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The Great Isthmian I Ditch SUtui o! the Panama Canal, Which Und« Sam Is to Finish FOURTEEN years ago next March 15,000 workmen employed in dig ging the Panama canal threw down their picks and shovels— the De Lesseps bubble had burst. Eight years they had been laboring, and two-thirds of the work yet re mained to be done. Two hundred and sixty million dollars had been sunk in the mighty ditch. From that time un til 1S94 nothing was done. Then the New Panama Canal company took hold and started work with several hundred West Indian negroes 011 the Culebra section. The Culebra cut is now 000 feet deep and is the deepest artificial cut in the world. This, then, is the present condition of the isthmian canal which Uncle Sam has acquired or, rather, will come into possession of when the treaty recently signed shall have been ratified by the United States senate and the congress of the United States of Colombia and the purchase price paid over—$40,000, 000 to the French company and $10, 000,000 to Colombia. For the sum to bo paid to the New Panama Canal company the United States will receive the Panama rail road, an immense amount of machin ery, consisting of tugs, excavators, cranes, dredges, surveying and other instruments, office supplies, surgical and medical outfits and all the maps, drawings and records of the company. Among other things the French com pany will cede to our government is about 30,000 acres of land, which, with the land belonging to the railroad com pany, will cover nearly all the ground required for the construction of the ca nal. The work already done 011 the route is estimated to bo worth upward of $25.000,000. The work of completing the canal, it is computed, will cost $134,000,00(1. So. adding the sum which «V, m W M®. m •m s?**? ay mm » v«*ï THE CULEBRA CUT, THIRTY-THREE MILES FROM THE ATLANTIC END OF TI1E PANAMA CANAL. must be paid down for rights, the com pleted canal will cost the United States $184,000,000. The length of time need ed to finish the waterway is estimated at ten years. To Don Angel Soufreda, the second white man to cross it. is given the credit of first advocating a canal across the isthmus of Panama. He petitioned Charles V. of Spain 011 the subject. Nearly every explorer following saw the force of the argument, for it is forty-six miles by land from Colon to Panama and 0,000 miles by sea. Calveo, a Portuguese explorer, in 1550 wrote a book about joining the two oceans with a ditch. The British government sent an expedition to Ni caragua with the intention of capturing a base for canal operations, Spain sent a scientific expedition in 17S0 to study the problem, and finally De Lesseps actually began work. So for 500 years the topic lias been one of interest to the maritime nations of the earth. hile the project of an isthmian ca nal has been under discussion for Cen turies, an American must have the credit of first actually getting to work at it. In 1S52 Fred M. Kelly of New York got a concession from Colombia, and he spent his fortune trying to in terest capital. Had he succeeded the history of the hemisphere might have been changed. De Lesseps' concession was similar to that granted to Kelly. He stepped in just after engineers rep resenting our government had made surveys. The need of the canal was greater than ever, for gold had been discovered 011 the Pacific coast, and the increased commerce and conse quent boom in shipping demanded a shorter route than around Cape Horn. The Panama railroad was built in 1S57. and De Lesseps used this to aid in dig ging his ditch. This railroad will come into the pos session of the United States govern ment on the payment of $7,000,000 to the Panama Canal company, and it is said to be worth every cent of the money, because the 30.000 acres of laud that go With it is mostly in the new section of Colon. The first requirement to be met after the treaty shall have been ratified be fore work can actually be begun by the United States government 011 the canal will be the payment of $40,000.000 to the New Panama Canal company and $10.000.000 to Colombia. It is thought probable that these payments will not be made for three or four months, for the treaty must be ratified by the con gress of Colombia before it becomes operative. That body has just been !-elected and will not convene in special session «"til March. ^' s assumed that there will bo some opposition at Bogota to the ratification, There certainly will be discussion. And as parliamentary practice in Latin America is more intricate and suscepti bio of delay than our own it will prob ably bo well into summer before work can be begun on the canal. It is .stated that much sanitary work will have to be done in Panama". Colon and along the canal route before the work of construction commences. The deadly Panama fever is a foe to be con tended with. During the eight years of work by the De Lesseps company thousands of men succumbed to this anil other diseases. No white man can withstand the climate for any length of time, and it is thought that Chinese and negro labor will be imported. One of the sights of Colon, and one of the assets of our government when they pay the French company, is the palace built for De Lesseps. it