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The Benton weekly record. [volume] (Benton, Mont.) 1880-1885, June 09, 1883, Image 1

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How Sheep and Cattle Flourish
and Fatten on the Sweet
Grasses of Her Rich
A Paradise for Stock Growers,
Dairymen and Farmers-
l{apid Growl i and
Glowing Prospects.
1'o t:e. otler.L,.tic, : ivw.nturous minds of
to-'day the glowing future of the new
West and the rich possibilities they picture
there, make the new, rich and fertile see
tion, now being opne',i up by that miracle
-workingve gine of civiiization and en
lightmernt-the railroad-seem a very
Eden, a garde.a of the gods. The hidden
weaith and vast resources of Montana need
but tl I, ugii tuc'h of the locomotive to
3 i..I :tll , r: s of treas.re trove to those
who ha;tv the nerve and the disposition to
brave toil and privation for their sake. The
Pioneer Press has kept abreast of the pro
gress of this growing young giant, so far
as keeping the world informad of it is con
cerined, and will continue the good work.
Anent the theme, a reporter corraled Mr.
Paris Gibson, an old citizen of Minne
qlpols, and procee.ed to round up this
gentleman's store of interesting facts con
cerning Montana. Mr. Gibson is largely
engaged in the sheep business out there, is
a close observer and a man whose relia
bility needs no vouching for here The
series of queries and answers were as fol
"Is Montana much efa sheep country ?"
"Yes, sir. There is no section in these
United States better adapted to the raising
of sheep and wool."
"lHas the in(dlustry in mde much progress
"It has. There are now some 600,000
sheep in thi' Territory, probably 250,000 of
them being in thecounties of Meagher and
Choteau. 'T'hey are m:inldy blooded sheep
-high bred Meriinos. The first sheep which
reached Montana were driven in there
from the westward, coming from CQalifor
nia, up through Oregon, and from Ore
gon. This was ten years ago. The yield
of wool last year was 3,000,00) pounds,
and I feel certain that ten years from now
it will be 50,000,000 pounds per annum.
The business is yet in its infancy. A few
sheep wert' driven in ten years ago, but it
is only within the past four or five years
that it was begun in earnest. Montana
wool is the highest priced and most popu
lar of Territorial wool that reaches Boston,
our chief market, because it shrinks less i
and is cleaner than any other. Our ranges
are clean.
proper lies east of the Belt range, a spur of
the Rocky mountains which leaves the
main range at Dearborn, near the north
ern edge of the Territory, and (xtends
southeast to Livingston, lying north of the
Yellowstone and extending to the Black
foot reservation. This industry is grow
ingmore rapidly than any other in Mon
tana. It is the thing for men of small
means, for cattle raising is fast passing in
to the control of men and companies with
large capital, who will soon have it all.
There is no trouble between Montana
sheep and cattle raisers, as there has been
in Colorado, New Mexioo and Texas. In
deed many of our stock men own both cat
tle and sheep, and all dwell together in
unity. We have now two railroads and
the river to ship our wool by, and we ex.
pect the water route to be kept open and to
always act as a check upon excessive rail
rates. We shall ship most of our wool by
river from Fort Benton and from points
on the Northern Pacific along the Yellow
atone hereafter. We have had low rates
heretofore and expect them in the future.
Our rate on wool to Boston has been lower
than the rate from any other wool grow
ing section as far its we are. We do not,
as a rule, feed our 0lIeep in the winter, as
the range is usually free from snow, but
the winter of 1880-81 was an exception,
and the heavy loss of -heep, averaging ,20
per cent throughout ti1 , Territory, warn
ed growers l.ett they must be prepared.
Hence they have put up an ample supply
of hay since then, but have not fed a
pound. By ca!.ful stackin. this hay can
be kept four or five years, so that the ex
pense of guarding against severe winters
is not heavy. Last year the losses of sheep
were riot over 2 per cent in the Territory,
which i alhnost as well as the Eastern
growers, who hoube and feed them, do.
Montana mutton has a fine reputation,
and we have a good market for it. Men of
good horse sense, active and diligent, can
get rich in the sheep business in Montana.
We don't want any other class there."
"How about cattle raising ?"
