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Greeks Lose Hope of a Restored Empire
m -sc «m :%1 lr L I i 7 I ^&y!\ ; fc; 5^ D Ä >* 'A*\ &>» *r. mm S«M*î /***?' *■?* 2 Nfc$*«R To Win Back the Power It Held Ages Ago Has Been the Dream of the People, but Now They Find Themselves Surrounded by Intrigues of the Warring Countries Which Are Ready to Sacrifice Them on the Great Checkerboard of Nations. 'S Greece to suffer the harsh fa le of other small nations? Such na tional life as sin* lias had eauie not from the grace but from the self interest of the great powers which are engaged in war. Now both sets of belligerents question lier right to live lier own national life. The question will constantly recur whether t Iiis is the beginning of the end of the aspirations and ambitions of the Greek people for the restored Hellenic empire. The evolution of present day Grecce lias been the process of a century. When the Interest of England caused some recognition to be given the Greeks in their revolt from Turkish rule nearly a century ago the nation which was erected comprised little of the ancient Greece. It was mostly the sterile mainland. The isles of Greece of which Byron wrote were not all in cluded in the semi-independent Greece that was permitted to live. Nor was there enough even of the mainland. It was long after the partial ousting of Turkey that a Greek statesman said, ♦'Without Crete. Kpirus and Macedonia Greece has no future." In time Crete and others of the Aege an and Ionian isles became integral parts of Greece, but there was still much of the ancient empire that was lacking. The interests of the great powers did not require that too liiu-li should be taken from Turkey. Greek statesmen knew, however, that to real ize their dream the Aegean archipelago as well as the Ionian sea and a section of the mainland of Asia must come un der a common sovereignty. Some historical observers have de clared that the Greeks of tho mainland are In reality little more than an Al banian offshoot and are in no real sense the descendants of the ancient Greeks. Grecian identify and nation ality, in their view, have remained in the Ionian and Aegean islands and in Asia Minor—this, too, notwithstand ing the loss of customs, dress and lan guage of the conquered, having been absorbed in all those respects by tho Turkish conquerors and retaining only their religion as the significant marl; of their racial identity. The ill advised war of 1897 against Turkey was an effort to realize the national aspiration for re-establishing the ancient Greek race throughout the bounds of the former Grecian empire. The disastrous defeat at the hands of Turkey would have caused tho entire loss of national life had not the be nevolent powers, in the furtherance of their selfish interests, interfered and deprived Turkey of the legitimate ter ritorial booty of war. The Grecian aspirations were not Btlfled by these disasters. After a brief period they gained fresh vigor, and Greece awaited lier opportunity. This came during Italy's war on Turkey for the acquistion of African territory. During this period, when Turkey was on the defensive. Greece managed to absorb several of the islands in the Photos by American Press Association. 1.—Greek mountain artillery. 2.—M, Venizelos. 3.—King Constantine, Prince Andrew, brother of the king and Crown Prince George. Aegean the majority of whose people were of Grecian nationality. Then came the coalition with Servia and Bulgaria and the swift blow at helpless Turkey. This gave Greece more of the ancient empire. The quar !'(• over the division of the spoils by the Balkan states, the successful war of Servia and Greece on Bulgaria and Bulgaria's humiliating defeat added more land. Macedonia thereby became Grecian territory, with the valuable port of Saloniki, and it looked as though Greece had a future at last. When the world war began the hope of the Greeks, as given voice at the time, was to come out with nothing lost and something gained. How this could be done without plunging into the vortex and taking chances was not explained by the peace party. In the circumstances the most that could be hoped would seem to be to come out with nothing lost. The country was divided into two camps. On one side was the so called German party, insisting on neutrality. King Constantino's consort, Queen Sophia, the sister of the kaiser, lias been credited with paramount influence in aligning the king and the court party on Germany's side. History may be more just to King Constantine than to condemn him as a mere partisan of Germany. It may give him credit for wisdom in seeking to keep the country out of war, since the allies offered no greater probability of success than did Germany, or it may have to include him in the cate gory of kings who have been dethroned by the revolution of their people for making a mistake. The Greek national party, which is the war party, under the lead of Veni zelos. the great Cretan, was for joining the allies. If this had been