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FEAR THE MANCHINEEL
POISONOUS TREE 18 DREADED BY AFRICAN NATIVE8. It» Sap Deadly to Humanity, and Peo ple of the Country Take Precau tions When They Seek Shel ter Beneath It. Everywhere the manchlneel bears the reputation of being a most dan gerous tree, In the shade whereof it is never safe to rest. This evil repu tation has it« origin in the poisonous qualities of the sap and fruit of a tree of this kind found in Africa—the arborescent euphorbia. This tree has a magnificent but most peculiar ap pearance, and the thickness of Its fo liage, which wholly excludes the sun, seems to Invite the traveler to rest beneath its branches. The negroes have a way of taking advantage of the delightfully cool shade, and at the same time avoiding the danger from the poisonous droppings of the tree. They erect a thatched roof below the lowest branches, and then repose in peace and security. Tremaux, the French explorer, has perhaps given the best account of these aboresc.ent euphorbias. While taking a view of Cacane, he asked one of his negroes who stood near him to seat himself under a great eupherbia that stood in the fore ground. At first the native hesitated; then after a while he decided to yield, but not without raising his eyes many times iu apprehension toward the branches of the tree. The Frenchman was about to olimb upon a rock to break off a branch, but the negro seeing him approach fled in terror from the shade of the deadly tree, gesticulating wildly and giving utterance to termB the foreign er could not understand. The man's gestures, however, and a few Arabic words uttered by one of the bystand ers, "Do you mean to die?" made the explorer understand that In touching the tree he was running a serious risk. But the thing was done, and the broken branch in the Frenchman's hand. Immediately a' milky fluid flowed forth, in much greater quantity than he could have imagined from what he knew of these plants in other countries, covering his clothes and penetrating even to his skin. The features and gestures of the negroes expressed their fear. They made the traveler understand that if the white juice touched one of the numerous wounds which he at that time had on his body he would die, and that It was dangerous even to let it touch the skin. It is with this juice that certain of the African tribes poison their weap ons lü order to make the wounds in flicted thereby mortal. They first thicken it until it acquires the con sistency of paste. Then they dip in it the points or blades of the weapons they wish to poison. Trees of this kind are often 24 feet In diameter and 70 feet in circumfer ence. The greatest height is 24 feet. The trunk and large branches are of hard wood; the smaller branches con sist mostly of pith and parenchyma, sustained by a slender woody fiber. Making the Nation's Money. The government of the United States last year made money at the rate of $4,812,734 a day, the total of bills printed amounting to the neat little sum of $1,443,820,320. There were just 848,129,172 separate bills, ranging from the lowly $1 to the mighty $10, 000 note, few, however, of the latter— perhaps a couple of dray loads. If these notes were laid end to end they would reach nearly twice around the globe; or, should the government choose to spread them on the ground, they would cover an area of 1,550 acres. But should stacking be pre ferred, the last note, when placed, would be something like 27 miles from the earth. The cubic contents of the pile of notes printed in a year are about 17,000 cubic feet. It costs the government $9.25 a thousand to print these notes, the cost for the yearly issue being $3,690,000.—Har per's Weekly. Rich Land Owned by Indians. Land which was absolutely forced on the Snake Indians in the Creek country, Oklahoma, is proving the source of inestimable riches, owing to the discoveries in that section by oil prospectors. So far not a dry hole has been found In this marvelous field, and on the land of the Snakes are •cores of rigs engaged in drilling. About nine years ago the government decided to allot arbitrarily to the Snakes. All the good land was gone, and they gave them allotments In a section of the Creek nation where the land was considered worthless. The federal government set aside 160 acres for each Snake, the land being classi fied at $2 an acre. Since oil waa streak the rights of the Indians have teen carefully guarded by the department ef the interior. Difficult Lesson. Johnny's teacher had tried in vain to impress upon his mind that it was Incorrect to say "have went." As a last resort she told him to remain after school and write upon the black board 100 times the words "I have gone." When after much effort the labori ous task was completed Johnny wait ed for the teacher, who had left the room, to return. Finally In despera tion he wrote beneath his completed task: "Miss Smith, I have wrote 1 hare gone' 100 