stands on an elevated point running out into the harbor and probably is the most elaborate building south of the United States. The count occupied it only two weeks, but it is In a fair state of re pair, for the new company refitted it for the use of the Walker commission and then saw it go unoccupied. It probably will be used as the adminis tration building for the American com mission. On the Atlantic side of "the back bone of the continent" the Chagres river was of immense aid to the old Panama company, and this side was better developed than the Pacific side where the Rio Grande river is of little aid to the canal project. The Chagres will be utilized by the engineers for providing the water for the two locks. The upper elevation is the only diffi cult piece of engineering, and the river will be used to provide an immense lake. Little work has been done 011 this section. The United States will benefit not only after the canal is built and in operation, but also during the period of building. The work of constructing the canal will require the expenditure of approximately $125.000.000, most of which will practically be spent here, although the money for labor will actu ally be disbursed in Colombia. All the supplies needed, however, will be the product of American mills and manu factories. and thus a large portion of the money spei t will come back to us. Thus, after centuries of aimless spec ulation on the project and a few years of fruitless endeavor, the isthmian canal seems now in a fair way to be come an accomplished fact. Ten years from now. in all human probability, the waters of the eastern and western oceans will be united and commerce laden ships will sail safely through the granite mountains that for ages have kept them asunder. And. best of all. the waterway will belong to Uncle Bam. How & Bullfighter Met Death In Arena The annual bullfight at Juarez, Mexi co, held In honor of Guadalupe, the patron saint of the republic, reached a thrilling climax a few days ago when the famous banderillero, Francisco Ma tillera, was gored to death by a fierce Samalayuca bull. Matillera was pierced through both thighs by the beast's horns and pinned to the parapet His bones were broken, and his flesh was torn. A company of bullfighters engaged for the El Paso midwinter carnival was giving its first performance. The fight attracted an enormous crowd from El Paso. The first two bulls turned into the amphitheater proved Indifferent fighters. The third was a monster, wild and full of fight. In his first charge he un seated both of the picadors and tossed m THE BULL TOSSED MATILLEBA. one of them, then faced Matillera, who was coming toward him, tauntingly waving bis flag decked dart. With a bellow the bull charged. Matillera stood his ground until the beast was almost upon him, then stepped aside and planted the banderillo in his necl as he swept by, The spectators were cheering when the bull made another rush, caught Matillera against the fence and, driv lug a horn through his thigh, tossed him high in the air. The man fell 011 the bull's horns and was fearfully gored. On striking the ground lie rolled under a plank, and the bull turned to the other fighters. Five thousand people, many of the Americans, witnessed the spectacle, number of women fainted, but the Mexican contingent of the audience cheered lustily and seemed to gloat over the torture of the banderillero. In the meantime the bull was slaugh tered by a clean stroke of the sword of the matadore, and another animal was brought into the ring to be goaded to madness and put to death after beii tortured. Woman's Hard Fight With a Big Sawfish Some remarkable fishing has been done by two women—Mrs. ,1. Turner Turner and her sister, Miss Blanche Ilannay--on the coast near Jackson ville, Fla., recently. In fact, 110 other women ever equaled their record in the waters of the gulf, and it is doubtful whether any male angler has done as well. Mrs. Turner-Turner landed a sawfish 13 feet 10 inches in length, the gigantic inhabitant of the deep being caught 011 tarpon tackle, for she was tarpon fish ing at the time. In addition to the bis sawfish Mrs. Turner-Turner bagged seventy-six tar pon and innu merable sharks and jewfish. Miss Ilannay's bag included a 240 pound jew fish and three splendid tarpon, the largest of which weighed 104 pounds. The women accom plished this re markable catch in the space of two weeks. Any fisherman can understand what it means to land a fierce sawfish more t h a n thirteen feet in length. Such a fight call ed for wonderful p a t i e 11 e e, re source, skill and muscular endurance. After a hot fight lasting fully an hour the monster was partly subdued and dragged toward the boat or, rather, the boat toward the fish. At the risk of a furious attack upon the boat with its formidable saw the great fish was finally got but a few feet from the boat. Then a bullet was sent into its head, which had the effect of quieting it sufficiently to allow of a rope being hitched over its formidable saw. •3S & CABINET INCREASE. HOW THE COMMERCE DEPARTMENT WILL BE CONSTITUTED. Bureau« Tnkei^ From Treasury and State and Other Departments. Georg;« D. Cortelyou, Who Is Slated E"or the \ew Position. When the Fifty-seventh congress passes into history