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TIrE RItVER PRESS
Vol1I,- F-ort Benton, Montana, Wednesday, Flebruary 2, 1881. No, 15, WILLIAMS, WRIGHT & STEVENS, PUBLISHERS AND PROPRIETORS. Terms, ..........................$5.00 per Year. RATES OF ADVERTISING: One Column, 1 year .............................$175 ", 6 months ........................ 100 '" 3 " .......................... 75 IHalf Column, 1 year............................ 100 , 6 months .......................... 75 S' 3 .. . ......................... 40 Onec Third Column, 1 year ................... 80 6 months .................... 40 3 months ..................... 30 i Quarter Column, 1 year......................... 75 6 months ... ................. 40 " 3 months ....................... 30 Three inches, 1 year .......................... 50 6 months ......................... 35 3 months........................... 25 Irrofessional Cards, 1 inch, 1 year.............. . 15 Rates for Transient Advertisements given at office. OFFICIAL DIRECTORY OF MONTANA_ DELEGATE IN CONGRESS. Hon. MARTIN MAGINN1S, Helena. Office. Name, Residence. GO vernor .......... BENJ. F. POTTS,.......... Helena. Secretary........... JAS. H. MILLS......Deer Lodge. Chief JTustice.. ..D. S. WADE.............Helene. ANSOCinte Justices E. J. CONGER .....Virginia City soca u ces " W. J. GALBRAITH, Deer Lodge U. S. District Attorney, J. L. DRYDEN....... Helena U. S. Marshal, ALEX. C. BOTKIN............ SurveyorGeneral..R. H. MASON............Helena. Register Land Office, JAS. H. MOE........... " Receiver Land Office, F. P. STERLING...... " Collector Internal Revenue, T. P. FULLER... " Collector Customs, T. A. CUMMINGS....... Benton. DrSTRICT ATTORNEYS AND CLERKS. First District, F. K. ARMSTRONG........ Bozeman Second District, ALEX. H. MAYHEW....Deer Lodge. Third District. T. J. LOWRY............ Helena. Clerk 1st Dist. Court, THEO. MUFFLY.Virginia City. Clerk 2d dist. co'rt, GEO. W. IRVINE, 2d, Deer Lodge Clerk 3d Dist. Court, ALEX. H. BEATTIE .... Helena. UNITED STATES ASSAY OFFICE. Assayer, RUSSEL B. HARRISON ............. Helena Melter, M. A. MEYENDORFF ......... .....Helena. TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. Auditor, JOSEPH P. WOOLMAN ...........Helena. Treasurer. D. H. WESTON....................Helena. Warden of Penitentiary, W. W. BOTKIN Deer Lodge Sup't Public Schools, W. EGBERT SMITH.... Butte. Supreme Court Reporter, C. HEDGES... ....Helena. Clerk Supreme Court, ISAAC i. ALDEN......Helena. UNITED STATES EXAMINING SURGEON. W. R. BULLARD...... .. .... .......... ..elena BOZEMAN LAND DISTRICT. Register,DAVIS WILLSON ................Bozeman Receiver, J. V. BOGERT ...................Bozeman H. P. ROLFE, ATTORNEY AT LAW, (Av.ociatcd with Sanders & Cullen.) i U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor. Ten years' experience in government surveying. The .nst instruments used. Collections, insurance mining, homestead and all land claims attended to. OFFICE, NEAR WETZEL'S, FIRONT STREET, FORT BENTON. JOHN W. TATTAN, S ATTORNEY anid OUNSELOR AT LAW SOffice of the County Clerk, FORT BENTON, - - - MONTANA. J. A, KANOUSE, Attorney and Counselor at Law, FORT BENTON, - - MONTANA. NOTA}RY PUBLC and JUSTICE OF THE PEACE. Main St., bet. Baker and St. John. JOHN W. DEWEY, Civil Engineer ARCHITECT, -AND United States Dep. Mineral Surveyor BENTON. - IONTANA. MIETROPOLITAN HOTEL, CORNER MAIN AND GRAND S~TS., HELENA, ITJ. T. Zlmmer & Woipert, Prop'rs. NEW, NEAT AND FIRST-0LA88. Board by the Week........................ .$6 00 Thrce Meal Tickets ............................ 1 00 Lodging... ........................... ........ 50 First-Class Beds. A bar in connection with the house, where fine wines, iiquors and cigars are kept. The patronage of the public is re.pectfnlly solicited. PALACE PARLORS Front Street, Fort Benton. -: THE - Finest Tonsorial Parlors IN THE NORTHWEST. SMITH & SPALDINI , Proprietors. Me.rs. Smith & Spalding respectfully inform the citizens of Benton that they have recent y bought out MZr. Win. Foster, and assure the public a continuation of the uniform skill and courteous attention which is familiar to the habitues of the place. Hot and Cold Baths. JOB PRINTING ý00 75 75 Parties who desire any work in the line of Book and 40 Job Printing should get it done at 80 40 