times and have went home." HIGH NUMERALS in QUESTION Daflnlteneaa Not Thoroughly Estab lished When the System Waa Frist Introduced. In ancient times there was no pe sullar carefulness about the value of high numerals. The later Latin clas sical writers differentiated more pre cisely, though even among them we find traces of the same looseness which the Greek atuhors showed, for instance In the word "myriad," which meant either ten thousand, or a great multitude. So the Latin word Mille itood for "a thousand" or "a large number," the sense being gathered lometimes by the case employed In the governed word. However, the let ter M was commonly employed to represent 1,000 in what Is known now as the Roman Numeration. MM meant thousands loosely, or two thousand if Intended to be used precisely. A dash over the M changed its value from a thousand to "a million" or probably to "an exceedingly high number." Two M's with a dash over both, might read simply "millions and millions" If ora torlcally employed or If with precision simply two millions. His Embrace Too Ardent. Pressing his sweetheart in so tight an embrace that he broke hoi neck, a lover, after springing ashore from a steamer by which he had re turned home unwittingly caused an unfortunate tragedy on the quayside at Genoa, Italy, a few days ago. The daughter of a French officer bad awaited the arrival of the steamer bringing her lover from China. The ship appeared, and the young man saw his sweetheart waiting for him. He rushed across the gangway, clasped the girl In his arms, and sud denly her eyes closed, while her form lay heavy in his arms. At first he thought she had fainted in her joy at seeing him. Several people stand ing by went to the young man's as sistance, while others ran for a doc tor. But the girl was dead-. In hi« eager embrace the young man had pressed her head so tightly that hei neck broke. When he realized that she was dead, the distracted lover at tempted to jump into the water, and was with great difficulty prevented. He was removed to the police station, sobbing: "May the judge be merciful and sentence me to death, as I do no« wish to live." Hsd Flerece Fight With Cheetah. Attacked by a Cheetah, a Dublin custom house officer named Graves, had an alarming experience recent ly. He was set upon In Rathmlnea, one of the suburbs, by the cheetah, an animal of the leopard type found In India and Africa, which had evident ly escaped from its captors. He had his dog and a thick stick with him, and he succeeded in killing the ani mal. It was while walking near Grovenorsquare about midnight that the strange-looking animal, somewhat larger than the Irish terrier, suddenly sprang at him out of a hedge near some gardens. With a hoarse bark it gripped his trouser leg near the knee, tearing the cloth. He shook the ani mal off, and a fierce struggle then took place between It and his dog. Seizing the dog's throat, the cheetah dragged him towards the hedge, but Graves caught the cheetah a heavy blow behind the ear with his stick, and killed it. The surmise Is that the animal was brought from abroad by some resident with the object of making it a pet. Gave His Life for Cat. Trying to save a cat, the mate of the Hull trawler, Sea Horse, was drowned off the west coast of Scotland a few days ago. The vessel was fish ing off the coast, when the ship's cat, of which the mate, Ernest Ellis, was very fond, fell overboard. Ellis leaned over the ship's side to rescue it, and the skipper, Edward Durbin, hurry ing along grasped him by the legs. The ship gave a lurch, and both skip per and mate disappeared Into the water. The skipper and the cat were saved. Ellis was carried away by the heavy sea and drowned. Electric Lighted Binnacle. A novel type of binnacle provided with oil lamps as well as electric light ing is now In use. Both sources of il lumination are located below the com pass, the oil lamps being hurricane proof and so arranged that no smoke can penetrate Into the compass cham ber proper, while the electric lights, contained within the binnacle, are most accessibly placed and easily regulated by means of a controlling switch to give reduced light for taking night bearings. This binnacle has been especially constructed for hous ing a modernized type of the so -called light card compass, Invented by Sir William Thomson, and commonly used In the British navy and merchant marine. One Good and Sufficient Reason. Lawyer (cross examining the wit ness)—You say your name is Flavius Josephus Parkinson. Is that right? Witness—Yes, sir. Lawyer—How did your parents hap pen to give you the name of Flavius Josephus? Witness—There's only one reason 1 know of, mister. Lawyer—Please tell the jury what that is. Witness—Gentlemen of the jury, 1 happened to be born a boy. Motherly Admonition. "Now, Anne, how often have I told you always to cast your eyes down when you are in the street? It make* a good impression, and besides you sometimes find