on the 4th of next March, it will leave behind it as a landmark a new department in the cabinet of the president of the United States, the department of commerce and labor. This is the third congress withiu a century that has created an additional member of the cabinet. There has always been an unwilling ness on the part of congress to expand the cabinet of the executive, for it has been feared that an unwieldy cabinet meant divided counsel and responsi bility. The state department, war depart ment, treasury department and post office department were established by law under the constitution. The navy department, interior department and department of agriculture were estab lished by act of congress as additions to the original establishment. The state department, established in 17S9, was at first called the department of for eign affairs, the name subsequently be ing changed by congressional enact ment. The war department, organized the same year, also had jurisdiction over naval affairs, but in 1789 a sepa rate department was authorized by congress. The postoffice department was a small affair in 17S9, and the head of the department received the munificent sal ary of $1,500 a year. The interior de partment was established in 1849 and the department of agriculture just for ty years later. The measure creating the new de partment provides that the new depart ment of commerce shall embrace the lighthouse service bureau, national bu reau of standards, coast and geodetic survey, bureau of immigration and bu reau of statistics from the treasury de partment and the bureau of foreign commerce, the bureau of labor, the fish commission and the census office from the department of state. To these will be added three new bureaus, to be known as the bureau of manufactures, bureau of insurance and bureau of corporations. It. is the duty of the last bureau to gather and publish informa tion concerning trusts engaged in inter state air! foreign commerce. It will also be the duty of the new department to carry into effect the Chinese exclu m OltOKOK 13 COIÎTELYOU slon laws, now under the treasury de partment, and also to exorcise super vision over the Alaskan fur, seal and salmon fisheries. George B. Cortelyou of New York, who, it lias been taken for granted, is to be the first secretary of the depart ment of commerce, is now the secretary to the president. In making this ap pointment the president would gain an efficient member of Iiis cabinet, but would Jose an admirable secretary. As secretary of commerce Mr. Corte! you would he the second secretary to a president to enter the cabinet, and he would bo the first man to be promoted to the cabinet from the classified civil service. Daniel S. Lament was private secretary to the president during Clove land's first term and secretary of war during bis second term. During Mr. Cleveland's second term in November, 1895, Mr. Cortelyou, who was then pri vate secretary to the fourth assistant postmaster general, was appointed stenographer to the president. Mr. Corlel.you was appointed assist ant secretary to President McKinley in 1898 and advanced to the post of sec retary in 1900, although for a year previous lie had practically performed the duties of that office because of I he llness of Secretary Porter. When President Roosevelt succeeded MeKin ley, lie retained Mr. Cortelyou in office. Throughout his association with the White IIouw Secretary Cortelyou has discharged Iiis delicate duties with tact and judgment. He has been consulted as frequently and as confidentially as if he were a member of the cabinet upon public affairs and the policies of the administration. The confidence ex tended to liiin by McKinley has been emphasized by the present chief execn tlve. Secretary Cortelyou is a native of New York city. He is a graduate of Georgetown university* and of the Co luiubian university law school. In 1888 he was married to the daughter of I)r. Hinds, president of the Hempstead (N. Y.) institute. He is in his forty-third year. head of Russia 's church Procurator of Holy Synod, Who Wields it Might}- Power. M. Pobedonostseff, after the czar the head of the Orthodox church in Russia, who has requested the ruler of all the Russias to relieve him of the office of procurator general of the holy synod, which he has held for twenty years, has for that period of time wielded a power second only to that of the em peror himself. The holy synod is composed mainly of metropolitans, archbishops and bish ops of the Orthodox church, with a sprinkling of laymen appointed by the czar on the nomination of the procura tor, and is the highest and most au gust body of the state, having prece dence even of the senate and the coun cil of the empire. Every law and measure enacted by the imperial senate before receiving the final signature of the czar must 1)« M. POKBUOVnSTKRFF. submitted to the holy synod in order to determine whether it contains any thing contrary to the teachings of the Orthodox church. This conveys 80111e idea of the vast extent of the power which the procura tor of the holy synod enjoys and serves to explain the bjiglit which the procu rator has been enabled to exercise upon all the progressive projects of the czar and also accounts for the hatred In Which lie is said