30 :-----THE--- 75 30 RIVER PRESS 15 PRINTING HOUSE. We are prepared to execute all kinds of ;"Commercial Job Printing Such as ity go BILL IIEADS, na LETTER HEADS, BUSINESS CARDS, a" STATEMENTS, EN VELOPES, CIRCULARS. gn. We have just received from the East a lot of the latest e" and newest styles of type, and will in future make a specialty of .y. SFINE ..PRINT|INGC WEDDING CARDS, g Ball Invitations, Orders of Dancing, NEW YEAR'S CARDS, ETCO. And are well prepared to do all work of this class, as having, it is universally conceded, two of the most finished job printers in Montana connected with the estab m lishment. POSTERS 1 And all other large work done to order, and estimates given on all classes of work. We will aim to keep up with Eastern styles. LESTER'S CLUB ROOMS Main Street, Fort Benton. ST. LOUIS BEERI Wines, Liquors & Cigars THE SULTANA OIGAR, All in full lines, and served in the very best style.' "THE ELITE" Corner Front and Benton Sts. FORT BENTON, ~ 1ONTANA. A CHOICE LOT OF Whiskies, Wines and Cigars ALWAYS ON HAND. L. T. MARSHALL, Proprietor. TheElite is the most popular resort in the upper part of town. Drop in and have a friendly chat with Marshall CENTRE MARKET, FRONT STREET, - Fort Benton, MV. T. Beef, Mutton, Pork, Fish, GAME AND ICE. JOHN J. KENNEDY, Propr'tor. t I will purchaes Beef and Stock Cattle, and am pre pared to deliver them on board of steamboats at Fort Benton, or at any other point on the r Missouri river, either by the head or gross weight, at lowest rates. r THE tl RESTAURANT. YARD & FLANAGAN, Proprietors. BOARD BY THE WEEK, $6. st in Having one of the best of cooks, and under the super vision of Mr. Yard, and buying the very best the m market affords, we can insure to the pub- of lic entire satisfaction. mEALS AT ALL HOURN OF TIE be DAY OR NIRGHT. POLITE AND ATTENTIVE WAITERS. a t hi We pay the top prices for Game, Poultry, and country di produce. . THE PIONEER FIRM. Being a Sketch of the House and Business of I. G. Baker & Co. WE enter this week in the publication of a series of articles illustrating the growth of id Fort Benton, and the business houses which have principally aided in raising it from a trading post of the American Fur Company to a position which is at present fli-ttering to those who have builded it, and which must soon make of it the commercial metropolis of Montana : Beginning in point of time with the houses first founded,and in the order of their growth, we take the firm of I. G. Baker & Co., the oldest, and among the most prosperous firms in the Northern section of, Montana. So much of the history of the Territory is inter woven with the growth of these old estab lished houses, that we can scarcely refrain g from beginning at the opening of the section by the trappers who furnished the material. But this would occupy too much space, and besides would be irrelevant to the design of these articles. I. G. Baker came here in 1865 and was a partner in the American Fur Company, and in '66 he organized the house of I. G. Baker & Bro., who were the first to do a merchan dizing business in Benton. There had been previously a kind of trading institution, but it was itinerant, and was, not resolved on - business principles, nor carried on with any other view than to supply the simple wants of a few trappers. Like everything new, this pioneer firm found many obstacles in their path. Nothing was prepared, and everything must be organ , Ized. No one traded here, for there were none to trade, except Indians,, and they had noth ing to sell but hides and furs, and wanted nothing but, vermillion, tobacco, whiskey and blankets. Therefore, while there was certain to be a demand for such goods, it was almost equally certain that there would be but little more. But notwithstanding this by no means bril liant outlook, this firm began with a confi dence that the event has fully justified, with the excellent judgment and shrewdness which has ever characterized these men, and which has had fully as much to do with their suc cess as golden opportunities, which no matter 1 how good they may be, are never so good that they will not be ruined b, por judg ment and bad management. Steamers had not begun to ply on the Up per Missouri, and to most men it was a matter of doubt what there could be to gain at this forsaken