done a year ago the Dardanelles expedition of the allies might have been placed in a position to insure victory in the near east by the armed resistance of (!recce. In the view of Formier Venizelos and his supporters the hazard of war was no greater than the hazard of peace, and it promised far greater reward. It would have meant ilie realization of Grecian empire on the Asiatic main land and the fuller absorption of the Aegean islands into Grecian national ity. These were the terms, and the al lies undoubtedly were ready to make the bargain. King Constantine. notwithstanding the predominance of sentiment favor able to the allies, blocked the Venize los program. The Creton resigned as premier, and parliament was dissolved. The new election returned Venizelos and his supporters by a large major ity. Nevertheless the king was still able to block tile program, and the par liament was again dissolved with the new election under conditions which enabled only a small portion of the electorate to voie, since the mass of the voters were under mobilization in the army. Blundering British diplomacy un doubtedly had something to do with the failure of the Venizelos program. Although England offered Cypress un conditionally to Greece, she was unable to give assurances, about Macedonia. The island of Cyprus would add much to the homogeneity of the Grecian em pire, but not so much as to equalize the subtraction of Macedonia, Not withstanding that all the Greek states men had regarded Macedonia as essen tial to the future of Greece, and even Premier Venizelos himself had declar ed that in any arrangement with the allies there would be no concession of Macedonian territory to Bulgaria, Brit ish diplomacy, having a childlike confi dence in Bulgaria's good faith, was ac tually seeking a slice of Greece's Mace donian territory for restoration to Bul garia. The failure of Greece to observe her treaty with Servia when the central powers invaded that country and the pretext that the treaty only contem plated defending Servian territory from aggression by the other Balkan states or by Turkey is one of the more re cent ch.-.pters in the world war. The Greek neutrality party, in justifying Greece from making a sacrifice of her self regardless of the treaty, offers some plausible grounds at a time when neither treaties noi international law is observed by the great belligerents. But the,question will recur whether, with the central powers now menacing her on the land side and with the al lied powers controlling her coasts and with the possibility of domestic revo lution. the sacrifice would not have alïored her better prospects of ail ex panded national iifc. In the event of victory of the allies they will be under no obligation to encourage tho accretion of further Grecian territory, and while Germany may, as the price of Grecian neutral ity, give some assurances about Bul garia and Turkey, it will be difficult to restrain these armed allies from getting back some of the territory that they have lost to Greece during recent years. The Greece of today has an area about equal to Maryland and a popula tion somewhat under ri.oiio.utio. Athens and Piraeus, its port, have a popula tion of L'Tö.nuti, and the Macedonian port of Saloniki, before the militarv occupation and the intlux of refugees, had 170,(10(1 inhabitants. The possession of t lu» numerous is lands is absoluefly essential to tho cx 1 istence of Greece. Nothing now imli | cafes that the dream for the restora 1 tion of Grecian empire on the Asiatic j mainland will be realized, but there is : still the possibility of a fairly strong Greece if the islands are not cut oil' : and if Macedonia is retained. Most of the export products of Greece are from the islands, /ante is ilie I chief source of the currants, anil so j per cent of the olives are produced in j the Ionian islands. The mainland pro duces very little of the other fruits and agricultural products which are ex ported, and. while Tliessaly produces wheat, there is not enough of ii for local consumption. Greece has a fairly good navy for a small country. Besides the Idaho and the Mississippi, which were purchased from the I'nited States, i he navy was strengthened two years ago by the ad dition of a cruiser said to have been obtained indirectly from Chile. When the war began a new naval arsenal replacing the old one at Sala mis was under construction, at a cost of $14,000.000. British engineers di recied the work. These naval facili ties undoubtedly will he availed of in itio allies in the present emergen-y. The merchant marine of Greece was approximating a million tons at the outbreak of the war. Less than 20 per cent of this was engaged in traffic with Hie Levant. Greek ships were found in all parts of the world. A transatlantic line between Greece and the l ulled States had just been estab lished. with tho King Constantino, a lo.oi m ) ton vessel, in commission. The consort of the Constantine. Queen So phia. of similar tonnage also was to be placed in