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[ " I I Tile Foundation of a Modern v » wuuuauuu UI A 1UUUCI11 Utopia. DREAM OF CERTAIN MEN Several Colonies Have Been Started But Failure Has Been the End In All of tne Attempts. 'As long as the world endures there will nrnhnhlv be men whose ambition it P robab,y be men f ™ DU , , will be to attempt to solve the social problem. Ever since the days of the Brook farm, to the inception of which so many of the brightest men and wo men of this country gave their best thoughts, men have dreamed of Utopias in which all should reside together so peacefully that the world would be taught a lesson that would persuade it to »°m a r» of °! d f °. a more ideal method of living. Almost every year has seen the organization of some new Utopia based upon the vision ary dreams of social reformers. In the ôry these projects may have been cor rect. If they could be successfully car ried out they might be able to solve all the social difficulties of the world, but in nearly every instance the theory, when put Into practical operation, has met some insurmountable obstacle and the Utopia, founded upon such honest hopes, became another of the many failures. The story of Brook farm is a familiar one to every student of American affairs. Never in the world has such a colony been organized under more auspicious circumstances, and yet the Brook farm disappeared as thoroughly as many of the less pretentious colonies of later years. Since the days of the Brook farm there has been no less than 100 projects - -JS * m <*r On 1% « ' **•< A SETTLER VIEWING HIS IDEAL HOME. ef this kind proposed In this country aionQ, and there have been but few of them that have shown any reasonable indication of stability. i FoJ years California has been one of the favorite spots for these experiments in sociology. In 1886 six of these colo nies, each with its different conception of ditties and diet, dress and labor, were started in that state. Four years later every one of them had vanished, and it has been the same way with scores of others founded on the widest range of bases, from a diet of nuts and fruit and two hours' labor a day, to the models of early Christian life, or the principles of French or German socialism. One of the most hopeful of all these Utopias was started on the slope of the Howell mountain, near Sacramento, about eight years ago. The colonists had plenty of money and they threw themselves heart and soul into the pro ject. It was their theory that ten years' work would be sufficient to support a member in comfort all his days, and this might have proved to be true if ill for tune had not come. Suddenly commer cial conditions changed, wool became so cheap that it was no longer profitable to clip it, the price of cattle dropped 50 per cent, and, to top all, the crops were a failure. Then came the mortgages and finally, after a brave struggle, the end. Another equally promising colony was started in Los Angeles county a few years ago. The colonists were Polish men and women, each of whom was gifted in literature, art or music. They, too, had money in plenty, and all they desired was Jo find a place where the sun would always shine for them, the earth blossom at their bidding, and where, above all else, there should be no political spies or literary censors. In California they found such a spot, but as none of them knew anything about agriculture, things did not prosper as they had anticipated, and they finally re turned to Poland poorer but wiser for their experiment. In the early seventies a band of colo nists bought 400 acres of land in a lovely California valley. There were 50 French men and about 30 Americans in the party and their purpose was to live up to the socialistic teachings of Etienne Cavet, who held that individualism was the cause of selfishness, and that selfishness was the mother of poverty as well as of nearly all the human ills. In this colony individualism was sternly checked. If a colonist desired a new suit of clothes or wished to read a book; if a mother wished to flog her child, the action could not be performed without the consent of the ruling committee. For a time these principles were literally carried out, but one by one the colonists became dissatis fied. and when the crops failed the hand ful that were left were glad to sell their property for the proverbial song. A similar fate met the famous Schlae gel colony that was also Instituted in California. In this Instance everything opened up brightly for the future suc cess of the colony. There was no lack of money and the land was fertile. As in other cases, however, the unpleasant traits of human nature began to develop in spite of the efforts of the founder of the sect. The women began to quarrel among themselves and the men were dra^rn into their broils, until at last, dis couraged by the apparent failure of his life's project, Dr. Schlaegel went away and committed suicide. A few weeks later the colony was visited by fire, and from that Ha dissolution was only & mat* ter of a short time. Few of