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TH--E RIVER PRESS.
Vol I. Fort Benton, Montana, Wednesday, MVarch 23, 1881. No. 22, THE RIVER PRESS WILLIAMS, WRIGHT & STEVENS, PvFusuI1rns AND PforRIrTOBS. .. ' . WTLLIAMS, - - - - - - -. EDITOR TIiE first of the promised series of articles on Russia is presented on page 5. TiHE New Mexicans expect to organize a s'ate government within the next two years. TIE present administration will be unlike that of Ulayes's and the old dullness will give place to a social season of unusual bril liancy. The first reception of President Gar field gave universal satisfaction. PRESIDENT Billings, of the Northern Pa cific Railroad, says he has no fears that the company of which he is the head will be subordinated to the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company or any other. IN the organization of the House for the extra session, the Republicans are confident of fixing up the slate to suit themselves. They have a clear majority of their own number, and there are several Independents who are expected to vote with them on the question of organization. G(;EN. GRLANT's Mexican relations (we do not refer to his sisters, or his cousins, or his nmunts) compel hime to resign the presidency of the AWorld's Fair. This must have caused a pang in a heart hitherto untouched with qualms of office-resigning proclivities. May ie find in sunny Mexico a balm for his dis gruntlcd spirit. j'T.ir Mexican government has granted very liberal subsidies to the capitalists of the United States who are organizing to build railroads in that fertile but inaccessible coun try. The road will be known as the Mexi can Central and' will be an extension of the Denver & Rio Grande, with ex-Governor Hunt, of Colorado, as manager. TIE latest accounts from Chicago and Mil waukee are the same old story we have had from that quarter for the last month. Un precedented snow storms, wind and a general blockade of trains. On the : t t1b storm was still raging, wires down an l trains delayed generally. While all these storms have been raging in Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, we have-bee-en-enJoying balmy,. genial spring weather, without a storm to mar its beauty. We don't complain. THE coming comet, together with Mother Shipton, is unsettling many minds of sup posed placidity. The spectroscope has dem onstrated that these bodies are only gas, car bon and hydrogen, but Lockyer and Draper have also discovered that there is no such thing as an elementary chemistry, but that everything is hydrogen and susceptible of mutation through different molecular condi tions, motions and arrangements. Mother Shipton is equally reliable and more satisfac tory. POSTMASTER GENERAL JAMES is studying out possible improvements in the postal ser vice. Hie will endeavor to make the post office self sustaining, and next to improve the free delivery service in the great cities. If he does not cripple an already inadequate service by attempt at candle-ends economy, such attempt is praiseworthy enough. But the country can not afford to have this effort take the direction of contraction of the ser vice. It should rather be increased. JAMES GORDON BENNEvT, having exhausted all his means of useful sensation in the way of geographical research, possibly being par tially disheartened at the non-success of his Arctic expedition, and the failure of the Jean ctte to find the North Pole, has organized a new one tofind the Jeanette. Bennett, though considered a frivolous sort of person, is de serving of great praise for the enterprise and determinatiou shown in prosecuting his en terprises, and this last resolve of his gives him personal lustre and removes the imputa tion of sensationalism which rival newspa pers have covered him with. A noNG the appointments made by the nw administration which affect Montana are the post-office of Helena, which has been awarded to R. S. Fisk, of the Herald, and the Collector of Customs at Fort Benton, which has been awarded to Prof. Rolfe. While the old incumbents have been good of ficials, and are deservedly popular gentle. men, the changes will be as satisfactory as any that could be made. Mr. Crounse, of Helena, has been in office twelve years, and during that time has always given satisfac tion. But Mr. Fisk has deserved something from the hands of this administration, for he has worked for it with unflinching energy against hopeless odds, and in fact he has al ways been noted fer the independence of his views, and we regard his appointment as the best and most fitting that could have been made. Mr. Rolfe is not a carpet-bagger, but a gentlendan who has received a great deal of sharp criticism from the element which has so long been in control of thigs in this coun ty, and to which his appointment is a fitting and just rebuke. We feel justified in saying that he will fill the position with credit to himself and satisfaction to the people. Indi cations are favorable for a complete over turning of the Federal officials of Montana, and we have no knowledge of any place where such revolution is more needed. ALEXANDER III. occupies the throne vaca ted by his father through Nihilistic vengeance, and Nihilism is not dead, but on the contrary shakes its finger of gloomy menace at the new Emperor with the same mysterious and terrible silence which has been directed against the institution of the Czardom like a decree of fate. A sorrowing people and a sympathizing world are asking what is the terrible mystery which is crumbling into ashes that power which has withstood trium phantly the shock of two militant hemis pheres. What Nihilism.is will for a time be a mystery; but many speculations have been offered to account for it. The one most generally received being that it has resulted under the fostering influence of the old Rus sian party. Another that it p a true Social stic movement of the middle classes, and a few that it is purely an agitation of foreign emmissaries, for the purpose of striking at military despotism in its weakest point, or where there is the least social organization to prevent their operation. Such a thing in America would be instantly crushed, even if there were neither