a cocketbook thai way" CHEAP CUTS OF MEAT PALATABLE AND NUTRITIOUS, IP ONLY PROPERLY PREPARED. Some Directions Here by Which the Good Cook May Easily Cut Down the Cost of Living Without Impairing Menu. Meat may be rather tough and of ooarse fiber and yet contain more actual food value than cuts that are more tender and much higher in price. But on account of the tougher fiber, Ignorance or carelessness on the part of the cook and the deplorable habit of swallowing food much after the manner of the reptiles we find these parts of the animal more difficult to digest and therefore condemn them. The good cook, however, will give the preference to the so-called cheaper cuts and parts of meats, as she knows that with them she can develop a variety of flavors that will charm the taste at each separate meal even though the same kind of meat be served. Meat Loaves and Molds—These, when skilfully prepared, are delicious and served hot with a good gravy or sauce are preferred by many to a roast joint, and when sliced cold are far more tasy than a roast that has had its juices dried up and the flavor dissipated. Veal Loaf No. 1—Chop three and a half pounds of raw veal very fine, us ing a wooden bowl and chopping knife as the meat chopper does not answer so well for raw meat. Add a slice of salt pork and chop with the veal, six crackers, rolled fine, or the same quantity of bread crumbs; a piece of butter the size of an egg, salt, pepper, powdered sage or other savory to suit the taste and two beaten eggs. Mix all thoroughly together and pack tightly in a deep oblong tin, well but tered. Pour some melted butter over the top, cover with more crumbs, and pnt another tin, or buttered paper, over the top. Bake two hours in a moderately hot roasting oven. Un oover and bake the top brown. This may be served hot or cold, cut In slices. Veal Loaf No. 2—Take any pieces of cold cooked veal; pound of fresh pork and chop very fine. Add a kitch en spoonful of bread crumbs, a little minced parsley, a large onion minced fine, salt and pepper to taste, a dash of cayenne, and half a cup of cream or milk. Mix thoroughly and pack closely In a buttered bread pan. Lay a bay leaf and large slice of fat salt pork on top and bake about forty-five minutes. It served hot, make a to mato or mushroom sauce to serve with It. A brown sauce made of a few slices of calf's liver fried nicely and a calf's kidney cooked the same as chicken giblets makes a nice rich sauce to serve with veal loaf or croquettes. Marbled Veal—Take any piece of cold cooked veal; season to taste and pound in a mortar or in chopping bowl with wooden potato masher. Moisten with a little Worcestershire sauce or tomato catsup. Skin a cold boiled calf's tongue, cut up and pound to a paste, and add a large tablespoonful of butter, or enough to make a soft paste. Pack in alternate layers in a crock ; press down solid and pour clarified butter over the top. This is good to slice down for luncheon or Sunday night supper. Cherry Moss. Soak one tablespoonful of granu lated gelatin in three tablespoonfuls of cold water five minutes. Add one fourth cupful of boiling water, and as soon as gelatin is dissolved add 1 % cupfuls of dark red canned cherries (stoned and cut in halves) and one half cupful of juice drained from the eanned cherries. When mixture be gins to thicken add the whites of two eggs, beaten until stiff, and a few grains of salt. Turn Into a mold first dipped In cold water, and chill thor oughly. Remove from mold to serving dish and surround with whipped cream sweetened and flavored with va nllla. 8prinkle with Jordan almonds, blanched, cut in shreds lengthwise, and bak'^1 in a slow oven. Luncheon Bread. There is no better way of uslnt sour milk than In making a spoon bread after this reoipe: Break an egg Into two cupfuls of sour milk and then ■ift Into the mixture a generous cupful of ■ 'alte cornmeal, half a teaspoonful o alt and half a teaspoonful of soda; beat this mixture thoroughly. Grease a pan or dish holding about a quart and put It on the stove till It Is very hot; then pour the batter Into It and bake till a delicate brown In a hot oven. This will take about a quar ter of an hour. Serve Immediately Beef, Italian Style. Take two pounds of rump, flank or neck beef, trim off rough edges, wipe off with a damp cloth and place in a deep dish. Add a sliced onion, car rot, turnip and a Bllce of fat salt pork; add one cup water, one tea spoonful salt, one-half teaspoon pep per, cover tightly, place in a moderate oven three hours. Place meat on plat ter, add one-fourth cup tomato cat sup, one-half teaspoon mustard to the browned juices in the dish, pour over the meat; serve with boiled macaroni —E. Morrison. Cooking Vegetables. When oooking vegetables remem ber that all vegetables which grow above ground should be put Into boil ing water, and all which grow under ground In cold water— with the ex ception of new potatoes. heredity seen in the hair