"The situation is somewhat peculiar.
Cattle were first driven in there from the
West, the same as sheep, and a few years
ago outsiders began to learn that ]outana
cattle were the finest for beef In the lapd.
The resulý is that the fTerrltory has bpell
praptically d raine of its fstock' cattip,
(steers, calves, etc,), so that now prices are
high, stock steers ranging from $6 up.
English companies with large captial have
in the last two years gone out there an]
bought heavily, driving their purchases
over the line and up Into the Saskatche
wan river valley, around Fort )felLeod.
The cattle growew out' there are very en
terpriilng. They are constantly. bringing
out blooded stock-lmpo.uted Polled An
gus, Herefords, etc., and are breeding up
and lmaproviag their herds rapidly. Fotr
beef our steersM aetsurpas.ed, and ina ad4
dltion to this it is a well-known fact that
L. in Chicago are from Montana. We do not
feed our cattle a spear of grass nor a kern
h el of grain the year around. We do nol
need to. The losses for the past five years
have hardly averaged 5 per cent per an
"How abotui the dairying business-is
any attention paid to it?"
"Not yet. Thus far we have devi'teid
our attention solely to raising beef cattle,
and there is nodairying or cheese-ma:king
worth mentioning in all Montana. The
field for it, however, is as good as ca hlie
found anywhere, and the day will comnc
)f when Montana butter and cheese will rank
' as high as any brands of either now manu
*e factured. We have myriadsof clear, cohl,
sparkling streams, the richest of grazing
e ground, the sweetest of grasses, a pure at
- mosphere, and all conlitions of climate fa
Y vorable to those branches of industry. Mon
M tana is a veritable dairyman's mecca, for
d there he will have not only an immense
D home demand for his product, but the
e great market' of the Atlantic, the Pacific,
' and the lakes for the finer grades of but
e ter."
r "How about the opening of the Black
feet reservation ?"
"That is one of the greatest features of
Montana's future. At the next session of
Congress it is morally certain that inea-
ures will be pa:tsed securing the immediate
opening of a vast section of Northwestern
Montana, the garden spot of the Territory.
now belonging to the Blackfeet Itlians.
This tract extends from the Dakota line, on
the east, to the Belt range, on the west, a
a distance of 400 miles wide-some 40,000
square miles of rich and well-watered
land on which there are now no white
men, and nearly all of which will be ceded
to the Government by these Indians. It
embraces the beautiful Milk River valley,
this river being one of the finest btreams
in all Montanat. It is easy to see that the
Sstock-raisor, the farmer and the dairyman.
will find this the grandest location for
them in th , whole country."
"What of the mines?"
"Our richest mines lie about Butte City,
which is destined to remain the chief mirn
ing town of the Territory. That district
will produce this year over $10,000 000
in gold and silver, probably surpassing
Leadville. Helena will be the second
mining town. Bozeman will be the agri
cultural center. The great supply depot,
distributing point, and in fact, the metropo
lisof Montana will be Fort Benton. it fisat
the head of navigation on the Missouri.
will have a branch of the Utah Northern:
road (narrow gauge) linning to it, as als.t
a branch of Northern Pacific, thus givitt.r
it a rail and river outlet to the East, and
rail out lets West and South. The North
ern Pacific is now building both ways,
and will connect its tracks this year, prob
ab!y in August. The Utah Northern will
connect with the Northern Pacific. Then
will come undoubtedly, the usual amount
of branch lines and independent short lines
and Montana will be grudironed the same
as the Eastern States."
"What is the present population ?"
"Tue census of 1880 gave us 80,000 peo
ple. Many now estimate the population
at double those figures, but I put it at 125,
000, and feel sure that I am not over 5.000
out of the way. In 1880 we had a few
miles of the Utah Northern inside our
boundaries, and immigration was light
.ow we have several hundred miles of
track, and people are pouring in from the
East, West and South, but mainly from
the East over the. Northern Pacifl,.
The Yellowstone valley is fast settling
up, and hundreds "te striking out for 1
crowded locations.
