weighed in at 425 pounds before far rowing and were weighed out, when the pigs were weaned, at 361 pounds. By using pasture the amount of other feed required for the sow and litter during the suckling period to produce a pound of pig at weaning time was considerably reduced. Six teen sows and litters that were on pasture 48 of the 76 days from far rowing to weaning time required for each pound of pig at weaning time 2.4 pounds of barley and mill run feed, 0.3 pound of low grade tankage, 1.5 pound of skim milk, 0.1 pound of alfalfa hay, and a negligible amount of sunflower silage. These pigs weigh ed practically 42 pounds at weaning time. The pasture consisted of mixed grasses, alfalfa and white clover, the grasses making up about two-thirds of the cover, of pigs raised per litter was 7.6. while the savings of concentrates was not determined exactly, comparisons with other results indicates that it amounted to at least 0.5 pound per pound of pig at weaning time. On this basis the five acres saved a little over 2,500 pounds of concentrates. At $1.25 per 100 pounds of cbncen trates the pasture yielded $6.25 per acre on the grain and other concen trates saved during the period of only 48 days. The average number scribed it. "The water boils up from among the rocks and with such force near the center, that the surface seems higher there than the earth on the side of a fountain, which is a handsome turf line of fine green grass. The water is extremely pure, cold and pleasant to the taste, not being impregnated with lime or any foreign sub stance. Meanwhile Clark and his group of men probably after crossing anf i rPrr nqdnp- the snnt where dnd «crossing «ie spot where Créât rails now stands, had with much pains worked out a line of portage 17 3-4ths miles in length r rnrn t>„i. CrntAr tn ' De 4;, . f .° v \ nue V e j island. 1 he island had received its name on the first night of the camp when one of the ever present t™ rs " nr o-riYrtîil W V , u & *"» Ior whom the island, seemed to be a home, chased Willard into camp. Before it could be pursued it dis covered Coulter and drove the fu ^ 0 1 f °v n ** ture discoverer of Yellowstone park and the hero of an adventure with the Blackfeet into ignominous flight into the river. There Coul ter remained until Clark and three other men drove off the animal, A marker on the east bank of th e r i ve r opposite what is still . \\ruu~ r>„ ;„i a ' n known as White Bear island will mark the Slte ° f the cam P and also serve as a reminder of the incident for which it was named, After considerable hunting for elk and trees, both of which were scarce, so-called "wagons" were constructed of skins drawn over a framework of wood. These were dragged by the men across the un even country, where prickly pear was thick and buffalo had trampled wet earth which had dried into hard sharp points. The feet of the men were protected from the roughness of the trail by only the thin skin of moccasins. The port age occupied most of the time from June 21 until July 2. Five markers will be placed on the portage trail ; at the spot where Belt creek joins the Mis souri, at the place where the trail crossed the present Highwood road, at the juncture of the Belt and Highwood roads, at the junc ture of the Red road and the Valeria highway and at the end of the trail opposite White Bear island. Lives Often Endangered All the time taken in making the CHILDREN CRY FOR "CASTORIA n A Harmless Substitute for Castor Oil, Paregoric, Drops and Soothing Syrups — No Narcotics! Mother! netchor'a Castorla has been In ate for over 30 years to re lieve babies and children of Constipa tion, Flatnlency, Wind Colic and Diarrhea; allaying Feverishness aris ing therefrom, and, by regulating the Stomach and Bowels, aids the assim URGES FARMERS TO COPY INDIANS HIDATSA TRIBE RAISED FIELD CORN ON MISSOURI LONG BEFORE WHITES CAME Great Northern Bean is Descendant of Bean Grown by Red Farmers in Montana 300 Years Ago; Bean is Coming Back. Long before the white man came to this country the Indians were growing corn and only recently has the white man taken an interest in this crop. The same tiling is true regarding the field bean. The Indians grew beans 200 years ago in North Dakota and Montana and only within the last year or two has the bean come back to its own among the white fannersof Mon tana. Back two centuries ago, long be fore the coming of the explorers, the Hidatsa Indians were growing a field bean along the banks of the Missouri river. Forty years ago Oscar Will of Bismark, North Dakota, secured some of these beans from Son of a Star, a member of the Hidatsa tribe, and today the descendants of that bean, known as the Great Northern bean, furnish the mainstay for the bean growing revival apparent in Montana. It is the Great Northern bean that is most popular among the bean growers of the Yellowstone val ley. If there is nothing new under the sun, it must follow that a great many of. the worth while old things are be ing re-discovered, and the Great Nor thern bean is one of them. Official crop reports for 1922 show that there were 3,800 acres de voted to the field bean crop in Mon tana during that year. In 1923 the acreage had increased to 23,000. In the fall of 1922 the market discover ed the superiority of the Montana product over that from other states. Montana beans drew a premium. Re sult—the field bean acreage increas ed six fold the next year. Four Counties Lead Yellowstone, Carbon, Big Horn and Stillwater counties apparently have a grip on the field bean production, producing over 90 per cent of the crop in 1923 and yet decided interest is being aroused among the farmers portage was not wearisome for the band included Cruzatte, a violinist. Frequently impromptu dances were held when bearded and probably dirty men, with feet aching and scarred from thé day's work in transporting the supplies, bowed and flirted as they took the girl's parts in a quadrille. From July 2 to 15 was spent in building canoes, repacking the sup plies and caching some of them in cluding the iron frame of a boat 36 feet long which was brought from Harper's Ferry, Va. No rec ord of the frame ever having been removed has been found. During the stay at the island the lives of nearly all of them were endangered at different times by bears, hail, cloudbursts, extreme heat, and other adventures. On July 15 the explorers continued the journey up the Missouri. Lewis