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TH HOLIDAY " RESERVATION" EDITION. Vol. IV. Fort Benton, .Montana. Wednesday, January 2, 1884. No. 10. THE PHOMISED LAND! Iontana's Prime Grarden Spot--of Proportions Immense- Which Flows With Milk and Honey, in a Figurative Sense, Where Smiling Valleys and Bunch Grass Covered Bench, Vie With Each Other in Rich Luxuriance. Where in Every Mountain Gulch and on the Rocky Slope, Herez "Colors" Can b and There the Hopeful "Float." In Short, an Interesting Article, as the Reader Will " Diskiver," Written by One Who Knows the Land as the Pilot Knows the River. IN THE FrILD, December 15, 1883. W'e expect the 48th congress, now met, will open to settlement the fertile coun-p try lying north and east of us. Ther are many views as to the extent th ((country now set apart for the Blackfeet, (iros Ventres and other Indians shoulc e, reduced, but there is only one senti imient among our white population wlhi:h is that it be largely reduced, and at once. As has been several times written, there is too much land lying waste in this reservation which could be utilized by farmers, and is demanded by our increasing stock interests and which is of no benefit to the Indians who call it their country and hesitate to surrendler their title to it. A descriptio_ of this much coveted and highly prize, region at this time will not be inappr priate. Bounded on the north by th 49th degree of latitude, on the west b the main range of the Rocky moun tains, south by the Marias and dlissouri rivers to the 107th .degree of longitude, a )point on the Missouri river near old Fort Peck, thence due east to the Dako. ta line, and on the east by our sister ter ritory, Dakota. It lies in shape a par allelogram, 500 miles long and averag ing 8. miles in width. It is subdivided for the different tribes of Indians wh now possess it as follows: The Yanl toi.unais and Canoe bands of Assin - hiome s fromn the 1040 of longitude to the 1080. These Indians number re st)ec'tively 3,800 and 1,300 souls. Their agencies are at Poplar creekahnd Wolf Pl'oint. The Gros Ventres du prairies and Upper Assinaboines occupy the country between the 1080 and the 1110, or Sweet Grass hills country. They nunmber 1,100 and 900, according to a recent census, and their headquarters is at Fort Belknap. From the 111° of lon gitude west to the Rocky mountains is the country of the Blackfeet, Piegans and Bloods, who number about 3,000. From this it will be seen that '9,000 per sons occupy 45,000 square miles of the best portion of our territory, about flye square miles for each person. This district contains three small ranges of mountains or hills, viz: the Sweet Grass, Bear's Paw and Little IRockies. Milk river, the principal stream within its boundaries, rises near thle main range of the Rockies, and af ter running through a portion of British North America, enters theterritory neai the Sweet Grass hills and takes an east erly course through the center of the reservation to its. ~ near Fort Peek. Milk river discharges a considerable vol unme of water d pi`i ti p. ~Vpend early summer mon hs, but owing to its bed, which is quicksand, it absorbs and loses bay eaot l o p Ser '1 during the t4d y fal It is alkali i c s ot Its a( fluents to some extent soon after leaving their sources. Milk rive..fs" well tim bered east of the 109 of-Uo ltd Belknap. The streams ,flo' ji p tP it from the north are Poreoplte, uggy, Rock, Frenchman's, Woody mlad, Black's, East and West fetole ami the south,, the Sandy, several stroen s called Box Elder (which seems to be a favorite name in Montana), Beaver creek, on which Fort Assinaboine ih built, leare Snake, People's, Big Bea. ver, Diy and Willow creeks, all oi which head in the Bear's Paw, Litthh Rockies, and thedividing ridge between the Missouri and Milk rivers. Eagle. Birch, Cow, Warm Springs, Litthi Rocky, Beauchon, Pouchette and Tim. ber flow into the Missouri, having "theii sources in the Bear's Paw, and Lit tle Rocky mountains. F urher east tihatL the mouth of Milk river are the Littlh Porcupine, Wolf, Poplar and Muddy. all of which head near Wood mountain, in British territory. None of thesE streams are much timbered, excepting Snake, People's Woody Island, French. man's and Rock creeks, and these only for a very short distance above theim mouths. With few exceptions, viz: Eagle, San dy, Box Elder and