Newspaper Page Text
rAI or L53f !ANNC1
AT AsISI PART C*f 7 / CATTL*' F/ / 7~j £ArrA. ~A/ SIE ancient city of Assilst, on iti peaceful hillside, midway be tween the fertile Umbrian plair and the barren heights ol Monte Subasio, has an inde scribable charm for all who bend their steps thither to visit the famous Shrine of St. Francis. The white towers and domes rise out of a sea of dusky olives, it is encircled with massive old walls crowned with a ru ined castle, and entered only through its battlemented mediaeval gateways. It is guarded on the side that drops abruptly towards the plain by the for titfled monastery, whose mighty but tresses and long lines of arcades form so picturesque a feature in the landscape. The beautiful churches, convents and palaces of Assisi are all built of a fine creamy stone, quarried hard by; a stone that is veined with rose and gold, and seems to hold the sunlight. The dwelling houses in the main street, with their solid masonry, pointed arches and narrow windows, date mostly from a time when Assisi was liable to attacks from her war like neighbors, Perugia and Foligno, and when fire and sword ravaged her fair beauty. St. Francis must have trodden this street seven centuries ago; but it is in the olive woods round the Convent of San Damiano and on the stony track leading to the Hermitage of the Carceri that his memory is all-abiding. At the beginning of October each year Assist wakes into unwented ac tivity for the Feast of St. Francis. The religious festival of the Saint is held on the 4th, when the townsfolk and clerics from the neighborhood and visitors from Perugia throng the services in the frescoed Lower Church of St. Francis. But it is on the 5th that the country people pour into the city to attend the great annual Cat tle Fair. Many of them come from afar and start overnight, snatching an hour of rest and sleep by the road side. Nearly all the houses at Assist have balconies overlooking the plain, and it is thrilling to stand at an open .window long before dawn and to lis ten for the distant murmur that tells of an approaching multitude, as yet 'nvisible in the morning mists. By degrees, as the light strengthens, one can make out the long white ribbon like roads that cross the level plain and mount the hill from various di rections. Strings of figures are mov ing along these roads, all with one ob jective-the field outside the walls, where from time immemorial the fair has been held. The men and women are mostly on foot or on mule-back; but there are also carts with creaking wheels drawn by oxen, which contain whole families of fifteen or twenty souls. Smaller carts are harnessed to donkeys and little hand-carts are filled with every variety of live stock for, sale. The carts enter by one of thd great gates and traverse the town, and pass out of another gate close to the market-field, but the pedestrians and the long string of white cattle take short cuts through the olive yards. There is a hum of voices on the air, the shuffling tramp of the oxen, the tinkling of bells, the soft padding of bare feet; but when the sun has sent one shaft of light over the hillside all other sounds are lost in the wild clang of bells that heralds the approach of day. The whole hillside awakens into life, and in the freshening breeze the tips of the olive branches are silvery white, the vines and poplars are gold en. Under the dark archways and up the steep paved streets climb the carts with their heavy loads, and there is much shouting and shuffling as the oxen and mules struggle and slip in their efforts to gain a firm ? c Q j /r Ct P IIIV. foothold. They must hurry on, I: the fair opens at six, and already tU peddlers have set up their booths I the open spaces in front of U churches and in the Plassa Passing out of the road by the Bps lo Gate, the animated scene on tb field below comes into view, an looking over the seething mass : people and animals, one is strongi struck by the bright effect of colt prevalent everywhere. The shimme ing mass of hundreds of milk whit oxen waiting patiently to be so14 their heads gay with scarlet fillets an tassels, the women in blue skirt white linen shirts and gay handkei chiefs, the children in crimson c scarlet petticoats with white sleeve and headgear and large green and re umbrellas, all help to make a veritabl feast of color. Besides the huge horned oxen a prized for farm work, there are mil' white cows, and calves with larg At the City Gate. pathetic eyes, whole flocks of moun tain sheep, under the care of an old gray-bearded herdsman in goat-skih ,oat and buskins, leaning patriarchal ly on a long staff. There are blacl ,nd white goats tethered to stakes and incessantly butting one another while shy little girls try in vain to keep refractory pigs in order. Hard bargains are driven On "scudi," an utsider usually acting as go-between. When the price is agreed upon, he seizes a hand of each of the contract, Ing parties and, clasping them to gether, shakes them violently up and down. By