point to actuate anyone taking chances and isolating themselves from civili zation. It was with great difficulty and te dious and expensive delays, that their first in stallment of goods was finally brought to this - point, and the history of that boat in this 5 initial trip would prove a most interesting chapter if it could be obtained. But then the goods were not so many as now,-and the simplicity of the cargo did not admit of much loss, and they were finally landed at Benton, and the unpretentious store room which had Sbeen built to contain them did not require much "fixing," for the female society in those days was not fastidious, and no high standard of taste had been transplanted; all of which have since come and changed the scene, almost with magical silence and swift Sness, from the simplicity of savage nature, to the culture of modern civilization. One hundred tons was the amount of the Sfirst installment of goods, and the organiza tion of an immense business was begun, that i has steadily expanded, since then  to j more than 2,500 tons annually. The business of the house was almost solely t confined to Indians and itinerant traders, and I their goods were exchanged for hides, robes and furs. This trade necessarily extended E over a great extent of Territory-away to the a north in the British Possessions, far to the a east, and westward to the Rocky Mountains -from wherever the Indians would find this t the most convenient point for an exchange, c and which at this time was pretty much all f the New Northwest. The business was e rapidly pushed, and their best efforts were required to keep pace with it. The profits resulting from it were large, even though the ti expense of carrying it on was much greater e: than at present. Soon it was found necessary ii to establish depots for the receipt of Indian a goods, and these became at once the centres of distribution for their own, and Ft. Mac leod, Ft. Walsh and Calgarry, in the North west Territory and Ft. McKinney, in Wyom- in ing, have gradually grown into important lo trading; centres,where this firm have founded A branches which are by no means the !east im- fc portant among their business operations. A The business has been successful from the hl start, and has grown with gradualand certain hi increase into splendid proportions, and which f8 must continue to increase, at the development of of the country proceeds.m But the buffalo, the beaver and the Indian P. began to wane, and in their stead came peo- Ai ple who brought with them cultured tastes, of and who followed closely after, and with na their advent, the vermillion, and the blanket a disappeared (the whiskey and tobaoco still Cc remaining, but handled now according to the ideas of civilization, in the ordinary saloon.) s Along with the decadence of the one and the rise of the other, commerce began to flow in her accustomed channels, and steamboat after a steamboat came to Benton laden with choice f productions. This firm, with noted shrewd b ness, viewing the change among the things a inevitable, changed the nature of their busi ness as was required, and have been as suc o cessful in the new era as they were in the old, t and now they deal almost wholly in groceries af nd all staple goods. They have met the new conditions and s hive identified themselves with them, al though, of course, it has almost affected a e revolution in their business. There is not now the great percentage of profit there was when a blanket and an ounce of vermillion was to the savage eye the acme of his wants, for which he would exchange his wealth of a skins and furs, happy in his ignorance of re a lative worth. It is well here to digress, and to cursorily examine a feature of the Indian trade, about f which so much has been written and said that .of the advantage taken of their igno rance by English and American traders. A 4 great deal of sickly sentiment has been wast r ed over the poor Indian and the way ne is imposed upon by his white brothers, and the latter are often condemned for taking advan t tage of the ignorance of the Indian in trade; 2 but the whole story of c:vilization has been but a repetition of this process: from when f Phoenician and Greek pirates and traders conquered and cheated savage Gauls and 1" Iberians-and every one has