"Are there many Minnesotatis u:
"Yes and you will find themn rath.r
widely scactered over the Territory. Mot
tana's trade belongs by right to Mi'nea
polls and St. Paql, and twin cities are get
ting away with it in good shape, 'I'he~'y
must work it up for all it is worth if the)
Want to hold it, but .here is no eartliy
reason why they should not hold it. B ii
cities are held in high esteem out there.
and our people swear by them. Th'lere is
one thing more which1 we want of th.mn
s "What is that?"
P 'We want the capitalists of Minnslnpllis
ahd St. Paul to put up extensive saelting
u and refining works, put them in charge of
men who know their business, and then
buy and treat our ores. You can get coal
I there cheaply enough to compete sucess
2 fully with Chicago, St. Louis and Omaha,
and c..pture the prize, and there is nothing
to prevent it save lack of entertprise. I do
not say that you lack enterprw.ebutt so far
as this scheme is concerned thermehas been
considerab!eluke-warmrne*se pladyed, and
it is high time that your capitalists were
a moving in the matter. You can have all
the ore you want and our miners will be
more than pleased if you add this crown
lug achlpyement tp M! al .ready langp ilas
of colossal ildtIstrls btil. up here olj t$.
twin eities,";
fNews fe the Wltwaa Ranges..
e Mr. M. H. Murphy, one of the eattli
I kings of the Montana aced Wyomnrg bom
B dera, ppssed thruCgh 8. PauI l eet
- en riute to Texas r an < at ral
cattle, Hle expevts to bri on ~: ranges
- some *,000 head, and b uhat 114ti,
Ssanadsabo ireuh tali eat "a b brough
on to these ra'thas . r" ! e
phy has juetsten d b ,p a
trhreporst bate' t, t
discloses the act thatthels I
"amp, Ow
nominal-not to exceed 1 per cent. at the
limit. Trail cattle, driven in last season,
suffered more, and the loss on these may
reach 2 per cent. Lower down tow'ard
the Yellowstone the loss will be less, at
there was a lighter snowfall.
From Meyer & Martin of Bozeman a re
porter of the Pioneer Press recently learned
hat the loss on the Shields river ranges,
counting calves dropped during an unsea
Ionable snow storm, would not exceed 2
per cent. Mr. Story, the cattle king of
Bozeman, made even a more tavorable re
port for the Musselshell country. Mr. Jo
seph Leighton, who came to Bismarck on
the train which reached here last night,
reports that he is moving his cattle from
below Buford on the Missouri to the
Tongue river, where the climatic condi
tions are more favorable to their health
and longevity; The round-up season has
already set in throughout the Territory,
and, so far as the work has progressed, has
lisclosed the fact that the losses will be
much less than the beef producers had
anticipated. Tie splendid grazing
grounds of this Territory, though vast in
area and almost illimitable in resources,
are being rapidly taken up. Almost every
train brings in stock cattle fr ;m the States,
the only source of supply, for cattle of this
character cannot be had in Montana at any
price. Stock men on the ranges will not
-ell at all unless their whole brand is taken.
Beef in the local markets is very scarce
and there is absolutely no mutton in the
Territorial market, as the shearing season
is at hand, and none will be sold until they
are shorn.
There are but few trail sheep corning in,
as the source of supply in Oregon is ex
hausted. The few offered there are badly
diseased, and although these might be had
for $1 50 per head, sheep men prefer to
pay $4 for healthy range stock in the Ter
ritory, for they are then sure of their
sheep and mutton. The sheep ranges thus
tar this season indicate an unusual increase
from the dropping of spring lambs. Even
the merinos of Col. Edwards, near Boze
man, give promise of an increase of more
than an hundred fold. The Tongue river
bands have wintered well, and the per
centage of increase is known to be unprece
dently large. But while the sheep inter
est is increasing in this rapid ratio, the
cattle industry still predominates.
Cattle are coming in by the thousand
from the States. The incoming passenger
last night met two train-loads, twenty
eight cars from Iowa, consigned to Miles
City, and one car-load of Polled Angus
thoroughbred cattle for the Meyer Broth
ers, Tongue river.
Hebrew Refugees at Painted Woods.
Rev. Dr. Wechsler has lately returned
from the colony of Russian Hebrew refu
gees established about a year ago at Paint
ed Woods, above Bismarck, on the Miss
ouri river. Ten families first settlgl there
and engaged in agricultural pursuits, and
and the colony has since doubled, ninety
nine persons being now located there.
