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The River Press.
Published every Wednesday Morning by the River Press Pv.blish ing Company. POLITICAL LANDSLIDES. In an extended review of former presidential elections, the Kansas City Journal calls attention to the fact that a large majority in the elec toral college does not necessarily represent a political landslide among the voters. Under the heading "'Sta bility of Political Parties," the Kan sas city paper says: So far as the popular vote is con cerned, there is never a "landslide" in American politics. The stability with which the two big parties hold their own through election after elec tion is really wonderful. In England and France the changes in public sen timent are far more marked than here in America. In the British elections a change of more than 10 per cent has often beeu found between two parlia mentary elections. Since the elec tion of Grant in 18G8 down to the elec tion of 1900 there was a change of only 2 per cent in the republican vote with respect to the total vote, though there were greater lluctuations in the interim. We thing of the defeat of Bryan in 189t> as a bad one, and of his second defeat in 1900 as a verit able landslide, but this is only true from the electoral college standpoint, and not from the standpoint oi the popular vote. The popular vote and the electoral college are not very in timately associated. For example, a majority of one in the popular vote of some great pivotal state might give the favorite candidate a very large majority in the electoral college. Recently, for one of the current pub lications, Mi'. F. .13. Tracy prepared a table showing the per cent of the total vote received by each presiden tial candidate since the last term of Abraham Lincoln, and we give it as follows: Republican 18nS rant. 1872 Grant 1870 it ayes 1880 (iarlleld.. 1884 Jilaine 1888 Harrison. 1802 Harrison. 1801) McKinley 1900 McKinley Democrats. Seymour 47 Ureeley 44 .48 Tilden. .48 Hancock.. .48 Cleveland . .47 Cleveland. .42 Cleveland. .51 Bryan .51 Bryan .40 Some thins curious tilings are here re vealed. tirant and McKinley were the only presidents in fifty years who received a majority of the whole pop ular vote. From Grant's last term dowu to the first election of McKinley neither party had a majority of the total vote east, the nearest to it being Tilden, in 187ti, who received just half of the popular ballot. The second election of Uro ver Cleveland has beeu described as an "overwhelming" vic tory, yet he received but 4(i per cent of the total vote, and that was 2 per cent less than he had received at either of the two elections at which he was a candidate. Blaine received 48 per cent of the total vote and was beaten by Cleveland, la 188S Harrison re ceived only )7 per cent of the total vote, set he beat Cleveland, who ex actly held his own. But an even stranger outcome was that of the elec tion of 189(i, when Bryan, receiving exactly the per cent of the popular vote with which Cleveland had been elected four years before, nevertheless lost the electoral college by a vote of 17(i to 277. At his second candidacy Bryan lost 1 per eeut, dropping to 4f> per cent of the total, but his loss in the electoral college was at a greater ratio, the vote standing 155 to 292. It is evident enough that even if the parties do remain pretty stable in res pect to the popular vote the sentiment is constantly shifting with respect to geographical location and thus in res pect to the vote in the electoral col lege. If the sentiment of New York changes from one party to another it means a change of 71 votes in the electoral college. Our system of vo ting by states for president brings at times an enormous return for a very little investment of voting capital. In the course of his article Mr. Tra cy affirms that it is not what might be called the "thundering" issues in presidential campaigns which really move the people. For example, no I one paid much attention to the frantic appeal of the democratic party in 1900 to preserve the republic from im perialism. At Washington, talking with some friends after the election. Champ Clark said lie knew exactly what had caused the re-election of President McKinley. And then lie told of making a speech out in Mis souri on the downfall of the constitu tion and the peril of the republic. When he had finished an old farmer, sitting well in front, drawled out: "Well, 1 guess we can stand it as long as cattle is 84 on the hoof." In other words, so long as the country is prosperous the people are indill'erent to the predicament of the politicians and are content to let well enough alone. Cincinnati Tribue: In asking where Mr. Bryan accumulated his fortune of $250.000 the Chicago Chronicle is respectfully notified that even