heard the bar gain Dido made with the unsuspecting Nu midian; or when the itinerant Jew sold ERst ern silks and spices at ruinous profit to chiv Salirous knight and lazy baron ; or when French i and English and Spanish adventurer traded worthless beads for costly furs and bars of precious metal, or took them without other compensation than a sacrifice of the life of their owner; or recently, when American business men traded blankets and vermillion for robes and furs. The story is always the same and will be until the savage is no long a er uncivilized and ignorant, but educated and ' sharp like those who teach him the ways of a peace and the tricks of trade. But this house, along with others, are now r depending upon a people thoroughly alive to 1 their interests, and the fact that they have so readily adapted themselves to the change, Sshows a~sagacity and an enterprise which is º- certain of success. Their profits have been r reduced, but their business has vastly in a creased, and their gross earnings are much g larger now than when they depended. upon i- the Indian trade alone. It would be difficult to estimate the total business done by this firm in dollars and cents, for its compli a cation is so great that only occasionally can a they ascertain for themselves the full re a sults of their operations, and when it is con 2 sidered that the bills in payment of freight a must amount to over one hundred thousand i dollars per annum, in addition to the cost of the goods themselves, the magnitude of their I operations can be better appreciated than by e a series of small comparisons difficult to ag 1 gregate. 1 Changes have taken place in the firm, and I 'at present it comprises I. G. Baker, W. G. a Conrad, C.E.Conrad, J.H.Conrad. Mr.Baker - resides in ut. Louis, and manages that branch ) of the business, while the Messrs. Conrad manage the Benton and other branches in the 3 Northwest. - They have fcr several years past entered t into the freighting business, and during the past season were identified with several steam ers plying between Benton and other .river towns. Their overland freight system is the most extensive in the country. Their Benton store is a handsome two storied brick structure, commodious, light, I and handy, and filled in basement, salesroom and store-room with their choicest goods, which comprise everything that enters into the composition of a home, however luxuri ous. Besides, they have several warehouses i full of goods, which are less fine, but perhaps t even more necessary. We will follow, next week, with a descrip- I tion of the business and house of T. C. Pow- i er & Bro., and with the amount of interest- j ing material at our disposal, we can promise f a sketchy, readable article. Cabinet Speculation. c WASHINGeTON, February 1.-The latest Cab- 11 inet bulletins from Blaine sources are as fol- t( lows: Blaine for Secretary of State, and tI Allison for the Treasury. No appointment " for the Interior has yet been agreedl upon. h As to the Postoffice Department, Foster can is have it, but Garfield is said to have persuaded fc himao remain in Ohio politics and succeed. w Senator Pendleton; then postmaster James, th of New York, takes it. Doni Cameron is tl mentioned for Secretary of War, and Levi w P. Morton for Secretary of the Navy,. For or Attorney General, Judge Phillip H. Morgan, so of Louisiana, now Minister to Mexico, is w named, although Gen, Philips, of the De.- el p.artment of Justice, and Judge Huit, of the S8 Court of Claims, are also mentioned.: : 1e NOTES OF NEWS. A Victoria dispatch states that the eruption le of Mount Baker is increasing in violence. The struggle in Pennsylvania over the Sen atorship, indicates the election of Oliver, Stalwart. The charges of intimidation made against s O'Neil, Secretary of,the Land League, have been dismissed for want of evidence. The news is assured that no communica tion in regard to the insurrection in Armenia haas reached the Foreign Land office. The propellor St. Albans was wrecked near Milwaukee on the 30th ult. The passen gers and crew were saved, but the cargo was a lost. )t Malicota, the King of Samoa, is dead, and s the country is in anarchy, excepting that por n tion governed by the American, German and ' Britishc onsuls. f 'The Sacramento river is 26 feet