The site was chosen by Julious Austrian
St. Paul, and is particularly favorable.
Each farmer has pre-empted 160 acres of
government land. Last fall Dr. Wechsler
took cattle, implements and seeds that
were needed, at the colony passed through
the cold weather admirably, refusing the
proffered aid of the commissioners of Bur
teigh county. Land has been broken and
houses built and occupied. Wheat and po
tatoes have been planted in goodly quan
tities, and if the season is moderately fav
orable the twenty families will become at
once self-sustaining. In recognition of
of his services the refugees have decided
to call the place Wechsler's Colony, and
the doctor is hopeful of securing for them
sufficient machinery this year to enable
them to harvest 1,000 tons of hay, in addi
Lion to food supplies. The success of the
colony is regarded as especially gratifying
in that it points out a way to provide for
hundreds of refugees now being supported
by charity in the cities.
An Honest Partpney.
The late Joseph Iasigi, a venerable mer.
chant of Boston, and his partner, Mr. God
dard. owned the barque Sea Bird. One
fine Sunday morning she was entering
Boston Harbor, from the Levant, having
beaten all the rival clippers. The two
owners met on the wharf, attired in their
Sunday clothes, to see her arrive. As she
drew near the wharf, Mr. Iasigi seized one
of the stays and slid down to the deck, but
found, to his dismay, that the riggi:ng had
been freshly tarred, and his hands were
completely coated. Quick as lightning he
concealed tlhem, and when his less active
partner came down the ladder he stepped
briskly to meet him, and grasped his hand
"Good-morning, Missur Go4ddard I I
make you much joy.'"
When Mr, Goddard, in turn, looked with
hors at the black pitch thus transferred
to bis hand, Mr. I. exclaimed:
"MiSsur Goddard, I takes noting from
dis barque I not share vis you I"
A boft eight years, in one of the Mass.
achuh ltctoo ls, we aked by his teach.
er where the ath was. He replied :
"'Tie spot 14 the bhaens directly over
je's head.
TI*etih1 know e rther, ie te=e
ntw a .have the same
ý ý 04A>Wllf ý ý
y A CongressionD| Committee about to
d ' Tell Him ti "jmove on99 -Dele.
A gate tlagi is on the Plains
of thei ommission.
Martin M -,inniz, of Helena, Montana,
d (bleg:, n (1 T congress from that territory,
a, arived at the Grand Pacific hotel yester
L- day. K,,owviiig that he was instrumen
2 tal in the work about to be inaugurated for
tf locating rhe S..:ux Indians and opening
up somi v:~,ol:lbil Indian lands to settle
ment, :, rep ,eier.$br the Times interview
e ed hum y.sterday on the subject. Just
:, before the senate adjourned," began De-e
ri ah ,l:,,inis, "It passed a resolution ap
e pointing Senators Dawes of Massachusetts,
- L,:~in of Illinois, Cameron of Wisconsin.
i Ve4t ,t \lissonri, and Morgan of Alabama,
s airl the eca·c;,..ration of the house was asked
Satn: it :,1,i:- , H Ilaskel of Kansas, Magin
s nis of , a someone ehe, all of
e wliomi c(.nit.rite a commlission to visit the
I different ludi ,n agencies in Montana and
asesign the' I idlians there to comfortable
quarters ano at the same time give the
, count r y li" tienefit of valuable lands which
are now pracically worthless to man
, ki.,, !.'c .use of the Indian ownership of
Sthl in."
"When will you commence your work ?'
t "We will meet at the Grand Pacific in
this city Aug. 13. Gen. Sheridars, it is
expected, will go with us, and President
Arthur has signified his intention to go
with us :S fiar as the Yellowstone park.
The dlli:|oat will be examined, and we shall
settle the Indians on s'ch portions of their
reservations as may be needful for them,
and treat with them for the cession of thi
remainder and open it up as public domain.
We are atuthorized to submit a report con
cerning our operations to the next con
"Yon do n~ot. expect the Indians to readi
ly submit to your propositions?"