Mr. Bryan recognizes that occasions may arise when the golden virtue of silence is the proper caper. Fine Book and Job Printing a spe cialty at the River Press office TUE REPUBLICAN SEMI-CENTENNIAL. The press dispatches give an inter esting account of the exercises at Jackson, Mich., where the celebration of the fiftieth birthday of the republi can party is being held. Fifty years ago, according to political historians, the name "Republican" was adopted by the new party which held a state convention "under the oaks" at Jack son, and it was afterwards formally accepted by the national organization of the party. The slavery question was the father and state rights the mother of the re publican party. The latter question had been agitated from the foundation of the republic, always finding its most earnest advocates in the demo cratic ranks. The slavery question had been assuming a commanding po sition as a political problem since the acquisition of the Louisiana territory. The slave states demanded the right to colonize this territory with their institutions as well as with their peo ple. Then came the annexation of Texas, an independent republic in which slavery existed, and the conse quent war with Mexico, the result of which was a great increase in the area of the United States. The anti-slavery representatives in congress fought bitterly the encroach ment of the slave power upon this vast territory. The famous Wilmot pro viso, a resolution introduced by Dav id Wilmot of Pennsylvania, declaring that no state should be admitted from the territory acquired from Mexico unless slavery within its borders should be prohibited, passed the house several times, but always failed in the senate. In 1S50 Missouri applied for admis sion as a slave state. This added fuel to the liâmes, and the climax of the struggle between the slave power and its enemies seemed to have been reached. The storm, however, was temporarily averted by the Missouri compromise. This act of congress prohibited forever slavery in that por tion of the territory ceded by France, which lay north of Mason and Dixon's line—latitude degrees 30 minutes except in the state of Missouri. In 1854 the democratic majority in congress itself struck the sudden blow which crystallized its opposing ele ments into a single party. The Kan sas-Nebraska bill, passed against the vehement opposition of the northern members and even of some of those from the south, declared null and void the compromise of 1850 aud provided for the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, leaving to the inhabitants of each territory the right to determine whether or not it should legalize slavery. In the first year of its existence the republican party gained popular ma jorities in fifteen of the thirty-one states, elected eleven United States senators and obtained a plurality in the house of representatives. These successes were mainly achieved in the west. In December, 1855, the state com mittees of Ohio, Massachusetts, Penn sylvania, Vermont aud Michigan is sued a call for a convention in Pitts burg Feb. 22, 1850, to perfect a na tional organization. A national com mittee was selected aud a call was is sued for a national convention to meet in Philadelphia June 17, 185(3. When this convention met it was found to be a free state body with the exception of delegations from Dela ware, Maryland aud Kentucky. The platform adopted opposed the repeal of the Missouri compromise, the ex tension of slavery to free territory aud the refusal to admit Kansas as a free state. It declared that the power of congress over the national territory was sovereign aud should be exerted to prohibit "those twin relies of bar barism, slavery and polygamy." The convention nominated John C. Fremont as its presidential candidate and William L. Dayton for vice-presi dent. Fremont was nominated in the nope that the party, in presenting a candidate free the slavery i| votes from all i of Dayton was Whig element, uuted J allies LI from antagonisms on icstion, might attract ides. The nomination a recognition of the The democrats nouii uchanan aud John C. Breckinridge, while Millard Fillmore made the campaign as a Know Noth ing candidate. Buchanan aud Breck inridge were elected by a narrow mar gin: the votes of Pennsylvania and Illinois would have elected Fremont and Dayton. Four years later the republican party won its first great victory in the election of Abraham Lincolu and llannibal Hamlin, who were nomi nated ill the national convention held in Chicago on May 1'>, lS'iO. T\\ O-THIRDS HI 1.1 i>ue of the peculiarities of demo cratic national conventions is the rule which requires a two-thirds vote to nominate. It gives opportunities for a combine against au aspirant who is favored by a majority uf the conven