Beaver creeks, thesE streams sink or dry up some distancE below their sources during the hot sum nier months, but commence to runi again late in the fall. Considerable tim ber-pine and spruce-is to be found in each of the mountains and in the breaks of the Missouri between Fort Clagett and old Fort Peck. These breaks or bad lands extend from five to fifteen miles back from the Missouri, and are covered with scrub pine and cedar, and although unfit for cultivation, make an excellent range for stock. The military have a steam saw mill in operation at Fort As sinaboine and turn out fair lumber. N The agricultural region proper com mences abopt six miles east of this post (Assinaboine), and the valley of Milk river broadens into immense .meadows, so to speak, averaging three, and in many places six miles in width between the foothills, intersected by the streams already mentioned and covered with a luxurious growth of grass which waves like green fields in favorable seasons eight years in ten-and, in such seasons it will produce good crops without irri gation. . The hills and table lands on each side rise gently and are covered with the famed bunch grass and 'dotted with many ponds and small lakes-a paradise for stock. The agent at Belknap, Maj. W. L. Lincoln, has been very successful in raising crops without irrigation; i fact, his continuous success made hi enthusiastic, but the past season has d monstrated that irrigation is necessary. The military at Fort Assinaboine havE nice gardens also. The length of th: warm season is attributed to the very low altitude of the Milk river region. It is only 2,400 feet above sea level at Fort Assinaboine, and 2,150 at Fort Bel. knap, the bench lands extending back to the mountains gradually, with but little increase in altitude. The valley of the Sandy is well known to most residents of Chotcau county as the hay fields, par excellence, from which in past years thousands of tons of hay were cut and thousands left to waste. Under intelligent management the 3r a of these meadows can be in ~ eed, giving hay meadows inexhaust ible. Timber can be had for building and and fencing purposes, but the main re liance for fuel must be in the vast de posits of coal or lignite which -occur all over this region, but in greater abun dance north of Milk river, where a su perior quality, easily mined, is found, almost eveycy coulee showing veins vary ing from three to eight feet in thickness, Thus a benel1lcent Providence has pro vided for the future development of those vast prairies. Beds of pipe clay and fire, clay have been found, and good brick has been manufcotured at Fort Aeinpiboine, while the whole of the Little Rocky nountaia isa tim n .oie . formatl#o. 'rpun the, base of. ts a t tii 1I sever l warm sptings, aI 6sidk - ably in temperature, in sone cases leav ing large deposits of. suw,eorMIlng rif fles and dams. The approaches to this ;mountaiun e4taoSi g 4 aste sl4de are precipitou;i:ea~e west and south easy, the prairie ending in groves of young pgfes., qng0 &apd rivpte trickle from ea rv i e, and in two tcalde Thes be.... every tg and wcovered Sel ba t if thg have ever .bY a whit rock;s o C b eh dutuf stera1 co ver wlilh have `4.& +e i o~8Ebt ~llNim..c fj -*41 !t i t , 1 ii Id i~il I !ii 'ifi 'JEvv BRICK MO! LL-+IiH AND UNION-ERL LF " t, Ilj1t.r silver. No doubt in the near future these will be profitably worked. The interpretation of the Indians' name of these mountains is "Island mountains," from its being surrounded by prairie. It is very dear to them on account of its former plentitude of game and its beau tiful springs and parks, where in the past their forefathers gathered the vari ous wild berries indigenous to this coun try, while wooing their wives whose recollectiohs may be more vivid on ac count of reminiscences of hard work cutting lodge poles and scraping them :while their noble lords smoked in the shade. Their present protestation of love for those mountains may also haye been enhanced by the desire of the white man to possess thenm. Trout abound in the many branches of Eagle and Birch creek. An effort has been made by the military to introduce them into Beaver creek but without success. The Square Butte, fifteen milessouth of Fort Assinaboine, is the Bear's Paw proper, called so by its likeness to the paw of a bear, but it takes more imagin ation or a different aspect than