government nor army. Which of the three it is, no one is certain; but we are inclined to believe that it is both European and Russian in its organization, and that if it originally was a faction for the purpose of court intrigue and party cabal, it has long since escaped from the hands of its organizers, and now represents a minor sec tion of the popular impulse in connection with the general organization of the Social ists. How great its numerical power is also unknown, though that it has received large accessions since the close of the Turkish war there is no doubt. The trial, its failure, and the mysterious disappearance of the defen dant, Vera Sassulich, who escaped the police in a most remarkable manner after her ar rest had been ordered, and who did not ap pear again until she reached Geneva, and all the time under the protection of this power, whatever it is, that spirited her away,all show an organization the most compact, discip lined and zealous in the world. Geneva is the center of all the Socialism, Communism and Agrarianism in the world, and it would astonish the average American citizen if he knew how great the influence wielded by this council over the working men of the cities of An erica, and to what a degree of strength its various branches have grown. Its growth has been almost entirely since 1848, and although the policy of Metternich and the standing ar mies of Europe have labored to destroy it, it has grown with a vigor that shows the im portant place it will soon assume in the con trol of the destinies of the world. The Rus sian phase of it is destructive because agrari an communism is already and always has been an active factor of the Russian system. Most of its members have been drawn from the al ways disaffected Poles and the superficially educated Russians of the higher classes, and the system which has made itself the only vehicle of public opinion and public life is helpless now to crush a hidden enemy which an honest public sentiment and a habit of self-government by the masses would render an impossibility. There are three questions to consider in viewing the future possibilities of this revolu tion (for in its present phase it is revolution) on the government of Russia. We do not regard the danger of disruption of the Em pire as imminent, because whatever power controls the machinery of government in Russia will be followed through sheer in ability of its various parts to act on their own account. Nihilism is an organized power, but whether it has sufficient internal cohession to exist as a power after it has succeeded in de stroying the present, is a matter of specula tion only. If it has it will seize power and become the governing factor itself; if it has not, it will simply destroy all power, and the Russian system will crumble into its original elements, and all tnat is necessary for this is to remove the despotic headship without sub stituting another equally despotic as its sub stitute; for it is not probable, though we ad mit it is barely possible, that the slight bond of national sympathy would be sufficient to hold the vast mass together, through a spon taneous popular movement. The Russian system like the ancient Roman, is purely artifizial, and the people have little more cohesion than those Rome conquered, which all reverted to a normal condition of segrega ted communities the moment the hand of mili tary power ws remaoved. •There is a faint hope of stable government for Russia in a prely representative system, which is an existence without a personality- beeause of excessive division of power, :(aI preciably,) and yet with sufficient power del egated to manage the whole, but this re. quires :a greater degre of individualism than is possessed by the i( scan masses, ana would likely result in oligarchic faction. While if the Nihilist faction should usurp and retain power, it would be precisely the same in effect as the present, and would prac tically be the government of whoever con trolled the Nhilists. Despotic authority of some kind is neces sary for Russia, for her people have not yet reached that point in social development that she can govern herself without it, and Ni hilists, however they may succeed in destroy ing the Romanoffs, cannot make a silk purse out of a sow's ear. But supposing this should be a part of a general European programme for the institu tion of socialism for the various monarchies of the continent, and supposing that some man, Rochefort for instance, was control ling all its immense power for a reason of his own, that would be likely to manifest it self when the time is ripe, as it manifestly soon will be in France and Germany, for a triumphant socialism. 'lr1E internal policy of the new Emperor will be a continuance of that of his father and Gortchakoff, and it will be regarded with continued favor, notwithstanding that it will be in a measure repressive. It will be direct ed to the national elevation and indepen dence of the present masses in those prov inces that were not affected by the former emperor's policy; while the measures of re pression will be directed against the middle classes, as capitalists, manufacturers, scien tists and literati, who are regarded as dan gerous to the policy of nationalization of the various races of the empire, and its peace. We must regard the latter proposition as just, for the masses of Russia have not reached that point of social development and nation al cohesion where a free discussion would benefit them. On the contrary it would un settle them, and until they are reduced to a homogenity like the French. and Germans anything of a tendency to provoke discus sion of political economy would be danger ous to the nation and its unity.: Sometime, after the common school hasireduced the peo ple to a similarity in its methods of thought, and given them like methods of comparison, they may be permitted to think independent ly, for they will then be certain to think so much alike that any impulse would be likely to affect a large majority, and'hence the uni ty of the nation be pre"rkto m anarchial differences. The new measures are of the following purport: First. To promote the inter-colonization of the peasants by