tion, although it is claimed that a candidate who has been able to secure a majority vote in the balloting, has always succeeded in securing the nom ination. The origin of the two-thirds rule, and the reasons advanced for dis carding it, were recently discussed by Congressman Champ Clark, of Mis souri, to this effect: "There is much discussion going on as to the expediency and righteousness of ignoring the two-thirds rule in the democratic national convention at St. Louis. I use the word "ignore" in stead of the word "repeal" advisedly, for there is no such rule in existence until the convention adopts it. The fact that it has been adopted in any convention since 1800 illustrates the conservatism of the human mind. The reason of the rule perished with Afri can slavery, it having beeu devised by the pro-slavery democrats of the south, who could control more than one-third but not one-half of the dele gates to national conventions in ante bellum days. By the two-thirds rule, while they could not nominate, they could prevent the nomination of any man not friendly to their interests. It was a most ingenious contrivance for their purposes aud proved the undo ing of Martin Van Buren in 1844 and of Stephen A. Douglas in 1800 at- the Charleston convention. "At first blush it would appear that a convention containing a majority of delegates, but not two-thirds, instruct ed for a particular man would not adopt the two-thirds rule, which would insure his defeat, aud yet that is pre cisely what was done in 1844. A ma jority of delegates had been selected for the purpose of nominating Martin Van Buren, but nevertheless the con vention adopted the two-thirds rule which accomplished his defeat. Many were instructed for him who at heart were opposed to the sage of Kinder hook, and by voting for the two-thirds rule and fixing it so he could not be nominated they could "vote for him as long as he had a reasonable chance for the nomination," thus keeping the letter of their instructions, but at the same time insuring his defeat. "But should the two-thirds rule be ignored? Most assuredly. Nearly all men agree to that. They differ as to the when. Some argue that itis being a nuisance, while others contend, and plausibly, that it ought not to be ig nored when there is a contest on for the nomination, as it would be unfair. It is safe to predict that the first time the democrats have only one candi date for the presidential nomination they will ignore it, and they will do well in so doing." MAY MODIFY DIPPING ORDER, A Committee of Montana Stockmen Had Interview With President. Advices from Helena report that some of the Montana stockmen who went to Washington to interview tho federal authorities in regard to the dipping regulations affecting cattle that have been exposed to mange, have returned home. The cattlemen stated the case as plainly as they could, and while they have no official informa tion on the subject they have reason to hope that the order will be modi fied to some extent at least. The committee that called on Secre tary Wilson was composed of Conrad Kohrs and L. L. Stack of Miles City State Veterinarian M. E. Kuowles, W G. Conrad, Congressman Dixon, for mer United States Senator T. H. Car ■ter, Joseph Koseubauni aud Mr. Buell, livestock commission men of Chicago. The members of the committee first called on Dr. D. E. Salmon, chief of the bureau of animal industry, who received them cordially, aud gave their request earnest aud close atten lion. Later a call was made upon the secretary and then they all called up on President Roosevelt. The one man on the committee the president was most glad to meet was Conrad Kohrs. Mr. Roosevelt aud Mr. Kohrs met shortly after Mr. Moo sevelt first came to Moutaua, and at one time they were members of the ex ecutive committee of the Montan Stoekgrowers' association. As Mt Kohrs came into the room where the president was, the latter exclaimed "Well, there is my old friend, Conrad Kohrs."' As he said it the president stepped forward and grasped Mt Kohrs by the hand. The other mem bers of the committee were cordially welcomed, but the president and th old-time Montana resident had much to talk about, and the president was loth to leave him. Finally, after the mission of the committee had been ex plained to the president and the party was about to withdraw, Mr. Kohrs was asked by the president to take luncheon with him. The invitation was accepted, and Mr. Kohrs and the president spent another hour and a half talking over old times in Mou taua. Kansas Towns Are Flooded. W ichita , Kas., July Little Arkansas river and Witt, the Arkansas west and Chisholm eree (>.