"Well, the Crows have a larger reserva
tion than they require for their own use,
and I think they will agree to be settled
on a piece of land east of the Big Horn, or
that portion of their present reservation t
which lies in the Big Horn valley, For
the lands the government takes they will
be content to receive cattle and money."
"How about the Blackfeet?"
"These Indialns occupy the whole of the
northern part of Montana, a territory larg
er than the whole of Yew England. They
will be given a reservation sufficiently am- r
ple to sustain them,and annhities and other s
helps to civilizat:n.i vtil be given them for s
the other portion of the lands." f
"What becomes of the Flat Heads ?"
"The Flat Heads are partially a civilized t
tribe. They have been asking for some r
time that they should be removed away r
from the line of the Northern Pacific
railroad, and the request will probably be t
acceded to by the commission. t
"What led to the appointment of Dawes s
and Logan on the commission?" r
'Both of them have always manifested 1:
such an intelest in these indians that it f
was known the reports of the department- t
al officers were not satisfactory to them, s
and as they have been anxious to visit the t
reservations and see for themselves they a
were put on commissions." i
Mr. Migininis, whose address before the t
Army of the Potomac gathering at Wash- I
ington. last week, met with great favor, 1:
said that before the nominations for presi
dent of the society commenced it had all
been arranged, and generally agreed upon, c
that Gen. Newton should receive the uni- r
ted support of all hands, and that there c
was not one man who vote l for Newton i
that would not have been proud to vote for r
Get. Grant for the place, but they knew c
that !he latter did not want it, and his ,
tame w:as sprung on the assembly. It
would have been unjust, Mr. Maginnis a
thinks, to have gone back on Gen. Newton
after what 'ad been agreed upon.
A Journalistic Lion-Tamer.
r A most remarkable ttory comes from St.
1 Louis. The reporter of a local newspaper
insisted upon entering a den of lions at a
c-ircus exhibiting there. He wanted to
write up hie experiences in that line, and
s he had once been shot out of a cannon,
tha bleu in several baloons, and had rid
iden down a number of dangerous rapids
on a board, as small 'boys occasionally
ride down hill in winter, he thought there
could be no danger.
The regular lion-tamer objected. He
said the reporter might manage the older
lions well enough, perhtips, but there
were two iiew ones that had not been
t sufficiently educated.
''"Well,". said the reporter, "I'll take the
B chances. I expect to get hurt more or
a less, but so much the better for my sensa
tion. Let ine hf:vethat whip."
1 He boldly entered the cage. He is a
close observer, and had noticed the means
taken by the regular lion-tamer to make
the animals perfor.i. In a few moments
he had the older lions and one .of the new
ones jumping through his *.rms and over
his whip and back again, but the other
new lion stuck to his corner, ande; growled
and showed his teeth.
"In a moment I'l teach that fel -
ter manners," sai4the relprter with great
confidence, to t guir lion-tainer, who
_ stood very closthe to the age, armed wit
an iron bar, and evidenitly considerbl.y
r .`e'tter not," aidhe lIion-amer,4arn
S"I know Ise about that ion .th
tr ealal t he tvo nw l w aolow
latter-made a .leap not sufficiently high,
and in a breath the brave reporter found
himself doubled up within the intractable
new lion's paws.
"Well," he said, involuntary trying to
reach around to his vest-pocket for the
toothpick which he usually chews in mo
ments of embarrassment. "I think this is
a go."
Thereupon the lion took off a part of
his scalp.
"H'm!" he said, "that's painful' but it
will work upbeautifully. I hope the mis
erable beast won't disable me so that I
can't write this thing up for the Post
Dispatch before the other papers get hold
of it. By-the-way, I do believe if that
claw had gobe into my head a hair's
breadth further I would have been terri
bly disabled. I shan't eall out for the
original lion-tamer, but 1 begin to feel
that the other papers have hired him to
keep out of the way. I think it must be
about three o'clock, and the last edition
goes to press at ten minutes before four. I
really wish that 1 was out of this for a
few minutes. If this dirty beast would
listen to reason I'd promis him faithfully
to come back as soon as I had the thing
properly written up, Ouch!"
The exclamation was caused by a severe
pain, the lion having torn off the larger
portion of the reporter's right shoulder.