midday the fair is over and the peasants start homewards, driving the cattle before them. The sheep and pigs have mostly been sold to butch. srs from the neighboring towns, and ,re treated with little consideration, being expedited cn their way with many cruel blows and kicks. A pig hat is thoroughly refractory is seized by the tail and one ear, stuffed into i sack and slung over a man's back, bead downwards, as giving less trou ble in that position. Turkeys and lucks, panting for water, are packed Into hampers so small that one won ders how many of them will survive he Journey. On the way through the town a good deal of the money taken at the !air is laid out at the booths. Carts that have come filled with calves and pigs return laden with terra-cotta pots for oil and wicker covered bottles for wine. It is the mcjief holiday and merrymaking of the year to many of these simple winded, hard-workirg peasants; but so unwilling are they to lose an un necessary hour that the moment the business is done they turn their backs upon the delights of the city. F. F. MAXWFLL.LVTF WONDERS OF TREE SURGERY Wounds Treated Almost as Intelligent. ly as In the Case of Human Beings. The wonders of tree surgery will amaze the average layman in such matters, declares a writer in the Chris tian Herald. It is only a few years since the ravages of a severe wind storm would have proved fatal to many trees in its path. It was cus tomary merely to cut off the brokes or splintered limb and leave the wound to heal as best it could. If thQ tree were badly split it was removed. Today few accidents to trees prove fa taL The fractured surface is first treated antiseptically. It has been found that these exposed surfaces of living wood are sensitive to many germs. The air itself is full of germs dangerous to trees, and if these be allowed to lodge and develop they will gradually produce a sore, and if neg. lected will eat out the very heart of the tree. The broken parts are then brought together and bound up. A wound of this kind, intelligently treated, will heal itself completely and the tree will in time be as strong as ever. The latest idea in tree surgery is to bind the parts together by means of metal r bars passing directly through the limbs, tightened by bolts at either end. The practise of binding the broken parts together by metal bands is dis. couraged, since a tight band tends to check the free circulation of the sap and hinder the healing process. Then again the tree is likely to grow about the metal band and sustain serious in Jury. A wound of this kind, even after it has been skillfully treated, must be carefully watched. There is consider. able danger of water working its way into these crevices and hindering the knitting process, perhaps causing the entire interior to decay. To prevent this, ingenious sheds of concrete or metal are built about the exposed sur face to shelter them. The cutting of a limb is performed with the same sci entiflc attention. The limbs are cut at a carefully calculated angle, and the exposed surface is treated with antiseptic washes or salves to protect the living fibers from germ infectin. Chivalry Not Yet Dead. An incident on an "L" train awak. n ens the thought that the days of C chivalry are not yet departed, records I a Boston correspondent. It was on at busy morning and every seat in the 9 car had its passenger and every strap 1 its "hanger." There were also per sons in the car who had neither, and G it was then that one man's politeness C shone out as all good deeds do in d this naughty world. He was hanging on to his strap, but beside him was a " woman who had nothing to which she I could anchor. The gentleman, notio.-e ing her predicament, tipped his hat " with his free hand and said: h "Madam, may I offer you my strap; t' it is the best I can do." T The woman smiled and took it. Old Car a Chapel. Possibly the most honorable post filled by a discarded tramcar is that of a chapel in the neighborhood of Cheshunt, England. Standing by the roadside is a quiet lane, the chapel, as far as a passing cyclist could judge, attracts quite a large congregation Sunday afternoons. The uses of the tram and 'bus are many and varied. The writer has dressed in a cricket pavilion that was once a tram, and fed at a wayside stall that he may have ridden in when it was a 'bus. And on the Broads he has seen a railway carriage doing duty as a bathing shed, with several com partments.