passed this way again in 1806 on the return from the Pacific coast; Clark returning to the Mis souri by the Yellowstone river. On July 12 of that year the old camp at White Bear island was reached; part of the men traveling in a bull boat and a canoe made from the skins of buffalo killed when a herd of "at least 10,000" were met in the Sun river valley. White Bear Island was again the scene of their camp while they waited for one of the party, Drew yer to return with some horses that had been stolen from them by Indians near the Dearborn river. Upon his return they embarked upon their northern and eastern journey on July 16. It was on this homeward trip that Lewis with four men exploded the Maria's river, a trip during which they nearly lost their lives in a struggle with the Minnetaree Indians. ilation of Food; giving natural sleej without opiates. The genuine bears signature of v I of Chouteau, Treasure, Rosebud, Ra valll, Prairie, Custer, Richland, Val-j ley, Phillips and Blaine counties. What is the prospect for the bean crop this year? Another consider able increase in acreage according to present indications and probably a further expansion into other counties. As for the market outlook for the coming crop, that, like all other mar ket questions, depends upon whether present industrial conditions continue to maintain present demands, and on the size and condition of the national and world crop. Is bean growing successful in all parts of the state? must be answered in the negative. This question Pilled beans cannot withstand a frost and for that reason they are only adapted to the longer season sections of the state where the beans may be planted and harvested during the frost free period. The Great North ern bean matures in about 105 days and this short season }s one of the reasons for its popularity. On Non-Irrlgated Land Can they be grown only under ir rigation? Approximately two-thirds of the 1923 acreage was grown on irrigated land with an average yield of 1260 pounds to the acre, third that was grown on non-lrrigated land yielded at the rate of 660 pounds per acre. Apparently Irrigated land has a decided advantage but beans may be grown without extra water when adapted varieties and suitable cultural methods are used. . What kind of soil does the field bean prefer? This may best be an swered by enumerating the kind that it does not prefer, alkali soils and water logged soils may be scratched off the list as pos sible bean ground. Loam soils are best and clay soils if not too com pact and if provided with plenty of plant food and good drainage may produce a good crop. How should the land be prepared? On fall plowed land early spring disk The Compact soils ing is advisable followed, sometime before planting, with a thorough har rowing to kill all weeds. On very weedy land several harrowings may be necessary. Spring plowing should be done as early as possible. Har rowing immediately after plowing is recommended to prevent baking. In any case a firm, moist seed bed is essential and weeds must be under control before planting. In the Billings area planting time ordinarily extends from May 20 to June 10, A good plan to follow is to look up the average date of the last killing frost and to make plant ings ten days later. When beans are B urns or scalds of small area, cover first with wet bak ing soda. When dry, take this off. Dress with Vicks, gently. Do not rub in. Bandage lightly. VICKS VVapoRub Over 17 Million Jar» Utod Ymarly BLUE AND SILVER BLACK FOXES ARE THE GREATEST MORTGAGE LIFTERS WE KNOW ABOUT. Our breeding stock is large, full-blooded and vigorous. Highest pelt value. Visit our ranch before buying. Send for our free booklet en titled: "Furs of the Future." Reference: Bradstreet. VENDOVI ISLAND FUR FARM, Inc. 603 Seaboard Building, Seattle, Wash. 100 Head Registered Hereford Bulls WHY NOT HAVE THE BEST? My bulls have plenty of bone and scale. The low down blocky kind with good heads. Write, or come and see them. PRICE $100 UP A. 8 . Cook Siock Farm, White Sulphur Springs, Montana Eat More Toast! It Will It Will TOAST »I üw FRY i :,y jg ■ It Will It Will STEW BOIL a, $1 1.75 ELECTRIC STOVE and TOASTER i 89c FOR Get Information from Your Dealer Handling ROYAL MILLING COMPANY FLOUR Freshen a Heavy Skin tvitt/the antiseptic, fascinating Cutl cura Talcum Powder, an exquisitely scented convenient, economical face, skin, baby and dusting powder and perfume. Renders other perfumes su perfluous. One of the Cuticura Toilet Trio (Soap, Ointment. Talcum).— planted too early the cool soil and excessive moisture delays germina tion, causes some of the seed to decay and a poor stand results. Best Planting Methods Beans should be planted in rows with sufficient space to permit culti vation. On irrigated land the rows are spaced from 22 to 32 inches apart and on dry land from 30 to 42 inches apart, the wider distance being pre ferred where the ordinary corn plant ers and corn cultivators are used. Experiments on the Huntley experi ment farm showed best results when beans were 15 Inches apart in rows 30 Inches apart. The ordinary grain drill with holes stopped up to pro vide the desired spacing has been successfully used to plant beans. The 2-row planter may also be used. On Irrigated land many farmers prefer to plant from 20 to 26 pounds of seed per acre, but on good rich land where an abundance of irriga tion water is available, 30 to 40 pounds have been planted with good results. On dry land 14 pounds per acre is considered sufficient. : r : : , y ■ The Appealing Charm of Health and Beauty Sioux Falls, S. Dak. About two years ago I was in a rundown, nervous condition, my back ached terribly and I had bearing pains. I suffered from functional disturbances, and felt sick and mean all over. A friend told me about Dr. Pierce's Favorite Pre scription and she was so enthusiastic about it that I bought a bottle. I never took a medicine in my life that did me so much good; it strength ened me and rid me of all my aches and pains. My system was regulated and my nervousness left me. I am still just as well and strong as can be —never know a sick, or wearisome day; and I give all the credit to Di% Pierce's Favorite Prescription."—Mrs Christina Van Hess, 1425 N. Dakota! Street. . Sold at drug stores in tablets orj liquid. Write Dr. Pierce, President Invalids' Hotel in Buffalo, N. Y., for) free medical advice. Send 10c £oç trial pkg. tablets.