above low - water mark, the highest ever attained, and the unpredicted rise has caused damage to Y property of over $1,000,000. No danger is It apprehended to the city. A Portland dispatch says that a hurricane swept over Huyallup valley, Washington Territory. The Northern Pacific railroad t- was obstructed by windfalls, and many build is ings were unroofed and destroyed. Le Capt. Jos. Lawson, of the 3rd Cavalry, 1 died on the 30th ult., of paralysis. He was one of the heroes of the Milk river affair, n where Major Thornburg's command was am n bushed and the Major himself was killed. rs The New York Herald tells a story that d here is a class of men calling themselves un dertakers, who make a business of obtaining 1a sums of money from impoverished and be t- reaved patents. ''hey deposit the nude body Sof a babe in an old cast off box in the yard h of the Commissioners of Charities and Cor d rection for transfering the dead wagon to the f morgue. What becomes of the tiny remains ar after that is a matter for speculation, but the sf Herald strongly intimates that they go to the n dissecting table. n The surrender of 51 lodges of Sioux under 1e Crow King and Loveday, recently; reported, i- proves to be only nominal, as they are still in id possession of their arms and ponies, and have )f not moved from the mouth of the Little Por cupine. The story of Sitting Bull's surrend W er to Inspector Crozier, of the Canadian Po to lice, has reached Major Ilges, but he did not to consider it worth official report, as it was not B, regarded as true. Ilges's command is at is Poplar river and will not change their station +n until the surrendered Sioux have passed him. 2- Elaborate preparations for the inaugural :h celebration are being made. The escort of n the President-elect will consist of 20,000 It militia and fourteen companies of regular is troops and marines. Previous to the tall a i- reception will be held in the Museum build ,n ing by General and Mrs. Garfield, President 3- and Mrs Hayes, and General and Mrs. Grant. '- General Hancock has been invited to take it part in the reception, and it is thought from d his answer to the committee, that he will f accept. General Sherman will be grand ir marshal of the parade and will make the pre y I sentation at the reception. - In the debate in the House of Commons Monday, Parnell was several times called to d order for irrelevancy. The Marquis of Har tingtoni said that the time for compromise r was almost past. It is positively stated that h a branch of the Land League was formed by d an agent from America on the Isle of Jersey. e The Home Rulers will be able to prolong the debate until Thursday. Biggar has been l called to order three times. Gladstone re e turns to the House at noon. At 4 p. m. a' - motion to adjourn was lost by a vote of 225 r to 21. The Irish members made all the e speeches. Wrangles and calls to order have been frequent. Finnigan and Seeley being - the greatest offenders. No one, however, Sasks suspension. 'Chalk Your IHa.'" I--2- j The cant phrase "'Chalk your hat," which is still current in many parts of the Union, is said to have had its origin in a literal illus. tration of the words. "Admiral" Reeside was an owner of various stage coaches in the days before railroads. He spent much of his time in Washington, where, indeed, he lived for several years. At the annual ad journment of Congress he would pass his friends of the House and Senate-he was well acquainted with all the prominent poli ticians of his era-over any stage line he controlled. He would say to an Ohioan or Kentuckian: "I suppose you're going back to Cincinnati or Louisville, and I'll pass you through by stage." When he was asked, "How ?" he would reply. "Give me your hat." He would take the hat, make a cabal istic chalk mark on it impossible to counter feit, and return it with the remark, "That will serve your turn; my agents will recognize that anywhere and won't receive a cent from the man whose hat is so marked." Reeside was right. All his agents knew the sign at . once. The thing became:so common that some fellows tried to imitat ait, but they were invariably detected and compelled to leave the stage or pay their fare. In +the South and West '"Chalk your hat." ..till stands for what theiEast styles deadheading.