By this time the regular lion-tamer was in
the cage, and in a second he had thrown
the reporter out to a couple of his assis
"Doctor," said the reporter, faintly, to
the physician who had been hastily called.
"can you patch me up so that I can get
this thing in the last edition ?"
"My dear boy," said the doctor, "you
are probably fatally ihijurcd !"
"That sir," sail the reporter, still more
faintly but yoey sharply, "is not the ques
tion. That has nutilhing to do with it.
The question is, can you fix me up so that
I can use this little adventure for a beat
on the boys?"
At last accounts the amateur lion-tamer
was not expected to live, and the remarka
ble part of the story is that, having gone
through fire and water numerous times,
as all reporters do, he should have been
harmed at all.-N-ew York Graphic.
Eloquent Ingersoll!
WASHINGTON, May 22.-Ingersoll re
sumed his address to the jury in the star
route case this morning. Apparent incon
sistencies in Rerdell's description of Dor
sey's letter appealing to Rerdell to be faith
ful to him were pointed out and comment- 1
ed upon. He declarel that Rerdeli 's tes
timony was proof in itself that Dorsey 1
never wrote such a letter, that the Albe- I
marie Hotel interview was a frabrication. t
It was in evidence that after Rerdell at
tempted to carry out his infamous scheme,
the government had put him upon the
stand, sealed with the sear of the depart
ment of justice, While he.was doing that
he was borrowing money from his Fco-de
tendant (Vaile)-borrowing money to buy
bread to support him, while he tried to
swear his co-defendants into the peniten- 1
tiary. The government knew what he was I
doing. That was beyond denial. How
he hated and abhorred this informer sys
tem. Every act of the gover. ment should I
be a flower springing from the heart of
honor. The governmnent should be inca
pable of deceit. The department of justice
should blow from its scales even the dust I
of pr.judice. Representing the supreme 1
power, it should disdain subterfuge as a
confession of weakness. Behind every
pretence lurked cowardice. The govern
ment should be the incarnation of candor, 4
of courage, of confidence. That was his
idea of a great and noble government.
The court adjourned at this point in the
Crees vs. Plegaus.
WINNIPEG, Man., May 21.-A dispatch
from the Maple Creek end of the Canadian
Pacific Railway track states that on Mon
day a band of Piegans from Montana across
the international boundary swooped down
on the place and stole 100 horses. Maple
Creek is 250 miles west of Regina and 45
miles north of the boundary. It is the
headquarters of the railway contractors
and a mounted police station with a troop
of 30 men. For some time past there has
been trouble brewing between the Cana
dian Crees and the American Piegans.
About a month ago the Crees crossed the
boundary and stole 100 horses from the
Piegans. The latter have since been wait
ing for an opportunity to regain the stolen
animals. The Creas brought them to Ma
ple creek and grazed them there. On
Monday a party of Piegans came over, and,
as it appears, took possesetlo of their own
animals, but besides took a number of
horses belonging trwhite . estlers. Trou
ble is feared as a result of the raid.--finn.
Somte jocular men on sleepiing-cars,
when in a rmelow.aate,,epjQgt#osport of
waking up passengers to join in the treat.
Sometimes they literally wake up the
wrong p a engag Pt ident, , U 1id
appointed such a man as a special post
office agent for Dh ota, and in the way
his happiness ar bWl·rte e.. that, after
carousing till midtlgbt, he invite :all
bands to ote noreJsik, a l4 ed
out of their berthis a the passeger who
hOie oftee o a l. bn 4
h spe
a Some Facts and Figures About
the Cattle Herds of the United
The Loss by Disease Amounts to
About Sixty.Six Millions Anna.
The Factors Whleh Make up the Cost
of Steaks and Roasts.
The vast interests concentrated in the
cattle trade and stock raising in the Uni
ted States can be better appreciated by ref
erence to the accompanying statement
which, from authentic sources, shows the
condition (both present and prospective)
of this much neglected enterprise. By
computation based upon official reports,
the following statements show the extent
of these interests for the year 1882:
Total number of oxe and other c ttle
<including milch cows in the Uni
ted States............ ............. 355,376
Total aggreeatc value (same ai ofli4ial
fo: 1882)........................ S659,1e2169
It will be seen by the above that this in
terest is accumulating at a rate that war
rants the opinion that it will soon, with
proper public attention, assume propor- I
tions that will overshadow any single in
terest of a commercial nature in the world.