Some Views on the Inheritance of the Color of the Covering of the Dome. "When examined under the micro scope human hair discloses two kinds cf pigment, and only two, a red dish yellow and a sepia brown. These two colors are Independent factors in heredity and may occur separately or In combination," writes Gertrude C. Davenport in the Independent. "The yellow seems to be a diffuse pigment, but the brown occurs in granules or specks. The size and number of the granules, as well as the intensity of the pigment, vary In differently col ored hair. The intensity of the yel low pigment also varies so as to form different shades of red, while a com bination of red with brown gives some of the more sober shades of red hair. When the brown pigment Is Intense It forms black, and if red be present In such cases It Is completely covered. "Red hair is best seen when brown la absent, and when two bright, red haired people marry all their children will have red hair, for there will b<; no brown pigment to cover it over. On the other hand, when a black or very dark brown haired person of un mixed origin marries another with red hair, none of the children will have red hair, but If the dark haired parent In such a union has red hair In his ancestry, then half of the chil dren will have red hair. When there Is red hair In the immediate ancestry of both parents, although both may have dark hair, then a few of the children—three-sixteenths, In the long run—will have red hair." "In the blond-to-black series wa find that the intensity of the hair color in the offspring does not exceed that of the darker parent. Thus two blond-haired parents have only blond haired children. The parents cannot transmit what they themselves lack. When one parent has flaxen hair and the other light brown, then 50 per cent of the children will have hair of a light brown shade. When one par ent has dark brown or black hair and the other light brown, then about half of the children will have dark and half light brown hair—that is to say ; half in population of some size. In a family of only two children It would be possible to have one dark and one light haired child, but this would be a ▼ery rare chance Indeed. The collec tion and interpretation of statistics ol hair color are complicated by the fact that the hair of the young is frequent ly much lighter than In adult life, while the hair of the adult, when mixed with gray, is not Infrequently reported as of a lighter shade than It really possesses." Our Rude Language. There are great differences between the richness and poorness of words In the different countries. Japan is certainly richer in its words than Eug land. Just for example, we have more than nine words for the word "I." The emperor alone calls himself "Chin," and all his subjects call themselves "Watakushi," "Washi," "Ore," "Boku," "Sessha," "Soregashi," "Ware," "Yo," etcetera, according to the circum stances. The second or third person changes as much as the first person, "I," and all the verbs accordingly. When I started to learn the English, first time, I asked my American teach er, "What shall I call myself before the emperor?" He said "I;" "Then what shall I say before my parents?" "I." "What shall I say before my men friends? And before my women friends?" "I." "I was quite astonished and said: "How simple, but how rude is the English language!"—Yoshio Markino in the Atlantic Magazine. Red Haired Spinsters Rare. Though red hair of the Titian tint remains at least till middle age, a correspondent points out that until the other day he had never seen or heard of a red-haired old maid. "I know that real red hair in girls and women is extremely rare nowadays, and anthropological ex perts say that the red-haired race is fast disappearing. A friend to whom I mentioned my one and only meeting with a red-haired spinster there was not an old maid to be found whose head was crowned with the real red hair." A member of the Royal Anthropo logical Institute said: "I am inclined to think that few if any girls with the Titan-tinted hair fail to get married. Men like them and they are quickly married. Nowadays red hair is rare chiefly because only when both par ents have red hair does the hair of the child take on the same color. And a man and woman with red salr rare ly marry."—London Mail. Montana Governor's New Home. Governor McDowell's new house Is about the homeliest looking home In town. There is about the place a sort of restfulness, an invitation to come in and make yourself at home and stay awhile. It is a big, rambling, old fashioned house, with tall pillars and flat roof, lots of windows and a cheerful front entrance, all suggestive of the grand old southern mansion, the hospitable home. After all. It is not a cheap looking house, for It Is made of brick and oth er masonry, and finished substantial ly, artistically, and at the same time without pretence of gaudiness or hint at the gingerbread effect—It is a homelike place, just the kind of a house In which any man would feel perfectly at ease.