-London Chronicle. The Way Waddell Eats. George Edward Waddell, known from one end qt Uncle Sam's domain to the other as "Rube" Waddell, was the guest of Henry Glassen at a din ner a few nights ago. The manager of the Ironside A. C. had a regular course dinner, but this is how the ececentric twirler started and finished: Fried oysters, potatoes mashed, sliced tomatoes, baked beans, roast beef, chicken, pickle, beer, cake, clam chowder, ice cream, beer. It only cost Manager Glassen $2 for the Rube's share, and then George Edward remarked: "That's just half what I eat when Joe McGinnity pays the bilL"-Newark Star. Secret of Morgan's Longevity. When J. P. Morgan was in his fif. ties he had very poor health, and went to a great New York physician, who said to him:: "Stop exercise in every form. Never even walk when you can take a cab. You have formed the habit of living without exercise, giving your energy to your brain. It is too late to change the habits of a lifetime." This advice* Mr. Morgan followed implicitly. Since that time he has absolutely shunned exercise; has eaten heavily and smoked much and has buried all his own business generation, and remains robust at seventy-three. The Short Days. Post Wheeler, the secretary of the American embassy in St. Petersburg, said on his arrival in New York last month: "I shall enjoy the autumn here. Our autumn, with its stillness, its yel low sunshine, its base and its smell of burning leaves, is by far our best season." Mr. Wheeler smiled. "The only trouble with the autumm," he ended, "is, ad the Mrishmam esay that is gets late too early." v TRAP FOR KILLING INSECTS Novel Method of Destroying Moths and Other Insects Which Are Harmful to Grapevines. A novel method of killing moths and other insects which are harmful to grapevines has been adopted near Rheims. Posts supporting five-candle .power electric lamps were placed in the vineyards, and from each post a dish containing water, with a top layer of petroleum, was suspended. During the first night these traps were placed in, three parallel rows at distances of about 200 feet from each other, the distance between each lamp being about 75 feet. On the first clear wvening the current was turned on about eight o'clock and the lamps re mained burning until an hour or so after midnight. Soon after the lamps were lighted the insects swarmed toward them and were rapidly killed, either by the fumes of the petroleum or by the petroleum itself. The same operation was resumed the next clear night, but the lamps of the two out side rows were placed about 25 feet closer to those of the center row, and this was repeated on each of five sub sequent clear nights, so as finally to bring the three rows within about 50 feet of each other. During the suc ceeding six or seven clear nights the movement was reversed, in the same manner, so as to return the lamps to their position of the first night. As to the position of the lamps, numerous experiments were made during these trials, and it was proved that the greatest number of insects were killed when the. petroleum dish was only a few inches above the ground. MUSIC AS A LIFE-SAVER Tale From the Vasty Deep That Proves Truth of Song Warbled by Poet. Up from the vasty deep comes a tale that proves the truth of what the poet sang when he warbled to the effect that "music hath charms to sooth the savage breast." The story has been delivered in New York by the crew of the bark Pallas, which was wrecked on Grand Cayman island in the Caribbean sea during the recent tropical hurricane. When the vessel struck it was in the night, and in order to cheer up their comrades during the hours before day light, two of the crew, who happened to be musicians, ground out tunes on 4 a fiddle and accordion. That the per formers escaped to tell the tale must be put down as a remarkable evidence I of the fortitude and forgiveness on the I part of the men who were facing death in watery graves. However, no murder was done, and when day broke the natives of the Island were seen hurrying to the res cue in such boats as they could com mand. They explained that they had beard the music and had come down to investigate the strange occurrence. The whole lot of shipwrecked men, as well as some chickens and a pig were I taken ashore, and a grand barbecue i with fiddle and concertina accompani ment, celebrated the rescue. All of which points to the moral that when one goes down.to the sea In a ship he should carry some pro ducer of sweet sounds-even if noth ing more than a jewsharp-along as a t life preserver. I Ship Narrowly Escaped Meteorite. The Hull trawler, which recently recorded that during its voyage in the North sea a meteor fell a few yards away from the vessel, shaking It from stem to stern and rendering its compass useless, was not the first vessel to have narrowly escaped dis aster by the fall of a meteorite. The African Prince of the Prince Line was nearly engulfed in the At lantic from a similar cause in Octo ber, 1906, and the captain on reach .ng Liverpool gave an interesting ac count of the escape. He and the sec ond officer were on the bridge when the bolt fell from the blue and it seem ed to them as it entered the water close to the ship, to be a huge mass Df molten metal poured out of the iky. "Had it struck us," said Capt. Anderson, "we would have been to tally annihilatetd without a doubt another mysterious loss of a vessel in every way fitted to undertake a voy age. "I am of opinion," he added, "that to some such cause must be attrib ated losses so mysterious that neither seamanship, engineering nor ordinary theories can explain them."'