the transatlantic service. Kailroad construction was part of the dream of new Greece after the Macedonian territory was acquired. An American company was supplying the material for what was known as the Junction line from Papapouli to Topsin. This was about sixty miles in length and was to link Greece with her new northern provinces and place the peninsula in direct touch with western Europe. It was even thought that this route might be taken for the overland English mail to India in place of the Brindisi route. No one now ex pects to live to see English mails car ried through Germany and Austria and Greece to be transshipped at Grecian ports for India. Whatever the Greece may be that emerges from the world war, the coun try will be like the rest of Europe in having added to her national debt. A part of this debt was contracted dur ing the war with Turkey in 1897 and was under the control of an interna tional financial commission. This com mission administered the government monopoly of salt, petroleum, tobacco, matches and other commodities and controlled custom houses. It applied a certain part of the receipts to the payment of interest and the amortiza tion of the debt and turned the balance over to the government. The receipts from the sources controlled by the financial commission amounted in the last year for which statistics are given approximately to .$1 tj.o00.000. Greece, under the international re quirements. also assumed a part of the Turkish debt in connection with its ac quirement of Macedonia and other Turkish territory, but the apportion ment of the amount has not . et been made and cannot he made in present circumsta nees. In 1014 the government arranged a new loan of $»<>.000.000, and it was i stated that one-half of this had been ; paid over into the treasury before the war began. Efforts were also made to j float a loan in the United States; but i while a war credit was extended by an I arrangement with American financiers, ! no loan was floated in this country. The national debt of Greece at the opening of the war was approximately $270,000,000, and. in addition to this amount, there was a considerable float ing debt. If Greece be drawn into the vortex one set of the belligerents or the other will become her créditer for a much larger amount. The dream of a restored Grecian empire as of ancient times vanishes, but the debt remains. The Sunday School Lesson SENIOR BEREAN. Golden Text.—I. et us run with pa tience the race that is set before us (Ileb. xii. 1, 2). Verse 1.—What is faith? But what, asks the reader, is faithV It is a legitimate question, and the writer seeks to give a practical an swer. It is not an exhaustive defini tion he seeks, but a sort of working hypothesis by which to recognize its presence. How are we to determine the presence of faith in a life? "Faith,'' says the writer, "is assurance of,'' or, as it is translated in the mar gin. the giving substance to "things hoped for.'' II is "a conviction." or test, "of things not seen." In other words, l'aith is the inner possession that gives us certainty of that which lies in the future. It demonstrates to us and so gives us the conviction of the reality of things that are not seen, it is that by which the invisible becomes real and the future present. Are these words mere sound without meaning? No. says the writer, for this intangible possession has inspired tho heroism and self sacrifice of the saints in all the past ages. What carried them through disappointments and trials and even death? This faith in the reality of the blessings promised in the future. Verses ."2-40.—A glorious band. Having given this general descrip tion of the purpose and work of faith, the author launches forth into a dem onstration of the way in which it has influenced the lives of ilie Old Testa ment worthies from Abel down to the Maceaboan heroes. l'aith is to be seen in the creative work of God, in the sac rifice of Abel, the translation of Enoch, in Noah's building of the ark. Abra ham showed his faith by abandoning his house for an unknown laud, and the faith of Sarah was shown in the birth of Isaac. Furthermore, the faith of Abraham was shown in the offering of Isaac, on whose life the promises depended. Isaac and Jacob showed their faith in the blessings which they gave their sons; Joseph his in the pre diction of the exodus. The whole ca reer of Moses, from the time of his birth onward, was a record of faith. Faith was shown in the crossing of the Bed sea. in the downfall of the walls of Jericho and in the preservation of Itahah. Thus the writer rose to his climax? "What more shall I say?" An oratorical question. The names fol lowing fall into two classes—those who performed deeds of heroism and those who endured persecution iu the power of their faith. "Gideon. Barak. Samson. Jephthah," four of the judges. "David"—the war rior kiug and national hero. " Sam I Topics of the * I Sport World i «H* « M n t x f nM» ♦♦♦*♦**♦**♦* *«* *H* C * *$* * ♦ •*$»*£* 4* Many Big League