—With the on the north river on the k on the side of the city, each higher than some months ago and still rising, the Hood siituatiou here is becoming alarming. Work in the stock yards today stop ped and the railroads were notified that no more stock could be received. The scales are under six inches of water north of Wichita. Oats are ruined and wheat fields are covered with water. Southwest of this city, in the wheat section, the uncut grain is lying fiat and little of it can be saved. The Little Arkansas river is rising at the rate of an inch an hour. Valley Center reports the Little Arkansas river four inches above -high water mark and still rising. In Bentley the Frisco tracks are under water a dis tance of half a mile. Four inches of rain has fallen iu the last 24 hours. DEMOCRATIC DISSENSION. Opponents of Judge Parker .Making Strong Efforts to Prevent His Nomination. St. Louis , July 5. satioual move in the -The most sen political situa tion was made today when it was an nouucec by the anti-Parker leaders that a combination ag.ainst Judge Al ton B. Parker had finally been ef fected. These leaders authorized Har lan Cleveland, in charge of the boom of former Attorney General Harmon, to wire Mr. Harmon at Cincinnati to have a letter in St. Louis Wednesday morning stating what his position was 1896. If this letter satisfies Wil liam Jennings Bryan, Mr. Harmon will be the choice of the antis, and they will concentrate their strength on him. The Parker men are confident that the New York man will show a clear majority on the first ballot and that following the precedent of all former democratic national conventions, this showing would immediately bring into line a sufficient number of states to give him the necessary two-thirds of the total vote of the convention. Such a result, it is urged, would be simply following the historic record of the party at their national con claves. Not only does it appear that the con trol of the nomination for first place will be in the hands of those demo crats who were in the minority in 1.896 and again in 1900, but that they will select the nominee's running mate and dominate the platform on which the race will be made. The changed positions of those who are in power now aud those who con trolled four and eight years ago is at tracting wide attention from delegates aud persons who are assembled as peclators. Wm. J. Bryan is the most picturesque figure. Twice the candi date of his party for president, but running on a platform forced upon the nominating conventions by his compelling- personality and which robbed him of harmonious party feal ty, he is in the position of fighting for recognition against the element which has returned to power. The Montana delegation organized today and elected Senator Wm. A. Clark, chairman. The unit rule was adopted but the consideration of can didates was deferred until tomorrow. The following were selected to repre sent thelstate committee. Gov. Jos. K. Toole, permanent or ganization; W. G. Conrad, creden tials: Jos. Smith, rules and order of business: Martin Maginnis, resolu tions; H. A. Gallway, to notify the nominee for president; J. D. Lose kamp, to notify the nominee for vice president. C. W. Hoffman was elect ed national committeeman. Survivors Were Nearly Famished. Aberdeen , Scotland, July 5.—An other boatload of 17 survivors of ill-fated Danish steamer Norge, which foundered off Rockall reef, 290 mi from the Scottish mainland on June 28, were landed at Aberdeen, Scot land, tonight by the steam trawler Largo Bay. Six hundred and twenty seven persons are missing, it is re ported. The survivors drifted at the mercy of the Atlantic for six days. When their water and food was gone and when the occupants were almost ex hausted of hope, the boat hove sight. This was on July 4, when the boat was about 30 miles off St. Kilda. Those rescued had eked out an ex istence on two biscuits per day. The men had scarcely strength enough to hold the ores. When the survivors were dragged on the trawler the fishermen were obliged to forcibly prevent them from eating and drink ing too much. Many of those rescued have severe wounds sustained in jump ing from the deck of the sinking ship. Their legs and arms are swollen from exposure and from the salt water. Many Casualties Oil the Fourth. Chicago , July 5.—The Tribune pub lished a partial list of casualties re sulting from Fourth of July celebra tions all over the country. The list gives the total number of deaths as 25, injured, 1,384, aud property loss of $177,800. A year ago the accidents resulted on the night of July 4 were 48 dead aud 3,431 injured. In 24 hours the totals had jumped to 52 dead and 3,(Hi5 injured. Iu Chicago this year's victims reported early today number ed one dead and ^2 injured. Chicago's figures a year ago were two dead and 117 injured. Througnout the country the fire losses were generally smaller than in former years. In Chicago 115 alarms were sent in during the 24 hours, 15 more than last year. T" all small. The police the city madt: in g the day. arly 100 losses were all parts of irrest s dur Hundreds Kegistcr tor Land. Boxestekl , S. P.. July 5.