immigration so as to reach the unoccupied lands, funds being pro vided therefor. Second. To give more land to the pea sants generally; and Third. To liberate the peasants from the expensive regime of passports and ~i 'ed proprietors. THE recent rapid growth of the Railroad, telegraph and National banking corporations has aroused the country to a sense of danger through the threatened possibility of complete absorption by them, and the growing belief that if they are not checked, every interest in the country will be at the mercy of the half dozen men who are manipulating the avenues of commer'ce and finance, having in their hand entire control of the vital energies of the nation. The formation of anti-monop oly leagues throughout the country has been phenomenally rapid, and, contrary to all the social movements that have arisen itLsince theabolition of slavery,this has the distinctive features of being organized by the business men of the country, and entirely free from anything of the "dangerous classes" stripe, of which so much has been written and said in deprecation by these same business men. So long as the independence of the working classes only was menaced, no attention was paid to it except to advjse them to accept the situation with becoming humility, and threat en them with a whiff of grape shot if they did not take kindly to the advice. But now that their own independence is menaced, they suddenly perceive the danger of bloated cor porations, and will have it down. And it is well, for so long as any popular movement is affected by one class only so long it will be misapprehended, and the cause fail. There is nothing like a community of interest to create unanimity of sentiment, and the fact that our bankers, merchants and farmers are heading this movement, is the best indication for the future of our political stability and safety that has been manifested since the firing on Fort Sumpter; and we are certain that it will receive the hearty support of all the working classes. IN this connection we believe the schemes of Gould in the direction of centralizing the railroad and telegraph systems, and reducing them to systematic control and cheapening the cost of their maintenance and construc tion, are in harmony with the resistless logic of events, and also believe that all efforts to prevent will fail through the necessity which the competitive systemimpels until it reaches its lowest terms.i But:we believe that the system - which vests such power in an in dividual is wrong, and destructive of all democratic instinct, by placing the entire people in the hands of whoever controls its food supply and the channels of its com merce. Government itself is the only power to which the people can safely intrust its lib erties, and that government must be in the hands of the people whose liberties are in volved. Although this brings us into dis agreeable proximity with the dilemma called socialism, it must be met, and unless the ten dency of several centuries toward centraliza tion Isuddenly changes,:it will certainly result in time. If it does change, and a tendency to decentralization set in, the result will be an archy, which is a dilemma equally disagree able for the conservative mind to contemplate. WE have carefully examined the prelimi nary portion of the so called act to provide for municipal corporations in the Territory of Montana, passed by our legislature the last winter, and we unhesitatingly say its prolixi ty is its only redeeming feature, and that fea ture only results to the parties having the con tract to publish the laws of the Territory. What the people of Benton wanted was a law by which they could organize an econom ical and efficient corporate government, neith er of 'which elements are contained in this act. In the first place the preliminaries are so intricate and profuse that with the best of management and manipulation, by the time we could reach an organization we could only say we have succeeded in leaving our children an heritage, the results of which we could never determine during our natural lives. In the second place it will entail upon us, in the very first move, an enormous and useless expense. What do we want to make another survey of theJ town-site for, when it has once been surveyed, platted and recorded through a competent and author ized Isource? Again, why do we want to enumerate the inhabitants when it has so re cently been done by a more competent au thority? Then again, what does the Judge of the District Court know or care about whether the citizens of Benton want to be in corporated or not, or why make him a dicta tor to say whether the people of Benton shall exercise their rights as American citi zens or not, which he would have to do to comply with the law referred to. Then to incorporate under the law would compel us to keep up a small army of officers, many of which are entirely unnecessary. Were we to commence proceedings to-day we could not under the law organize in one year hence, even with the most favorable auspices, and that organization when completed would cost the people oft Benton twelve or fifteen hun dred dollars at the very lowest estimate. The mildest and most benevolent view we can take of the matter is that the framers of this law have shown a total disregard for the wishes and best interests of the people, by putting upon them a measure so obnoxious that it would nauseate instead of encourage them. We predict the people of Benton will have nothing to do with the law for the incorporation of towns in Montana Terri tory. THE organization of the Senate has finally resulted in giving it to the Republicans by the casting vote of the Vice-President. The Democrats had installed the officers, owing to the absence of the Senator from Wiscon sin, and had the matters well shaped up, but Ingalls, of Kansas, introduced a resolution to reconsider the question of organization, and it was finally carried 37 to 37, Vice-President Arthur deciding. The Democrats at first were inclined to be stubborn and resist the resolution, but a few of thesouthern Senators refused their support of fillibustering meas ures, and they finally acquisced and left the Republicans in possession of