those who have read the works of Bellamy and who liave dreamed of an ideal commonwealth, where each citizen is equal to every other citizen and all [ are alike, with a common fund, are I aware that the ideas embraced in the I maxim—"equal rights to all and special P r,vile » e8 to none"—were actually ap plied as far back as 1845. At that time what Is now historically known as the Bethel colony was founded on the wind ing shores of North river, in Shelby couny, Mo., by Dr. William Keil, a Meth odist preacher, of German descent. The history of the Bethel colony is re markable for the fact that it is the first recorded instance in which the princi ples of communism were ever success fully applied for any length of time. In this case the doctrines of Dr. Keil were communism pure and simple, except for the fact that the founder regarded him self as exempt from the general rule in that he retained the guiding hand over his people. He reigned as completely as sovereign ever reigned, and under his administra tion the colony prospered and grew rich and this condition of things continued 'until 1858, when the founder, who had been 8e,zed Wlth the western fever, de , termined to found another colony in the country that had just been opened. He left Missouri, but he never returned. Be 1 * ore his long journey had ended he fell sick and died and his body is now burled beneath the Oregon pines. The history of the Bethel colony after his death is so brief that it may be Aid in a few words. Without the executive head things went from bad to worse and the colony gradually dwindled away until nothing was left of it but a memory, — • • ■ - — - - — - The history of Ruskin, Tenn., fur nishes another instance of a colony that although founded under the most favor able circumstances, was unable to weather the tides of fortune. Ruskin was founded about five years ago by J. A. Wayland, afterwards a resident of nann 4 - f ». — _ 1 j. « . • Kansas. For a time it was one of the most promising co-operative colonies in the country, and its paper, the Coming Nation, had a circulation of more than 15,000 copies. Wayland was a thorough believer in the principles of communion, and his faith in human nature was perfect. He believed that man needed but an oppor tunity to develop the best that was in him .„a he gave them tha, ôptmrtunltÿ* the»? ^aua^li 1 arose 8 het W m0n w 8 'i an a the A, a quarre . 1 aro . se between Wayland and the men whom he was trying to help, The result of this quarrel was that even tually the founder withdrew from the town that his money had built up. For a few years the colony continued to exist, however, and once it looked as if it wpuld actually be a success, but more trouble came, the minority appealed to the courts, law suit followed law suit, and finally the town of Ruskin went into the hands of a receiver. Such was the history of one x>t the latest effort of men to apply the princi ples of communism to every-day life. It is true that there are colonies today and i Hk sk 111«' 1 f— 1 * M % / Ah 1 1 / i 5 ^ $ -V •*•••. : SK » 5? RACE SCENE IN "BEN HUB" NOW RUNNING IN NEW YORK. It is, of course, possible that some of them may be able to prove themselves ex ceptions to the rule of the universal fail ure of such schemes. The little town of Plnton, in Colorado, is a prosperous com munity, and everything is ideal at a so cialistic colony on the Zuyder Zee. A new Bellamy colony has Just been established near Lancaster, Mass., and another communisiic colony has been in stituted in Missouri by a band of think ing vien and women from St. Louis, and w ¥1 5* ft - «near*' X CHILDREN PLAYING AT RUSKIN. If , „ , ,, , x it. 19 not at a " impossible that some of t Dol llipil 1 i fl PQ 1 icta 1YI Cl tf hn a Kin tn Political idealists may be able to P rove that the time has come when peo fjle are ^ood enough to work without money and live without quarreling. HIS IMPRESSION. ---- —a me programme say that composition was in?" asked the "Hrtin* lrAir i , « at „ th ,f Programme say rrlMdat^^laMiea? concert. "* l ' I don ,' ) t believe it was in any particu lar key," answered Mr. Comrox. "It sounded to me like i Washington Star. a bunch of 'em."— Mrs. A.—"There goes that Mrs. Tilling ford. Did you know that she had left her . . nusiDano. | Mrs. Z.—"Gracious, no! Has she really left him?" I Mrs. A.—"Yes, left him In the drug ! store while she prices some laces. You couldn't get him in a bargain rush."— I Chicago News. J GOSSIP. FENIAN RAIDS ON CANADA. Reports from Omaha announcing at great length the secret intention of cer tain persons or organizations vaguely de ! scribed as "Irish" either to invade Can ada or paralyze dhe Dominion govern ment with the fear of invasion recall the facts that colonel, or general John O'Neil, "Inspector general of the Irish army, died at Omaha in January. 1878, ori/1 *Un ♦ V» lr.d ♦ .