—Anaconda Stand ml MONTANA BRIEFS Butte grows happy as copper prices creep up. Mrs. Anna Agoa, well known and es teemed matron of Butte, died recently. The Milwaukee road will continue to push its extension work all over the state. The Montana State fair will occur at Helena, the state capital, Septem ber 22 to 27. According to reports, the great Ken dall mine at Kendall will not be opened again, for the present, at least Eight teams of shooters from the Montana National Guard participated in the state tournament at Helena this week. Rates on grain and other commod ities taking the same rates will be reduced to Washington points from Montana August 10 Ole Oleson, waiter at the Beaver sawmill camp, near Thompson Falls, was drowned recently in Beaver creek, where the went for a swim. Fire which recently destroyed the home of Mrs. Martha Miller at Ismay cremated her baby, which had been left asleep alone in the house while the mother went shopping. The Northern Pacific railway com pany will test out in the courts the right of the state to tax the reserva tions it has made of oil, coal and min eral rights in lands of which it has sold the surface rights. An active campaign is being.carried on in the state by game wardens in disarming all aliens in accordance with a gun license law passed by the legislature requiring that foreigners must have a written permit before they may carry firearms. A North Coast Limited train on the Northern Pacific, was held up by three masked men Saturday night a mile and a half west ol Homestake and about 15 miles from Butte. The at tempt resulted in a farce for the would be robbers and nothing was secured. The forest service is receiving bids for 80,000,000 feet of government tim ber on the Lolo national forest of Mon tana. The award of bids will be made at the expiration of one month, unless some of the bidders wish further time to examine the timber, in which case the award will be delayed an addition al thirty days. As the result of a failure of the stockmen and farmers to subscribe to the official brand book of Montana the state board has decided to discon tinue its publication, which has been annual. The failure has inspired a con clusion that the days of the open range are at end so far as the interest of the stockmen is concerned. Mrs. W. I. Higgins of Deer Lodge re cently visited Butte to solicit funds for the College of Montana in an effort to save the college for Deer Lodge and to thwart the efforts made by Great Falls to have the institution moved there. Great Falls has offered $100,000 and 40 acres for a site. Deer Lodge needed $30,000 to retain the collegt. Of this amount all but ;fi50U has been secured. STOCK AND CROP NOTES. This will be the best season for soft fruits ever enjoyed by the Wenatchee valley. It is now practically certain that $500,000 will be distributed among the growers before shipping of winter apples begins. Owing to the late spring the Yaki ma hop crop will not be up to the average, and present estimates place the total at 20,000 to 22,000 bales. Current quotations are around 15 cents, but growers are refusing to contract, anticipating higher prices later. The average condition of the apple and potato crops of the United States on July 1 was apples, 59.4 per cent, potatoes 86.2 per cent, according to statistics recently issued by the agri cultural department. The Pacific Northwest states rank well above the average. Montana, apples 80, pota toes 94; Idaho, apples 85, potatoes 96; Washington, apples 83, potatoes 96; Oregon, apples 87, potatoes 97. TRAIN HITS TREE—FOUR KILLED Passengers Have Close Call on Cop per Country Limited. Iron Mountain, Mich.—The engineer, fireman and an unknown man and a boy were killed, one passenger serious ly injured and six slightly bruised when the Copper Country Limited pas senger train on the Chicago, Milwau kee & St. Paul railroad from Calumet, Mich., to Chicago struck a tree which had been blown across the tracks at Cadeling, Wis. All of the passenger coaches remained on the tracks. PERU BANKERS ARRESTED. Guodoy Brothers of Lima Were Bound for Panama. Guayaquil.— Raoul Guodoy and his brother Gaston, prominent bankers of Lima, Peru, whose firm failed recently with a loss estimated at $500,000, were arrested here on their arrival by schooner from Caliao. They were pre pared to embark on another vessel for Panama. The Guodoys left Lima immediately after their failure was announced, on July 17. Wreck Near Spokane. Five men were injured, two proba bly fatally, Monday, when three cars of a Milwaukee work train, loaded with steel girders to be used on the new Milwaukee freight station, jumped a faulty switch near the outskirts of the city, plowed up the earth for 50 yards and landed on the main line of the road, tying up traffic for hours. IDAHO NEWS NOTES Wednesday, July 30, was University of Idaho day at the Spirit