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Daily inter mountain. [volume] (Butte, Mont.) 1881-1901, October 21, 1899, Image 16

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MISSING LINK AT LAST
HIS SKELETON HAS BEEN FOUND IN JAVA AND THOUGH HE WAS NOT
A HANDSOME GENTLEMAN, WE ARE GLAD TO KNOW HIM.
Only a little less than fifty years have
passed'sinee the appearance of Darwin's
"Origin of Species.'' anti yet. unless we
are to doubt the word of some of the
leading scientists of the world, the last
chasm has been bridged, the last type
lias been found, and there is no longer a
missing link to provide an excuse for
those who do not wish to accept this the
ory of man's descent from lower animals.
Darwin was unquestionably one of the
greatest scientists of the world but his
theory as he represented it was incom
plete. There were many things he did
not know and these facts which he was
pleased to designate as his "missing link"
provided a target at which the world hurl
ed its shafts of ridicule. That scientists
accepted his theory mattered little and
so for nearly half a century science lias
been hard at work, exploring and inves
tigating. to prove, if possible, that the
proposition advanced by the tirst great
apostle of the Darwinian chain was bas
ed upon uncontrovertible fact. That tins
object has at last been successful is cer
tainly one of the crowning triumphs of
the nineteenth century.
Dring the last fifty years students of
zoology have made many discoveries that
have tended to shoy that Darwin was
correct in his theories but it was not un
til a few months ago that the last link
was discovered and the long chain that
Joined man with the monkey ancestor
chattering in the tree-tops was at last
made perfect at every step. This last dis
covery. which puts the finishing touch to
Darwin's great scientific structure, was
made in the Island of Java, where a
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SKELETON OF THE GENTLEMAN W HO ONCE
OF J AY A.
LIVED ON THE ISLAND
In his lifetime lie was more man than ape, and the discovery of his remains,
told for this newspaper by a celebrated scientist, establishes beyond a ques
tion the finding of the missing link, between man and ape of the
presen t day.
party of scientists recently found fossil
remains of the ape-like man, the "missing
link" so long known to students at Pithe
canthropus erectus.
Great as this diseovery was it* full Im
portance was not recognized by the scien
tific world until the last meeting of the
Cambridge Congress of Zoology, when
Professor Haeckel of Jena, one of the
foremost biologists of the world, made
the assertion, in the most uncompromis
ing manner, that there was no longer a
"missing link." He said:
"The monophyletic origin of all mam
malia—that is to say, their origin from
one common parent form, from monotre
mata upward to man—is no longer a va
gue hypothesis, but an established fact.
Let us look at the remains of this ape
like man. The teeth are like those of
man: the femur (upper thigh bone) is very
human, but shows some resemblance to
that of the Gibbons. Its size, however, in
dicates an animal which stood when
erect, not less than five feet six inches.
The skull-cap is also very human but
with prominent eye-brow, ridges, like
those of the apes.
'Now. speaking generally, we may say
that man alone combines the four follow
ing features: (1) erect walk; (2) extremi
ties differentiated accordingly: (3) arti
culate speech, and (4) higher reasoning
power. And of these the erect walk is
not an absolutely distinguishing charac
teristic, for the large apes like-wise walk
on their feet only, supporting their
bodies by touching the ground with the
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•HE GENTLEMAN OF JAVA AS HE*L COOKED CLOTHED IN FLESH AND
back of tlieir hands—-in fact with their
knuckles—and this is a mode of progres
sion very different from that of the mon
keys. which walk upon the paints of their
hands."
The argument presented by this emin
ent biologist finds its strongest evidence
in the fossil remains which science has at
last determined to be the "missing link."
This "last link." or ape-like man is cer
tainlv a nearer approach to the human
species than any type of animal that has
vet been discovered. Like man he walk
ed upon his feet, which are flat-soled and
board, and in walking he could be entire
lv independent of his hands. In the so
called mental faculties just as marked
difference may be noted. The skull is not
that of the apes and the brain is fully
as large as that of a low-type human
being, for its essential cranial capacity
is about 1.000 cubic centimetres, which
is about equal to that of the Ceylonese
eddah women, the smallest sized and
lowest type of human beings of the pres
ent day. The higher type of this ape
like man as compared to the ape. how
ever. may be seen from the fact that th"
cranial capacity of the gorilla is seldom
more than 600 cubic centimetres.