— When the government registration books for entry on the Rosebud Indian reserva tion were opened today there were about l.oOO people waiting iu line. Wet and steaming under the hot sun, many had remained iu liue all night during a rain storm and sat and played cards aud ate lunches which they purchased from vendors passing up and down the line. Many of them were women. J. S. Barnes of New York was the first man to be registered, having taken his position at the hall door Monday afternoon. "We will register this crowd like a whirlwind," said Commissioner Wil son. "They will ta^e their place as the trains arrive. I am more than well pleased at the good arrangements for handling the crowds and at the or derly conditions which prevail." Special trains brought in several hundred additional people today. President at Oyster Bay. Oyster Bay, N. Y , July 5. —Sena tor Fairbanks will visit President Roosevelt probably the latter part of this week. Secretary Loeb has issued the following official statement: 'The arrangements in effect at Oyster Bay this summer during the president's stay will be the same as those made for President McKinley in 1900. No delegation or excursion party will be admitted to the grounds of Sagamore Hill aud any one having public business of importance must first secure an appointment through the president's secretary. 'All persons wishing to see the president on matters affecting the cam paign will be referred to Chairman Cortelyou, as well as all communica tions on that subject. The regular business of the administration will be carried ou the same iu Oyster Bay as if the president were in Washington." Labor Leader Released. Denver , July 5.— Chas. H. Mover, president of the Western Federation of Miners, was released from custody by Sheriff Edward Bell of Teller coun • ty iu this city this afternoon after furnishing bonds for 810, 000 on the charge of murder and inciting riot, filed against him at Crip ple Creek. Bonds were provided by a guarantee company. Mr. Moyer lias been a prisoner 103 days and dur r the greater portion of that time was confined in the bull peu at Tellu ride. WHENEVER YOU WANT Up-to-date Stationery, School and Office Supplies, The Freshest of Fruit and Candies, Tobacco and Cigars, The Latest Magazines or Novels, COME TO THE Post Office Store. LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION St. Louis May ist to December ist, 1004 The Largest and Grandest Exposition Ever Held. The GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY Will sell Excursion Tickets at able rates, with suitable limits further particulars see your agent of Great Northern Ry., dress F. 1. WHITNEY, Gcn'l Pass'r aud Ticket Agent, St. Paul. Minn. COAL Burn GALT, LUMP and NUT In Stoves and Ranges. NELSON LUHP and EGG For Furnaces and Steam, A. L. LEWIS, Local Ag-ent! (41ÎJ4) STOCKMEN'S NATIONAL BANK. OF FORT BENTON, flONTANA. Capital Paid Up Undivided Profits S200.000 S 175,000 CHAS. E. DUER, Prest. J. V. CARROLL, Vice-Prest. LOUIS D. SHARP, Cashier. Board of Directors — Chas. E. Duer, C'has. Lepley, Jos. Hirshberg, Geo. W. Moore, C. H. Merrill, Jno. Carroll, M. E. Milner, David G. Browne. John Harris. TRANSACTS A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS Local Securities a Specialty, Interest Allowed on Time Deposits. Conrad Banking COMPANY, GREAT FALLS, MONT (Unincorporated.1 PAID UP CAPITAL S 100,000 INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY..2 000,000 W. G. CONRAD, Pres. JAMES T. STANFORD, Vlce-Pres. and Manager. P. KELLY. Cashier This bank solicits accounts, and offers to depositors absolute security, prompt and careful attention, and the most liberal treatment consistent with safe and profitable banking. Buy« and sells foreign exchange, drawing direct on all principal American and European cities, and issues its own Letters of Credit. Interest paid on time deposits. The highest cash price paid for approved state, county, city aud school bonds and warrants. W. M. DAVIS & SONS... Carry a Complete Stock of Staple and Fancy GROCERIES And are prepared to supply your wants at all times. Country Produce, Confectionery, Fruits and Nuts. A COMPLETE LINE OF Cigars, Tobaccos, Pipes, Etc. Front St., Fort Benton GEO. F. LEWIS & SON, Prop'rs Livery, Sale and Feed Stables LiL'ht am; Heavy T; mont'.. FINI-' TKA' Wagons, Busies au time?, ami for sale at iniouts by the day, week, c ISA SPECIALTY. Hordes ii Harness on hand at al reasonable price-. CO YEARS' EXPERIENCE Patents 1 HADE MARKS Designs Co pyrights &e. 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