-V-, f. ♦ ITS _ — 1 wi and that he led the most serious Fenian raid into Canada which has ever succted ed in crossing the border. In 1865, the close of the Civil war, left without occupation a large number of American citizens of Irish birth or par- entage who had seen much active mili- tary service. Most of these were im- - and many of "them had distinguished iai J oci 1 u.c, luUDl Ul lllcsl; W 11 c 1 III-» foiled with a venomous hatred of England, n.t'onTy EVSSHTES gift of physical courage, but also by the display of higher qaulities as lead ers. Among the latter was Colonel O'Neil, a graduate from West Point. Cir cumstances seemed to indicate to the bit terly anti-British Irish in this country the expediency of a great military organ ization in furtherance of their political designs. Seven years before, in 1858, the "Fenian" movement, with a name taken from one of the legendary heroes of the primitive Irish races, had begun in Ire land. The "Fenian Brotherhood" now sprang into what was to be a thoroughly organized and equipped existence in this country. It was reported at that time to have a following of more than 50,000, as well as a regular government, with an office "in the neighborhood of Union Square." Its organization was certainly complete enough to encourage it to at tempt a rising in Ireland. James Steph ens, its famous "head center," landed in that country, but was arrested and put in jail. The Fenian rising in 1865 failed, and while Stephens remained incarcerat ed the leaders on this side fell out among themselves. Of the two factions In the Brotherhood, the credit of the first attempt to raid British North America, with the United States as a base of operations, belong to the "O'Mahoneyites." In April, 1866, they assembled a force of 500 men at Eastport, Me., and there received 750 stands of arms, paid for with the money of their secret sympathizers. Upon com plaint of the British consul at Eastport, the United States government confiscat ed these arms. The British, on their * ide ' bavI ? B . be< r n forewarned, sent troops from St. John to Campobello, N. B„ the threatened point, and, on this side, Gen eral Mendi, with a body of regular troops, kept watch at Calais, Me. So ended the first attempt, remembered among the ^ ubbb F ters Fenlinism as "Killian's Rota. Next month, however, Stephens himself, having escaped from prison, arrived in New York, and his arrival was the oc casion of something like a reconciliation between the two factions, whose animos ities had been accentuated by the fail ure of the Campobello attempt. Steph ens himself is said to have been opposed to another border raid, but Roberts, the leader of the anti-O'Mahoney faction, now triumphant in the councils of the Brotherhood was determined on such a plan. Neither their own dissensions nor the seizure of more than 2,000 rifles by the United States government could turn them from their purpose. The Fenians from many states assembled and held a secret convention at Buffalo, and from Buffalo disquieting rumors of a Fenian invasion crossed the Canadian border. Between the middle of May and the end of that month there was great military activity in Canada. Reinforcements of regulars, sent from England, had al ready reached the Dominion, and all along the Niataga river and the borders detachments were ready to resist the in vaders. On May 31, however, when Col onel O'Neil, the officer selected by "Gen eral" Sweeney, of the Brotherhood, to carry out this enterprise, crossed the riv er at Buffalo, he found Fort Erie, on the British side, unoccupied. The numbers of the force which actually landed on Canadian soil have been variously esti mated. They probably did not exceed 900. For more than a day and night O'Neil's little army ranged about the neighbor hoood of Fort Erie, and it is said to the the credit of their leader that while they! foraged upon the inhabitants, after the manner of regular invaders, their con-1 duct was generally free from excesses. The actual collision did not take place until June 2, when the Queen's Own vol unteers, from Toronto, and the Hamilton militia met the invaders near the village of Ridgeway. Details of the battle are not plentiful in history. The losses on the British side were put down at 9 killed and 30 wounded, and they retired upon Ridgeway and Port Colborne. A Cana dian tradition says that a volunteer bugler sounded the "retreat" by mistake. At the same time it is certain that a large number of Fenians were taken prisoners by the Canadian troops. If the defenders of the Dominion retreated, so did the in vaders. Falling back on Fort Erie, O'Neil found that General Grant, having arrived at Buffalo that day, had prompt ly stopped the forwarding of supplies to the Fenian army across the river. Noth ing was left for them but to get out of Canadian territory as quickly as possi ble, Which they attempted to do. though 700 of the entire force were cut off by the United States gunboat Michigan. General Barry, to whom had been as signed by Grant the guarding of the fron tier on this side, exacted from a large number of his Fenian prisoners their parole "to abandon our expedition against Canada, desist from any viola tion of the neutrality laws of the Uni ted States, and return immediately to our respective