It s an open secret that the world at
large lias never been more than half per
suaded of the truth of the Darwinian the
ory. Science, however, carrying back all
living things to the primal cell of pro
toplasm. the first dull, living thing in a
dead world, lias insisted that all living
things whatsoever are of provable rela
tionship. Step by step those who upheld
th s theory have fortified their position.
The waters have been explored and the
earth iias given up its secrets until to
day science points proudly to the discov
ery of the ape-like man, confident in its
assertion that the last link lias now
been found.
Grant that all ihis be true, and there
seems to be no logical reason why one
should question the importance of this
last discovery, what a picture of the de
scent of man can now be drawn. First
there was on eartli without form and
void, a hot lifeless mass floating about in
space. Then the Laurentian rocks should
ered up out of the receding waves.
Countless ages followed. Millions and
millions of years passed and plants ap
peared. Why they came, and how, even
science with all its wisdom cannot tell.
More ages went by and then at last
there came the first form of sentient life.
It was the vital spark but it was burled
in dull, sightless, sluggish things, incap
able of feeling or sense, and with but
one ambition—to grope out slowly and
blindly in search of motion.
When life became motion the fishes and
the strange reptiles appeared and, in
course of time, the clumsy mammals that
went roaring through the jungles, fight
ing battles with their neighbors that
made the very earth shake.
The coming of the monkey marked an
important epoch in the world's history.
In the monkey the instinct of self-preser
vation was more strongly developed than
in any other inhabitant of the earth. His
first impulse was to take refuge in the
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trees, which tlie greater beasts could not
climln but as his brain developed he be
came* more on rin Ing. He walked more
èrect and by exercising In's intelligence'
defended himself from his foes.
At last the time came when the bigger
and wiser ape crossed the last chasm. He
selected a cave and there made for him
self a home. He devised a weapon—a
club. He selected a mate and protected
her as he protected himself. Rudiment
ary speech was on his tongue. It is
true that he was still litttle more than
beast. He dragged raw meat to his lair
and growled over it as he gnawed it in
liis corner but the bony structures that
have been found prove that at this step
he had passed beyond the animal stage
and had entered upon that glorious cam
paign that should at last make him mas
ter of the earth.
The remainder of the history is an old
story. What lias been wanting to com
plete it. to make it perfect was the type,
half man, half beast, that should mark
the spot where the transition had occur
red. Darwin could not find it. The
scores of scientists who have spent tlieir
lives in their attempt to complete Dar
win's work met an obstacle here that
they were unable to surmount. They
could find the last beast and they could
find the first man, but the thing, that
should be neither man nor beast contin
ued to elude them.
At last, however, the mystery has been
solved. In the island of Java the re?
mains of the ancestor of man has been
found. In appearance he was not a gen
tleman to be proud of. He had a heavy
jaw. a protruding abdomen, a low and
narrow forehead, and short, powerful
limbs, covered with hair. While he
walked erect his foot could still grasp a
limb but not easily. Yet, if occasion
required, he could climb a tree nimbly
enough. His excursions to tlie tree-tops,
however, were made only upon the ap
proach of a dreaded foe. for his lif ewas
spent on the ground. His home was a
cave but weapon he had none. His food
was chiefly raw meat, which he obtained
by personal encounter with the animal to
be devoured. *
Just when this creature existed it is
difficult to state. Professor Haeckel ex
presses tlie opinion that he became ex
tinct about 3,000 years before Christ, hut
this is a point that is still very miK'h
open to discussion. In fact it is actually
of little importance to us as compared to
the fact that by this discovery the chain
from man to animal has been perfected
and the "missing link" is a missing link
no longer. R. A. RADFORD, M. A.
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GREAT WEALTH OF
TORIA.
QUEEN VIC
We have often heard that the queen of
England is an exceedingly rich woman,
but few people are really aware of the
enormous wealth she possesses. Its full
amount will never he known, for the wills
of royal personages are not disclosed. As
mere items of lier present income, how
ever, may be mentioned the yearly sum
of £30,000 which parliament alloted to her
spouse, Prince Albert, and which has been
paid her ever since his death as the wid
ow of that pensioned personage. Her
mother, the late Duchess of Kent, left her
£8.000 a year. Thus, nearly $200.000 an
nually goes to swell her private purse,
wholly outside her royal revenues, which
nobody mentions in any exact terms and
of whose real amount nobody save cer
tain reticent officials are perhaps aware.