Clubs Sold. Many changes have come in the own ership of major league ball clubs dur ing the last few years. Since along in 1»11 and ]»12 there have been eight changes of ownership in Ilie sixteen clubs, and before the year is out there may be at least two and probably three others. The Bed Sox were sold to Joe I«'in liiu by the MeAleor interests in P.I12. Phil Ball and Charles Weeghnian se cured the Browns and Cubs (his win ter. Death brought about ownership changes in the Giants and Senators a few years ago. The Yanks were sold to Huppert and Huston last winter. The acquisition of the Braves by ,Iini Gaffney was only a recent one. and William Baker became owner of the Phillies about three years ago. Now the Braves lune been sold again to Percy Ilatighton and others. The-Giants probably will be sold. Ilie Cleveland American club is on the market, and the Cardinals also may be disposed of by the present owners. Moakley to Train Ten Years More. Cornell's veteran athletic trainer. .Tack Moakley, has signed a new con tract to coach the track and cross country teams of the big university for a period of ten years. M oak ley's present contract with Cornell will ex pire at the conclusion of the intercol legiate championship meet, which will take place on May 20 and "_'7 next, and the new arrangement will go into ef fect immediately after the champion ships have been decided. Trainer Moakley came to Cornell seventeen years ago. and under his su pervision Cornell has won six intercol legiate track meets and fourteen an nual cross country meeis. Since tho opening of Schoellkopf field and Bacon practice hall two years ago the num ber of men out for track work has ex actly doubled. Columbus Club Not For Sale. The Columbus club of the American association will not be sold, now that peace has been declared in baseball again. Stallings Wants Wingo. George Stallings o.' the Boston Braves wants to get 'atelier Wingo from the Beds if possible. Herzog will hardly I let Wingo go because he will need him I very much in this year's battle. New Boats For Cup Raccs. Motorboat men of Detroit. Chicago, Cleveland and Toledo are planning to build speed craft to compete in the j Gold challenge cup races Co be held in ; Detroit next summer. The cup was j lifted by Miss Detroit in Manhasset I bay. Long Island, last year. uel"—last of the judges and first of the great prophets. "Subdued king doms — referring to such conquests as those of Joshua. David, and perhaps Ilie Maccabees. "Obtained promises"- not the ones mentioned iu verses 1 :: and .!». but many others. The writer describes the lot that has befallen God's servants in all ages. Like the patriarchs, all these -had witness" (testimony) "borne to them." but they "received not the promise." But that is no reason why we should give up our faith. These heroes did not re ceive their reward then because God deferred it in order that they may enter along with us upon the realiza tion of the promised inheritance, which is the meaning of the phrase "that apart from us they should not be made perfect." Versos 1, 2.—The personal application. Why Ulis long list of heroes? Why have we been carried to this mountain top of exaltation? The writer leaves us in no doubt. Whirling upon us while the thrill is still in our blood, he erics, "Therefore lei us also." The he roes of the past furnish us examples for heroism on our part. Since I hey en dured them, let us do our part now. lie sketches a striking figure of Christians as runners in a stadium "compassed about with so great a cloud of w itness es" who have run the race and won it ill the past. So closely are they pack ed that they appear like a cloud. We are to obey all I he training rules of the victorious runner. We are 1<: "lay aside every weight." just as the run ner exercises uni il all superfluous flesh is removed. "The sin which doth so easily beset us" not only our dar ling sin, but. all sin which, as the mar gin translates it, doth closely cling to us. like a long cloak, hindering our progress and tripping us. "With pa tience," steadfastness. It is a long race, and we must run to the goal w ith out loitering. "Looking" away from everything else, even the cloud of wit nesses. and "unto Jesus." who stands at the goal with the prize, lie is the great example and the one who per fectly exhibits faith. There is no word for "our" in the original. "For the jo.v." This may mean "instead of the joy" which was his in the glory of heaven, but more probably "in view of the joy" that became his when he had won the prize of salvation. This gives a new aspect to "the cross" and "shame" of his earthly humiliation, and his present position "at the right hand of the throne of God" shows how his faith was rewarded. And he. it is to be remembered, is our example. What was true of his sufferings should be true of ours. What is true of his glory will be true of ours. LONDON'S BRIDGES. The First of These Historic Structures Named a Juvenile Game. Can you remember when you were a lit lie tyke and played "London bridge is falling down" during recess or at children's parlies when the girls were not too much dressed up? The game always ended with a vigorous pull of the opposing sides, with the result that usually both forces went down in the dust. Did you know that that child ish gaine was one of the genuine an tiques and that it could trace its origin to a real historic fact? The first bridge over the Thames, at the headwaters of navigation, about half a mile above the Tower, was so old that the story of it.s construction is lost in a maze of myths, lis fall, however, is a matter of record. If happened on the Kit h of November. 