to be held hy the Muscovites who have been unwilling to accept the Orthodox church. M. Po bedonostseff was alone responsible for the excommunication of Count Tolstoi. M. Pobedonostseff, whose zeal for the Greek church has earned liiin the lui tred of all other creeds in the czar's do minions, looks like an ordinary collej. professor. Iiis face is thin and ascot I with a broad, high forehead, thin lips, narrow Jaw and cold, clear eyes. His voice is rasping and his tone dogma ti« lie reads English perfectly and by preference, and bis favorite authors are Emerson and Wliittier. Ho is very devout and at the «rent fasts ordered by (lie church retires alone to a mon astery on one of the islands of Lake Ladoga, where lie spends his days in solitude in a bare cell, subsisting on broad and water. lie is devoted to Iiis youug wife and little daughter, his affection for them seeming to be the one soft spot in his character. It is for their sakes that lie has asked tin* czar to relieve him from his office in the holy synod. A LUCKY EDUCATOR How h I nlli 'sc Professur M i - i - miii « n Mil? in 1111 in». Dr. Michael I. Pupin, inventor of im provements in longdistance telephony, who is now building one of the finest suburban residences in the vicinity of New York city, is a professor in Co lumbia college and h : 1 s recently come into possession of more than $1,000,000 through the sale of his patents. Professor Pupin is about forty-two years old. He was graduated from Co Iumbia college in 188,", with the degree of bachelor of arts, lie received the degree of doctor of philosophy from the University of Berlin in 18.S9 and the J**«* I It i nit siicHAnr. idvoiiskv inji-i.n. san:e year won the John Tyndall fel lowship in Columbia university for the encouragement of research in physics. In 1S!i'j he was made adjunct profes sor of mechanics in Columbia, a posi tion he held until 19111, when he was appointed professor of electro ni '<v :;n ics, the title he now holds. In IS,97 Pro fessor Pupin was president of the New York Electrical society. Remarkable Bra^very Of Woman Saves Life A medal for bravery is fb be given to Mrs. Cha ites E. Turner, the wife of the United States consul general in Canada, for her bravery in saving the life of Game Warden N. E. Cormier from a bear that had attacked him. Mrs. Turner assailed the bear from be hind and drew the attack upon herself in order to save the warden. Mayor Fred Cook of Ottawa has sent in the recommendation to the Royal Humane society and, in spite of the protests of the plucky wo man, says he will award her the medal at a public gather ing. Another re m a r k a b 1 e in sta nee of wom an's bravery is that of Miss Bessie Chandler of Minneapolis, who alone and unaided killed a big bull moose and has the head of the ani mal to show as evidence of her adventure in the Michigan woods. She is an expert rifle shot and was out looking for much smaller game than the moose when she was compelled to fight or run. She would not run, and the moose insisted on trouble. The first shot only wounded the animal, and he charged down upon the youug woman. The next two shots decided the combat in her favor and stopped the charge. It was a mile or more to the nearest house, and there Miss Chandler secured assistance and then realized how scared she had been. Shade of Mme. Thoreau Revisits Former Home The good people who live in the classic town of Concord, Mass., will have it that the ghost of Mme. Tho reau, mother of the quaint philosopher who worked and wrote there, still re visits the scenes of lier earthly pilgrim age and restlessly resumes the house hold cares which occupied her time during life. The old Thoreau home was later occupied by the altruistic philosopher, A. Bronson Alcott, and his distinguished family, including his gift ed daughter Louisa, whose memory will ever be cherished by American children. The fame of the ghost .of Mine. Tho reau does not rest upon the testimony of the ignorant residents of the coun tryside, for we have the authority of each one of the Alcotts. including the author of "Little Women," that the dear old lady, who was the philoso pher's mentift' and good angel, fre quently revisited the scene of her son's toll and triumphs, evincing that solici tude which made lier famed for miles about during the days of her busy life. Not only did the Alcotts, but Mary, a maid in the employ of the house, added lier testimony, and indeed she left her snug berth on account of the visita tions, which annoyed her. She had never heard of the Tliorcaus and cer tainly had never heard a description of M / A ; m U m TUE I'lliUliE CKOÜCHED OVKK T11E FIHIi. the habits ot the gaunt old woman. And yet she minutely described her physical appearance. Hie two characteristics which im pressed strangers brought into contact with the ancient matron were her ab horrence of dust and her dread of fire. Mary has described how the shade of madam would be seen to run its fingers along the edge of the niopboard in search of possible dust and has told how the tall figure would crouch over the fire and make motions as though covering the embers with ashes. The little old house back from the road among the trees is an object of dread to many of the country people who have to pass it after dark.