Individuals it is well known, have on sev
eral occasions bequeathed thequeenlarge
fortunes. Her property in jewels alone
is something prodigious. Her gold plate,
stored at Windsor Castle, and brought
to London for use at.court festivities at
Buckingham palace, is of vast value. It
chiefly consists of dishes, flagons, stands
and shields, and lias been accumulated,
through many past generations, by the
monarclis who preceded her. Other treas
ures in the way of furniture, apparel,
household ornaments, tapestries, rugs,
carriages, horses, etc., would reach huge
sums if reduced to pounds, shillings and
pence. Unless I am greatly in error, all
the royal palaces are exempt from taxa
tion .and the state defrays the huge ex
penses of maintaining each.
It is now and then affirmed, and not
without truth, that a president of the
United States has more power than the
queen of England. But Ids yearly £10.000
makes a piteous showing besides that co
pious stream of gold which pours continu
ously into the coffers of Windsor. And
when one thinks of the £100.000 per annum
given the Prince of Wales, and the small
er, yet regal, income distributed among
t his brothers a nd sisters, one realizes the
' tremendous financial benefits which roy
alty obtains in one of
of the world—Edgar Faw
I Weekly.
MILLIONAIRE REPORTER.
the richest notions
irVwcett in Collier's
a\\<eu in er I
i
Colonel Sheffield Phelps, owner of the j
Jer«ey City Journal, was the richest j
newspaper * reporter in America several
years ago, sajs the I liiladelphia evening j
Post. From his father, the late William
Walter rhelps, he inherited a fortune of
several millions, and under his active and 1
practical management he has made his I
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newspaper the foremost jouinal of 1 ,e
state. At the end of Ills first year lie was
bitterly attacked by his political enemies,
, who brought libel suits for many hun
dreds of thousands of dollars against him,
but lie won easily in the courts. Since
then he has been a powerful factor in
Hudson county, and his course has been
signally indorsed by Governor Voorhees.
The colonel whose title comes from ap
pointment on the staff of Colonel Griggs,
lives in one of the show places of the
state, directly opposite New York city,
on the crest of the Palisades. The fam
ily estate comprises more than 3,000 acres.
It is probably the costliest farm in Amer- j
ica. The land is worth in the neighbor
hood of $3,000,000 for building purposes, j
Once while on the World staff lie was j
sent to report the wedding of the daugh- j
ter of a Wall-street man recently from .
the west. The reporters were met at the |
front door bv a trained servant, who j
quickly separated them from the guests |
and led them to the host's private room, j
w lie re the banker met them in person and
gave them typewritten slips containing
the Information they were sent for. Then
champagne was opened and the hanker
took some cigars from a drawer in his
desk. .
"Have one," he said to Phelps. 'They re
genuine conchas. I import them my
self." ,
"Thanks," said Phelps pleasantly, as
he took the cigar. "Have one of mine.
They're real ascura maduras."
NOT AT ISSUE.
First Lawyer—You are a cheat and a
swindle.
Second Lawyer—You are a liar and a
blaekguar!
The Court (softly)— Come, gentlemen,
let's get down to thedisputed point» of
tite case.
Two Dogs of High Degree.il
ONE IS THE BIGGEST DOG IN THE WORLD, THE OTHER IS THE
SMALLEST, AND BOTH BELONG TO THE KENNELS OF J. PIER
PONT M ORGAN
J. Pierpont Morgan, besides dallying
in stocks and influencing railroad deals,
takes a prominent part in the raising of
full blooded dogs, and at his kennels on
the Hudson river he has the Hnest assort
ment of high bred dogs in the United
States, probably in the world. Last
spring there was an epidemic of poison
ing. hundreds of valuable dogs disap
pearing or were found dead along the
Hudson where it is lined with fine es
tastes. One morning ten of the finest of
the Morgan dogs were stretched stiff and
stark within their enclosure. That night
a burglar alarm system extended over
the entire estate. A little later Mr. Mor
gan's most valuable pug engaged in a
single combat with a neighbor's prize
eat. The dog was so seriously injured
that lie died.
But there are other stories to be told
of the Morgan kennels. One is of the
possession of a very fine breed of Great
Danes of enormous size. Contrary to
most high bred dogs the Morgan Danes
are strong and gentle. They are a pecu
lar grey and are enormously valuable.
The opposite extreme is the English
terrier, one of which, full blooded and
stunted, weighs only nine ounces; it is a
pet of Miss Morgan.
wet
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THE LARGEST DOG IN AMERICA IS GREAT DANE, THE SMALLEST IS
AN ENGL ISH TERRIER.
The raising of high bred dogs in this
country is fast becoming a business. The
Gould kennels have yielded a very nice
income for their owner and the Morgan
dogs, from being merely pets of the own
er have gone all over the world. Few
are sold, but many are given away, the
kennels of the czar have received three,
and many have gone to the Prince of;
Wales' kennels. !