Lake Chau tauqua. The Lewiston -ClarkBton fair will be held at Lewiston, Idaho, September 29 to October 4. The Sandpoint city council has by a vote of five to two reestablished the redlight district. Preliminary plans are under way for the fifth annual Bonner county fair at Sandpoint, Idaho. Drilling conterts are to be held Au gust 16 in connection with the annual miners' picnic at Kellogg. J. Kunz Jr. was recently appointed postmaster at Williamsbury, Baunock county, Idaho, vice L. Weibel, resigned. Money has been subscribed aud the ground leased and St. Maries, Idaho, will erect buildings and hold a fair September 17 to 20 . The constitutionality of the act of the last legislature creating the state highway commission is attacked in an action filed in the district court of Ada county. The fire which has been burning near Matchwood for the last few days in the slashings is well under control, due to the work of the Pend Oreille Timber Protective association. The expenditure of $200,000 will be made at once by the Camas Prairie railroad in the extension and improve ment of the Lewiston terminals, ac cording to Superintendent F. N. Finch. The capital stock of the First Na tional Bank of Forsyth has been in creased from $50,000 to $76,000. Tho Bank of Commerce of Forsyth was or ganized with a capital stock of $75,000. The most costly land patent ever filed in Yellowstone county has beerv put on record by the Northern Pacific Railway company. It covers 1,199, 272.85 acres, contains 22,600 words, and the filing fee is $34.75. The last wool shipment from the Snake river country was made Satur day from Lewiston. Figures show that 20 cars, or approximately 700,000 pounds, have been shipped from Lew iston country this year. F. L. Sturm, to whom a franchise was granted by the Lewiston city coun cil last December to construct an ur ban and interurban railway, has asked for an extension of time to Feb ruary 1, 1914. The original franchise expires August 1. The pump house of the Harrison Wa ter company was totally destroyed by fire Monday at noon, and engine and pump are probably a total loss. The. fire is supposed to have caught from a spark from a locomotive which was switching near there. Representative French has had up with the interior department the ques tion of expediting a large number ofc land cases that are pending before the secretary of the interior on appeal and the delay in consideration of which is causing great hardship and loss to the persons involved. The supreme court, which has been, in session at Coeur d'Alene City for four weeks, has adjourned and will meet again December 1. Judges Sulli van and Ailshie left for Boise to re main indefinitely. While in Coeur d'Alene the court heard aigumen.ts in 27 cases and opinions nave been given in but two of them as yet. Judge Ail shie says more decisions will be lorth coming soon. Held a "Repair Day." Several weeks ago an Iowa dealer notified the farmers of his community that a certain Saturday would be "Re pair Day" at his establishment. This meant, as he further explained, that this particular Saturday had been set apart as a day on which ample pro vision would be made for h&rveatinf machine repairs for all farmers whe would make known their wants on that day. The farmers were urged to examine their binders, mowers, rakes, etc., and ascertain what was needed' in the way of new parts, then come to the dealer's store on "Repair Day" and meet a representative of the fac tory whose machines the dealer handles, says Farm Implement News. We are informed that the farmers' responded freely and when the day closed the dealer had orders for re pairs from many farmers who other wise would have waited until harvest was at hand, then expected the dealer to supply their wants immediately. Just why the dealer thought it neces sary to have a factory representative present is not clear, unless he be lieved that more attention would be paid to an announcement which prom ised the service of a factory man. Good repair service is one of the chains that bind the farmer's trade to the dealers establishment, but many dealers do not realize the importance, of adopting plans by which their cus tomers will be supplied with repairs promptly. They are inclined to take the position that it is up to the farm er to order repairs far enough ahead of the using season to insure the re quired service. But the wise dealer knows that farmers are traditionally careless about repairs. Most of them wait until the eleventh hour, then chafe under delay. Yet most of ,them respond promptly to any sort of re minders several times a year, and it make a practice of issuing repair re minder from the dealer. Some dealers-, is a highly profitable plan. Swims Like a Fish. Portland, Ore.—With hands and feet bound, Miss Ciaire Farry, a 15-year-old Portland girl, tonight swam the Wil lamette river, a distance of about. 600 yards. She did the fe: t in a little more than 14 minutes.