The annual losses accruing from diseases
among cattle of all kinds is above 10 per
cent., without referring to the accidents of
storms such as have recently produced dis
astrous results in the cattle regions of the
southwest. However careful breeders
may be in the care of their stock, carefully i
compiled statistics show that the losses for
the past five years (including the year
1882) have aggregated the sum of $66,000,- I
000 annually. The ratio of the increasing
importance of the cattle interest is per
haps as well demonstrated by the increase
in the number of dealers in meat stock as
by any means at hand except statistics
showing the amount of production and
consumption. As collateral evidence it
may be stated that the number of dealers
has increased from 7,723 in the year 1870
to 14,778 for the year 1882, all of whom
devote their entire time to the business of
stock dealing, employing a large amount
of capital, which, from the nature of the
traffic, must necessarily consist of ready
The lowest estimate that can be made
for ordinary risk in handling is l0 per
cent., and by many experienced dealers it
is placed at a higher estimate. This
amounts to a tax upon the producer, and is
a portion of the cost to the consumer, and
can only be remedied by reducing the risk
by the adoption of a system which will
render cattle in transit less liable to loss
by disease, to which may be attributed the
greatest amount of risk incurred by deal
This applies alone to cattle raised and
prepared for market on the prairies of the
west and the herding grounds of the south- e
west and west, and not to those which are 0
exposed to disease by contact with them e
in transit in more northern sections. In
some instances losses have been incurred
that virtually amounted to extermination. 9
Under such circumstances it is impossible r
to estimate the risk incurred, but past ex
perience has shown the necessity of find
ing out and applying a remedy to this, the
most frightful and destructive enemy
which has ever been developed to the inter
ests of the cattle traffic of our country.
Abundant experience has also shown the
practicability of this suggestion, and it re
mains for those who have these interests
in charge to take such steps as their great
importance demands.
In estimating the distances to be tray
ersed in reaching a market from the feed
ing grounds, it will be necessary to include
in the first calculation the great grazing
and breeding grounds of Texas and those
adjacent on its western borders, of New
Mexico, with southeastern Colorado and
southwestern Kansas.
From these various places to the central
point, from which this calculation is made,
no available means of transportation exists,
the central and most available point being
Dallas, in the northern portion of Texas,
to which it is necessary to drive on foot.
From Dallas the communication to mar
ket is by continuous rail route, which ob
viates the necessity of trans-shipment, the
dread of cattle dealers. From Dallas the
distance approximates 1,500 miles to Chi
cago, which is the principal as well as the
most available market for all western meat
troductions away from the Atlantic sea
board, from which point the largest traffic
is maintained with eastern markets. With
Chicago thus placed as the great distribut
ing point, the next calculation will be
upon what proportion of supplies Chicago
depends under the first calculation of 1,500
miles as an average. Estimating this at
one-half we find that we have 750 miles.
Estimating the balance of one-half, which
if furnished by Illhiois and the adjacent
states, the average distance traversed to
obtain a market is 125 miles, one-half of
250, making an average for the entire sup
ply to be 875 miles.
By reference to Poor's Manual, it will
be seen that the average retail price of Chi
eago beef was:
In roa'ting piees for the year 1879......:....10%
In.orned pieces for theyer 1879;...........
In roasting pieoesfor t )he ya i..........1..
New York eassameane . ..... 1
hdm ..... .. ...14
Cigo~gia` sme t. ............
ro ta abo `it will bt -
I oliyear 19m "the average price of
than .6n Ch .
in their endeaver to secure the carrying
trade created by new enterprise or trade
t just springing up in the exportation of
live cattle, while no great deviation was
made in the rates of rolling freights,
which embrace barrel or Corned beef, which
s was continued at rates long since establish
ed between Chicago, the great center of
supply, and New York city, which is
made the objective point in these calcula
It can hardly be asserted that the cost of
retailing in New York city would absord
the balance of this disparity of 66.i per
cent., but must be accounted for in the
rates of freight realized by dealers in trade.