I have ever had to see the resemblance. This mountain covers more than twice the area of the Little Rockies, not vice versa, as is seen on the maps. Luxurious grasses cover these hills to the topmost points while the valleys are almost tropical in the rankness of their vegetation. The Sweet Grass hills is of a similar formation to the Bear's Paw mountains, and several rich specimens of galena have been shown as coming from. there. White marble .of an excellent quality has also been discovered. These hills are fairly timbered and the surrounding country well wattered by springs. They receive their name from the sweet smell ing grasses which are found their in great abundance, and with which the young Indians, of both sexes, adorn their heads, necks and arms in summer time, "When small birds tune and thrushes sing," this mixture of odors is quite over powering. Talk of patchouly-whew! [t beats the famed seven stinks of Col ogne. All this country is now lying in waste, and to the few Indians-who inhabit it if as unmitigated evil, for they roam over it search of game, which is no more, foi "the bu€ialo are all gone," and so are the antelope and deQr for that matter, and now remaine but the wolves, coyotes add Indians; the former to be the eause of worry to the coming "cowboy" anhd los cattle king,: while the latter will te bon of contention for the 1iterior a rtnet is a hobby ror al yeg ions e ýpm i a a, a prey to S ed In n traers ad oth e£the t l are all n ds co , se ±e ý" yet sueentlyy e in the mysteries of the branding iron or posted on mavericks to compete with their white brothers. At the council held at Fort Assina boine with Senator Vest and our able delegate to congress, the lands they ex pressed a willin ness to sell were those lying west of the.present military re serve to the Sweet Grass and the country lying north of Milk river to the interna tional boundary line ; but I understand their agent has recommended a more liberal reduction, viz.: that the 1090 of longitude be the western boundary. This line would be due south from the vicinity of Picket Corral, on Milk river, to Grand Island, on the Missouri, and would leave the Little Rockies in the new reserve, but the Bear's Paw open to settlement-should the military reser vation be reduced also, which I suppose will be done. Without doubt a railroad will soon put in an appearance from the east, and also a branch from the Cana dian Pacific, making a junction at Fort Assinaboine, when the cheerful shout of the brakeman will call out, "Change cars, for Cypress, the Rocky mountains and Fort Benton." "OLD TIMER." THE UPPER- TETON AND MARIAS. There is a great similarity in these two streams of northern Montana. They both head in the main range of the Rockies, and flow 150 miles in a south easterly direction to their point of con fluence, which is about four miles of the Missouri, with which their waters final ly mingle. Both are small streams com pared to their length, as for the last sev enty-five miles they do not receive any tributaries, which flow the year around this making them carry as much water seventy-five miles from the mouth as where they finally empty into the Mis souri. The lower half of both streame have short, narrow bottoms, which makes it difficult to irrigate-these are used principally for stock ranches, for which purpose they are admirably adapt ed. As boon as you get to the tops of the high bluffs, on either side of the streams, you are on a high, rolling prairie, cut by deep coulees, running into the main ra vine. This broken country furnishes good shelter for stock during the winter storms, and the plateau with its peren nial carpet of bunch grass furnishes free pasturage for thousands of cattle and sheep. The lower Teton has been utiliz ed more for grain ranchesi than the Ma rias, on account of larger bottoms, and the northern side of the Marias still held ostensibly for the Indians, though pre eiols little.