homes." The number of whom this parole was taken must have includ ed hundreds Who had not succeeded in crossing the Niagara river. Two weeks later a proclamation was is sued in Buffalo signed "M. W. Burns, brigadier general commanding Irish army at Buffalo," requesting the "brothers" to return to their homes. This proclama tion bears witness that "the extreme vigilance of the government of the Uni ted States frustrated our plans. It was the United States and not England that impeded our onward march to freedom." But in the meantime otner alarms of Fenian invasion had disturbed the Can adian frontier. These were mostly ex aggerated, if not altogether groundless. On June 7 the Fenian general, Sweeney, was arrested at St. Albans, Vt., from which place, already memorable for a "raid" made upon it from Canada by confederates during the elvil war, it had been intended to make descent in some force. The- Fenian army, it seems, had actually crossed the frontier, but upon the arrest of their general and the ap proach of a considerable body of Cana dian volunteers they retired. After this Fenian raiding of Canada languished. O'Neil himself made two more abortive attempts, one in 1870, on lower Canada, the other in the following year on Manitoba, In the latter case the vigilance of the United States gov ernment manifested itself in the prompt action of the troops at Fort Pembina, Minn. Colonel O'Neil never suffered any very long or severe imprisonment for those violations of the neutrality laws. He spent the last six or seven years of his lift in Nebraska, lecturing and promoting schemes of Irish colonization. The after effects of the "raids" have appeared chiefly in interchanges of requests be tween the government of Washington and London for clemency toward captured in vaders, in the growth among the British of a more perfect fai'th in the honesty of this country's intentions, and in the more thorough organization and equip ment of that Canadian volunteer and militia army which is now able to spare several thousand men for service in South Africa without fear of denuding the Can adian frontier of its defenders. NEVER BUDGED HIM. Malachy Hogan, the well-known dark street pugilist referee, has been in a grip and grumpy mood for the iast two days, and his friends watch wearily K-st Ma lacliy spring upon them and rend them in fury. Mai achy was chatting about the Transvaal war the other afternoon, and felt at peace with all the world, when a vast shadow darkened Ids doorway and a Turkish gentleman of gigantic size and gorgeous oriental garb came ambling in. Several friends of Mr. Hogan accompa neid the Turk, who was introduced as Mr. Osman, late of Constantinople, a wrestler of much repute in his section of the world. Mr. Hogan gave the right hand of fel lowship to the Turk and all went well for several minutes. Thc-n, as the Turk stood for a moment with his back turned to Mr. Hogan, an evil counselor made Ma lachy a bright suggestion. "Grab the Turk from behind and throw him on the floor—not rough, but just playful like, you know," came the voice of the tempter. "He's a good-natured cuss and he'll think it the best joke of the season." Mr. Hogan is large and strong and skillful with his hands. He smiled as he made ready and then dove at the Turk. Catching Mr. Osman about the waist, he gave a mighty heave. Mr. Osman never budged and did not even look around, continuing his conversation as though Mr. Hogan had been some small mosquito on the buckle of his belt. Mr. Hogan braced his hind feet against the floor and tugged like a fox terrier yanking at a curtain. Mr. Osman con tinued to chatter. Malachy strained un til his eyes bulged out ar.d his suspenders cracked and snapped. Mr. Osman kept right on talking and never a muscle re sponded to the huge exertions of Mr. Ho gan. At last the strain became too great; Mr. Hogan's feet gave way und flew up behind like two 'ight Joyous birds and he was poised in midair, his arms still grasp ing Mr. Osman's manly figure and his white wa : stcoat rending fore and aft with the tenseness of his effort. A howl rang nut from the assembled multitude and Mr. Osman, turning his head in an inter ested way. looked half-round at Mr. Ho gan and remarked in his own Moslem tongue: "I beg your pardon; did you wish to speak to me?" CONSTERNATION. Uncle Reuben—"Yes, I've read this here almanac all through. It's mighty Inter estin', but the feller what writ it couldn t think of nothin' but diseases and one par ticular kind of medicine." Uncle Joshua—"Humiph! He must have been one of them there fellers with one idea that we read about." THE SUN DID IT. "I didn't know Boxer was so bow« legged." "He wasn't until a few days ago. He went to sleep In the sun, and that wooden leg of his warped." 'One of the strangest and most dis tinctive features of New Orleans is the presence of collecting tanks for rain water in almost every door yard. Meteorological kites are developing valuable results, and the experience de rived Is used to make improvements. Aj height of 12,000 to 13,000 feet has been at tained. .