101». anil it was the result of the most devastating storm and the most terrifie and sudden Hood that London had ever seen. That first bridge was entirely of wood. It was not rebuilt for almost a century, and ^ie second bridge con sisted of stone Ttrelies, resting tin deep piling. II was forty feet wide and al most a thousand feet long» Houses were built along the bridge, also rest ing ou piling, until the bridge looked like a city street. These buildings were swept away by lire in KM!. In the middle of the bridge was a draw, with a lower, on which were exhibited the heads of Englishmen who were ex ecuted for treason against the kings of England. The present London bridge was begun in 1N2-I. a little way above tho old one, ami it is of such massive construction that there is little danger of ils ever "falling down." St. Louis * ; lobe-1 lemocrat. THE GARDEN OF EDEN. It Is Said to Have the Most Trying Climate In the World. The chief peculiarity about Kurna is that the natives believe the place where they live is the exact site of the garden of Eden. The climate of Kurna is acknowl edged to be the most trying in all the world. The heat is terrific iu the sum mer time. It is claimed that the Brit ish government has a record of I.V.) degrees in the shade upon the bridge of a boat anchored in the river at Busreli. a little to I he south. The missionaries at Busreli tell of nights when the thermometer regis ters not less than 12Ô degrees. British sailors bound for the Persian gulf in the summer time usually desert if they can. Perhaps in Arizona tin» thermom eter rises nearly as high, but there is the dry air. while in the Persian gulf it is exceedingly moist. The Europeans at Busreli must pass the days in underground chambers, or serdaubs, while a native boy pulls a huge fan. or punkah, suspended from the ceiling to keep the air ill circula tion. The nights are spent on the roof, for it is impossible to sleep lie low. In the winter time the air seems ex ceedingly cold, for the marshes are filled with salt, and as the wind sweeps over the plain the moist air is peculiarly penetrating. Frequently the Arab, benumbed by the cold, falls from his horse.—Christian Herald. TACT AND A SPEECH. Why Disraeli Changed His Mind About Speaking In French. In Lord Itoilesdale's "Memoirs" there are some stories of Lord Beaconsfield. The following is particularly character istic: "There was one amusing incident in connection with the Berlin congress. One day il was announced that on the morrow Lord Beaconsfield was to ad dress the assembled statesmen and that he would speak in French. Lord Odo Bussell, who was a master of tongues, heard this with no little alarm, for it was well known that: Lord Bea conslield's French was very much of the Straf ford-iil te-Bowe type. Lord Odo. always clever, went to him and adroitly turned Hie conversation on to the next day's conference. Lord Bea consfield announced his intention of speaking. "'In what language do you propose t o s] teak ?" asked I .on I Odo. " 'In French.' was the answer. "1 am afraid that will be a very great disappointment to I he colleagues.' said Lord Odo. 'You see. they know that they have here in you the greatest living master of English oratory, and of course they are longing to hear you.' "The great man smiled his pleasure, ami the speech was delivered in Eng lish. Lord Odo was wont to declare that he never knew whether Lord Bea consfield took the hint or accepted the compliment." Drills Tiny Holes. Making an adding machine required the drilling of ten holes in a steel plaie a thirty-second of an inch thick, each hole to be accurate to a thou sandth of an inch, yet no bigger than a pin in diameter. Such a problem stopped the manufacture of the ma chine on a commercial basis until the inventor of the calculator could invent a means of solving if. The machine devised stands but twelve inches high. The drill which was built carries ten spindles, each holding a drill of No. li Morse gauge, which i; about the size of a pin of ordinary use. Each little .sliver of steel that does the work is driven by a belt operating through a cam head and therefore works at the same speed as that of its neighbors. The actual drilling requires ten sec onds.—Illustrated World. An alarm clock for the deaf that awakens a sleeper by administering light blows with a paddle has been in vented in England.