~se they have for it. When water hasfbeen brought on to these bot tous,-'tther by ditches or irrig~tng wheelsthey r:ill 'make the inestntf grain and hay ranuehes as the soitl gen erally as $l l*am whiehch wtl) send gutatb on fltr waleet mwitUmatwes 1afrltibt nui lda fghtjgj4 ati edv uady s *ethMibarq#dge *o antatasth usof the woibutarlee al&orkw of t¢ika *io rits, vwideupit nd nht nadtaflt tthe ne towaw, wteh nhhs'he two forks Oft'tb Taton nsi$Mg ont ttkr sidevot% ft good fmpi#of what t se neft aflpf twlse sltsems. n eth. we ind ranchn, for the m nt well 4 1ap . ed. This settlement is wealthy in flocks and herds, and it only lately that any attention has been paid to ranching, as there was more money to be made with less labor in raising cattle and horses. The town of Choteau has, in our opin ion, a promising future before it, as it lies in the center of as fine a stock and ranching country as can be found in Montana. Fort Benton, its supply point, lies ninety miles to the east, and is too far away to compete for the local trade of this section. No particular eff.rt has been made by the business men of the place and owners of the townsite to advertise this promising place as a good location for business houses and trades of different kinds,but a building and business boom such as Sun River has been enjoying for the last year is bound to strike the town of Choteau inside of two years. The El Dorado ditch company have a ditch dug by which next season they can make valuable ranches out of tens of thousands of acres on the lbench land between the Teton and the Muddy. The soil here is said to be a deep loam and of first class quality for cropping. Wa er can be brought from the Teton to cover this ground at a small expense compared to the advanced va' ne of the land to be irrigated. It is the intention of the directors of the comnar to pro cure a colony eitl4r in the eastern states or the old country to settle on this im mense tract. The financial success of such colonies, both to the originators and the settlers in Colorado and Califor nia, where the natural advantages are no better than here, makes us sanguine of the success of this enterprise. There are two business houses on the upper Marias, but as the larger part of the country on the tributaries of this stream is included in the Blackfoot In dian reservation, it is ' hard to say yet where the business center of the upper Marias will be located. As is the case with the upper Teton, there is room here for a good town with its surround ing trading posts and smaller business houses. _r--._ ±_. II-- ll, . THE HOLIDAY RIVER PRESS. This, the third, Holiday number of the RIVER PRESS goes forth on its useful mission, and we submit it to the reader upon its merits. Its single purpose has been to present in truthful narrative the advantages of Fort Benton and the re sources of her magnificent tributary country-and particularly the great In dian reservation that is soon to be opened to settlement. We have not sought in any way to make it a "literary" work, but rather to set forth in simple, ragged English the story of the wondrous re sources of northern Montana, and the inducements that are here offered to im migration and the investment of capital. For whatever of success to this end has been attained, we are indebted toa large extent to our contributors and to those who so cheerfully gave tis information on the subjects considered. To these gentlemen we extend our sincere thanks. And, at the beginning of the new year -which promises to be an auspicious one for northern Montana-the RIVER PRESS presents the "compliments of the season" to all of its readers. Yellowstone Cattle Shipment. Major Wyman, chief roadmaster of the Yellowstone division of the Northern Pacific railroad, furnishes th" following statement of stock shipments to and from the Yellowstone valley, Montana, dnring the season of 1883. The number of cars of cattle received are as follows : BSTCK YARDs , No. of Care Miles City....................................... ang Blm .......... ..... ...................... r. le e ........................................ D1'Fallo ....... ........ ................... Beaver ......................................... e Alard ............................................ $ Total ......... ... . ................ Most of these cattle were young stock and averaged about 24 head to the os . making thetotal - nuber shipped into .Eontiawas 120.2, The shipments to the eastern markets were as follows: WIRaS.P~ PrlM p Jg . NKo. qf Cars ! c.. it...................................... 1$, ann.ag . .. ..... ............ ...j+..... ... . x rt a ..s . .......... .... ... ... at tnti MS bSI bunchI o bazich I b ". "r#"t"f ""ýs."...m.... .+ .. r.+ .. .. . . ",J " I-t ýiV . * .. " ýsf:, ...... + ........"."1. f. • 4•4,4 MIS • ,. ios r s i oA