For the four years ending December
1882, the price of roasting pieces had ad
vanced to an average of IS cents, an ad
vance on the rates for the single year
1879 of 4 cents per pound, while during
the same period the price of the same art
icle in the Chicago market had advanced
only 1;4 cents, making the average for
the four years ending December, 1882, of
111 cents per pound.
During the same period of four years,
the average of beef of both kinds, roasting
and corned pieces, averaged 138 cents in
New York, while during the same period
it averaged in Chicago 8 3-5 cents.
From these figures it will be seen that if
the difference between these points be
deducted from the prices realized in Chica
go, it leaves but a trifle for the producers
of cattle or a moiety of 3 cents per pound
to be divided as a compensation for the pro
ducers and a profit for the dealer from first
hands, who necessarily assumes the great
eat risk to be incurred from the develop
ment of those fatal and destructive cut
breaks of disease which frequently bring
financial ruin upon both producer and
From the conditions surrounding the pro
duction of beef cattle it does not appear
that.under the present or any probable
future circumstances the price of produc
ing beef can be reduced. On the contrary,
we may readily infer that, with circum
scribed facilities for grazing, the reverse
may reasonably be anticipated. Notwith
standing the facilities heretofore unsur
passed afforded by a boundless extent of
the richest grazing country in the world
unoccupied" except by the spontaneous
growth of countless herds of buffalo and
antelope which breed and multiply by
millions, uncared for unattended only by
•the hordes of sayages who swarm upon
their outskirts and subsist upon the fpre
carious results of hunting. Since the first
occupation of this country by the white
race the production of meat as an article of
subsistence has hardly been considered
Until the few last decades, since the won
derful development of an unprecedented
system of internal improvements, together
with rapid increase 'of population, these
haunts of the Indians and Buffalo remain
ed in the undisturbed possession of their
original occupiers. Later years have forc
ed the white race to utilize these vast
facilities for the production of meats; and
their occupation for these purposes have
gone on with such rapidity that we are al
ready met with the fact that alr;ost every
acre of these vast plains east of the Rocky
mountains is occupied and utilized in the
production "of the necessaries of life, and
with facilities which enabled them to suc
cessfully compete with every nation, and
in the most remote markets of the world.
With the present rapid absorption of
these facilites and their utilization for
other purposes, it would be difficult to im
agine under what system the production
of meats could be rendered more econo
mical and their adoption as means of sub
sistence more general throughout the man
u'acturing districts.
The charge that these interesthiave here
tofore been neglected will become appar
ent when it is considered that since the
year 1853 just thirty years ago, no adequ
ate means have been adopted for the con
trol of the cattle fever and pleuro-pneu
monia, which have continued to exist as a
constant menace to this important enter
The interest that has recently been mani
fested in this connection, and the measures
adopted and recommended by the Hon. G.
B. Loring, commissioner of agriculture,
for the suppression of these destructive
plagues, gives promise of effective results,
which will render the cattle traffic much
less exposed to its ravages with a conse
quent reduction in the risk and profit to
both producer and consumer.
Dr Loring being a scientist and practi
cal agriculturist, at once saw the import
once of protecting this great American
interest, and accordingly organized a
board of skilled medical gentlemen in vet
erinary medicine to investigate and find
out, if possible, the cause of these epidemic
diseases which prevail so alarmingly
among the cattle of the United States, and
-recommend such means as will eradicate
this terrible plague of the bovine race.
The board has been at work for several
months past making investigations of this
class of diseases, and their labors have
been fraught *ith scientific success.
There is to be permanently established
in Washington under the direction of the
agricultural department a hospital to ex
periment on the epidemic disses of dom
esticated animals, which will add greatly
to the interest and efficiency of this siilen
tife branch of the agricultural bureau.
Naoeaul BRepublican.
It, said that ianaling the fumesofmolphur
will cureis tah. Theconse whict maony
people parae o i this life give the Tpem
Itn that they won't be acted with
tItha next.
*is Kate F"iel aid to bave
many brilliant mtee a
l s tbe Baston to e i
that .btacted wrely, ' w 1atch
becot MOant4 ItI s a:
*tRie*k i

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