I xine men out of every ten are fond of
dogs. Only one man in a thousand
knows anything about them. Mastiffs, j
Newfoundlands poodles, pugs, King
i Charles and Blenheim spaniels, collies, j
j f ox terriers and St. Bernards, have all in [
j turn enloyed an era of public adoration, j
and only a few years since everybody
who could afford it was sending to Rus
j g ; a f ol . Russian wolf-hounds, while more !
recently. the Mikado's kingdom was be- 1
j ng secured for Japanese spaniels. I
1 Mastiffs, bloodhounds, bulldogs, collies. !
I terriers and greyaounds have been man's
companions for many, many years, but
UIl til thirty years ago there was no fixed !
standard, and as a result, there was no f
fixed type. Mastiffs were used for pro
tection in the fifteenth century, but it is
probable that in those days every big !
dog was a mastiff. Massive of skull,
powerful of frame, with enormous girth
of chest, and eyes with a general bearing
that denoted a generous disposition, com- |
bined with unflinching courage—such is
the mastiff.
St. Bernards have now completely j
eclipsed the mastiff in popular favor. To
Switzerland, of couise, belongs the dis- ;
tinction of first having reared the breed, :
j but to E|ls]an( ] belongs the right of hav-j
■ made it what it is. Strange to say, ;
j of a] , the S p eo j me ns claiming Switzerland |
j as the ]and of birth, only one of the j
j r ô U gh-coated variety has been worthy of
. consideration compared with those bred j
| j n È n gi an d. Switzerland, however, has j
j K)T p n to the world the most beautiful,
| ", noot h-coated specimens. Originally
j th b reed was a cross from the mastiff
and pro b a bly the Pyreneean sheep dog, 1
with a dash of hound thrown in. Its
virement size and beauty of markings and ,
"hadings and grandeur of expression :
have all been obtained by selection. Not
satisfied, however, with letting nature ;
t
ike its course, breeders have overtaxed ,
,natters in their desire for size and bone j
bv feeding pupics, among other things,
with phosphates, cod liver oil, tonics and .
all sorts of drugs As a consequence, the
latter generation of St. Bernards have '
a's much constitution as an exotic and I
not as much vitality.
The original breed of Newfoundlands
was entirely black with a shade of bronze
running through it. A genuine yew ;
l'oundland is hardly ever seen. A craze
at one time burst forth for black and
white New foundlands. These were
merely a cross with a St. Bernard, and,
although the variety has become an e»
tablished one, it can never be entitled to
rank with the black.
Bloodhounds, from whom all hounds !
have sprung, are now confined to a very ■
few kennels. As a rule they are highly |
nervous and sensitive, and are so excit
able that they prove too much for thei
patience of an ordinary man.
Deerhounds, from tlieir activity, com- 1
bined with great strength; from their j
hard, rugged, picturesque appearance;
from their courage and fearlessness, are
entitled to take the place of many more
popular breeds. A breed of great an
tiquity, a breed which graces a boudoir,
and yet is capable of pulling down a stag
is surely to be regarded with greater
pride than a huge mass of flesh, whose
only interest in life is to eat, sleep and
knock over furniture.
The Great Dane, thepride of Germany,
is immortalized by Prince Bismarck's
preference. Built on much heavier lines
than the deerhound, he, too, combines
power with activity. In fact he more
nearly approaches iho ideal of the com
bination than the Scotch dog. With a
long, cleanly-chisled head, powerful
enough to hold a mad bull, an arched loin
and general outline betokening both
speed and strength, the Great Dane, is
certainly a magnificent specimen of a
dog. Yet he is very self-opinionated, re
sents any admonishment, and when his
blood is up—he is very hot-headed—he
fights like ten thousand devils. But
those who have the facilities and the in
clination to spend about $5,C00 would in
the end be well repaid.
Of all the small breeds the fox terrier
has been the most successful in winning
popular affection. From the rowdy, har
em-scarem favorite of the huntsman, he
became the "pal" of the dude, the wag
gish, humorous companion of the boudoir
and llie faithful trusted friend of the
poacher. All walks of life were tlie same
to him; dry bread and water was just as
succulent as cold chicken and crackers
and cream. Men have devoted a lifetime
to trying to perfect him, and there are
hundreds of others willing to do the same
thing, impudent, vivacious, full of dev
iltry, incapable of mean action
-unless
killing a cat be one—a fox terrier is at
once a companion and a source of the
greatest amusement.