the field. The Democrats since 1868 have thrown away splendid chances, and staked them all on fill ibustering and obstructive measures, which reduce the party to a lower ebb than it was when the corruptions of Grant's followers first begun to build it up from the ruins of the disgraceful record of the war, and they want no more, now that it is to late to mend their case by a self-sacrificing and contrite spirit. GREAT satisfaction is felt at the tenor of the circular from the Russian Foreign Office. It is said to be strictly in conformity with an autograph of the Czar to the Emperor of Ger many and is as follows: "His Majesty, the Emperor, on ascending the throne of his an cestors assumes as an inheritance the tradi tions consecrated by time and their acts. Russia has now attained her full development. Feelings of jealousy and discontent are equally foreign to her. The Emperor will first give attention to the internal development of the state. The Emperor's foreign policy will be entirely pacific. Russia will remain faithful to her friends, reciprocate:the friendliness of all states, and act in common with other gov ernments in the maintaining the general peace. Only the duty of protecting her honor or security may divert her from the work of internal and external development. The Emperor will endeavor to strengthen her power;, advance her welfare and secure her prosperity,without detriment toothers. These and the: principles by which! our policy _ - --mmommmmmm u m m ' will invariably be guided. The Emperor charges you to bring these declarations to the knowledge of the government to which you are accredited, and to communicate this dis patch to the Miniser of Foreign Affairs. IT will be noticed that the make up of this paper has been considerably altered by the new and convenient method of binding and cutting the leaves we have adopted. Every reader of the PRESS will appreciate the change, and needless vexation and trouble in ,turning over the entire paper to get at a cer tain class of matter removed. We are also better enabled to classify our work and pre sent it in a more:convenient and concentrated form. Henceforward the first page will be devoted to editorials, the second to news, the third to news miscellany and the fourth to the same; the fifth will contain, after this week, matter semi-local in character, the sixth to miscellany and the seventh to polit ical and historical discussion. The eighth, as usual, will be devoted to exclusively local matter. WVASHINGTON GOSSIP. Discussion of the Extra Session---Fill bustering for the Organization-Da vid Davis Expected to Resign Dispensation of the Loaves and Fishes. Special dispatch to the River PresF. WASrzIGTON, March 21.-A- Democratic senator asked the President to-day if there would be an extra session, The President did not answer positively, but the Secretary says he intimated in language not to be mis taken that the extra session would be called, The President gave Sunset Cox to understand that the calling of an extra session had been determined upon. The Republican senators all agreed to-day that the session would be called and several said the proclamation would be issued next Wednesday. The best informed say that Congress will be convened on May 20th to give time for the special elec tions to fill the vacancies in Maine and New York. Morton, it is understood, will not go to France until after the extra session meets. This would leave only Fernando Woods' va cancy to be filled in New York. The report has reached the Democratic leaders that Gov. Cornell would not call the election this spring, thus preventing the election of a Democrat in Woods' place. The Democrats have communicated with Gov. Plaisted, of Maine, and it is reported that he will not or der an election to fill Frye's place until one is ordered in New York to fill Woods'. The Democratic senators say that there has never been any difference of opinion in their can vasses on the question of testing their chang es of Senate officers; that the only difference was as to the plan of proceeding. They are apparently determined to fillibuster against any change. Two Republican senators are absent and Anthony is confined to his room with a severe 'attack of rheumatism, thus re dncing the vote of that side to 35, three short of a quorum. If the extra session is called, however, the indications are that the Democrats will then submit to the new offi cers. David Davis is said by intimate friends to be in a feebler state of health than he has been for years. He is known to be uncom fortable on account of his political position and some of his friends say that he will per haps resign. The Vice President presented a communi cation from the Governor of Wisconsin rel ative to the death of ML H. Carpenter, which was read and laid on the table. The Senate then went into executive session and after wards withdrew. The Senate confirmed Levi P. Morton Minister to France, I. D. Horton, of Ohio, 8ecretary of the monetary conference; Reg isters of U. S. land offices, Henry Cousins, Florida, Arizona; and Henry W. Devi, La Grande, Oregon. The President has nominated R. W. Berry Collector of Internal Revenue for Idaho. The Senate Committee on Foreign Rela tions to-day reported back the Chinese trea ty with a recommendation in each instance for ratification without amendment. The treaties were thereupon placed upon the Sen ate calendar of executive business for this afternoon. The President has sent to the Senate the name of Moses M. Bane, of Salt Lake, fo r Receiver of public land. BMrs. O'Leary's Cow In Paris. A correspondent of the Paris Evenemen t who is with the Bernhardt troupe, thus writes: "We have just arrived at Chicago. A dull place. Much like London. A few years ago the city was burned. I am told that it was a cow which brought about this disaster. This unlucky cow-I only repeat what I have been told-saturated her tail in a can of petroleum oil and then ignited it at a gas jet. Her next movement was to rush through the streets whisking her burning tail, and thus setting fire to the wooden houses on each side of the way. This cowo, a veritable genius of destruc tion, certainly was a cow of very origital character." '