Irish terriers, bigger and mon
fill than their distant relative.
more pmver
the fox,
have thesame inclination for a rough
and tumble, the same sense of humor, but
they are quicker to resent a correction,
Other terriers who are as companion
able and preferred by many, are wag
ging, fiery little Scotchmen, the stolid,
unflinching dandle dinmonts. the rowdy
shaggy-coated Skyes, and the Bedling
tons the pride of Newcastle pitmen,
Of toys, pugs for a time held unbound
ed sway. Full of conceit, precocious and
consequential they are as bright as a new
penny. A sense of tlieir own importance
lias often been mistaken for stupidity,
but when they choose nothing is more
; alive to grasp a situation,
| The King Charles, Ruby, Blenheim anil
j Prince Charles are all entitled to rank
among the most beautiful of toys. The
j King Charles with its blue coat and
j rich tan shadings, and the Blenheim with
its more delicate color of red and white,
being the older breeds are worthy more
consideration. Their cousins, the Jap
1 anese spaniels, or pugs, as some authori
ties insist upon calling them, as a toy
, in the most pronounced sense, is. with
: the exception of the Yorkshire lerrler,
more entitled to the name. Little deli
; cate creatures of a few ounces in weight,
, it would seem that a dog in this boister
j ous, rugged climate would wither up like
à flower. Without the constitutions of
. the n*lier toy spaniels, they must be
treated more In the light a hothouse
' plant, and essentially as an ornament.
I Not so with the Yorkshire or English
terriers with their long, silky coats shin
ing like burnished silver, shaded in parts
with a warm glow of deep gold. These
; little frames, embedded in their beau
tiful coats, are impudent and n
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and
in defense of their mistress would tackle
a lion. With these descendants of the
Skye ends the category of the more popu
lar breed».
TOILETTE FOR A YOUNG MISS.
& serviceable school dress for a young
mi^s is made of tan colored camel's hair
figured with irregular size dots of ox
blood red. The bodice is tight fitting
with a vest of fancy silk from whicii turn
revers of oxblood red velvet. The revers
are trimmed with three rows of silk
braid, the outer row being finished with a
fringed edge. There are also small epaul
ettes of the velvet over the caps of the
tight fitting sleeves. The bodice is made
upon a fitted lining whieh is fastened
with hooks and eyes though from an out
ward glance it is secured by means of two
large fancy buttons.
The skirt is tight fitting over the hips
with the fullness laid in two plaits at the
back. It is trimmed in yoke effect with
the silk braid and the waistband is con
&
eealed beneath a belt of oxblood red vel
vet.
Camel's hair is one of the most serv
iceable materials for steady wear from
the fact that it is loath to betray the
strain imposed upon it. It's greatest re
quirements is a good stout lining, not ne
cessarily silk, but a splendid substitute
which is warranted not to stretch after
contact wtih disagreeable winter weath
er.
An all-braid trimming is often use!
upon a camel's hair gown and is much
more desirable than velvet or satin from
an economic point of view.
A HALLOWEEN EVENING GOWN.
Tunics have become so important a
feature in skirt decoration that even bail
gowns will not be without them. Here
they are seen developed in lace, smoothly
laid over the dress skirt looking rather
like a deep yoke than a tunic.
Sa|tin brocades go wonderfully well
with these lace tunics. In fact the two
materials seem naturally to enhance the
beauty of each other. A skirt of pale
madder satin brocade figured with
raised designs of shell pink produced a
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splendid iffect combined with a black
I lace tunic on a recent evening gown.
I The skirt was close fitting over the hips
' without fullness at the back. The tunic
! was edged with a narrow band of black
satin, and there was a belt of the same
material confining the waist.
The waist was low necked and short
sleeved. The neck was tilled in with
j ruffles of black lace which were gathered
j upon narrow ribbons.
! Lace tunics are very serviceable, too. in
I that they can lie used as a drapery over
j old gowns that have become faded or
soiled in front.
HELEN-GREY PAGE.
BOY AWARDED A FORTUNE.
A fortune of $21,000 was awarded Otto
Schwartz, eight years old, by a jury in
Judge Kavanaugh's court yesterday for
the loss of his limbs in a street ear acci
dent two years ago, but It did not keep
the little fellow from his playmates this
morning. In front of his home, 442 Jeffer
son street, the boy was playing marbles
in the midst of a shouting crowd of
youngsters. His artificial limbs did not
seem to handicap him very much in hi»

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