-London Daily News. Marriage and Liberty. Liberty comes in such different ways For women it comes most oft en through marriage. Nine women in ten have more space after they are married for the exercise of their wills than they had before; therefore we can all see more clearly what they really are. The most ty rannical husband cannot rob a woman of her authority over her children and her household. The good woman is better, the hard woman is harder, the mean woman is meaner than ever she was. Usually a married woman has a more strongly marked character than her unmarried sister. Her friends find it more easy to call up her men tal face; they are more sure how she will act in given circumsances. Mar riage is almost always fraught with some surprises to the student of char acter. These surprises are loosely described as changes; but change in character is so rare an occurrence, more especially In women, that it should never be regarded as asa planation unless all others fL TnE PROBLENI p orA / 'Al.4. '0'~WJ j4 y Y^. y. fat C' -* ECENTLY the ever uneasy Mo roccan cat once more leaped ou of the diplomatic sack int( which it was hastily thrust b3 the panicstricken powers at Algeciras As a result France, Germany and England have been filled witt the most dreary forebodings, and all because Germany saw fit to sent a gunboat to a little known but grow ig port on the coast of Africa. The coast of Africa has long beet one of the storm centers of European diplomacy. It tempted the legionaries of old Rome and awakened in the bosom of Napoleon splendid dreams ol empire. The colonizing nations of the present, especially England and France, have lost men and sunk money in its conquest. Morocco is the last tempting bit of land on the northern coast to maintain its integrity and there are indications that this last prize will soon pass under European control. Germany's possessions in Africa are relatively insignificant, rather a burden than a benefit to her financially. It is but natural that she should wish to have some say about the future of Morocco. Her anxiety is the greater because her possessions in other parts of the globe are deemed insufficient to support the pretensions of German world-influence. If Ger many, when the time comes for the sultanate to fall, is to surrender her claims to France, she will take good care to assume such a position in the meantime that substantial compensa tion can be demanded. Morocco is thus a pawn on the complicated chess board of diplomacy. But as such it is very useful to Germany. It is not a source of satisfaction to Germany that it was the triumph of her own arms which indirectly result ed in the expansion of French terri tory. France had established a pro tectorate in Algeria in 1830, but had taken on the whole a rather languid interest in the province. After the reverses of the Franco-Prussian war, however, a definite policy of colonial expansion to the immediate south was adopted as the surest way of regain ing lost prestige. It was the dream of some ambitious and imaginative statesmen that a great new France might in time rise on the northern coast of Africa. The occupation of Tunis marked the first definite step after 1871 in the carrying out of this policy. Meantime both England and France were engaged in Egypt. France had inherited from Napoleon certain po litical interests in Egypt. They were not highly regarded, but they enabled her to drive a good bargain with Eng land when the occasion arose. Mo rocco furnished this occasion. For 800 miles the western boundary of Algeria marches with the eastern frontier of Morocco. The French drove a thriving trade with Algeria and through Algeria with Morocco, a trade, however, that was menaced by the constant turbulence within the Moroccan state. Peace in Morocco was very necessary to France; order could be insured only by European policing. In 1904, therefore, M. Del casse, then foreign minister of France, made overtures to England which resulted in an understanding between the two powers. France en gaged to recognize the exceptional po sition of England in Egypt, and in return for this concession England agreed to leave France a free hand in Morocco. This was the so-called Anglo-French agreement. It was deep ly resented by Germany. The resentment of the Wilhelm strasse, after smoldering for some months, culminated in 1905 in the fiery outbursts of the kaiser at Tan gier. This outburst presently set Europe by the ears, for the kaiser de clared that Germany was prepared to protect her commercial rights in and to guarantee the political integrity of Morocco. This amounted to an ad mission that Germany distrusted the mortives of France, choosing to believe that France's desire to be recognized as occupying an exceptional position in Morocco was but a preliminary' step to French seizure of the terri tory. It looked for a time as if' France and Germany were to fly at each other's throats. A conference of European powers was called, which. met at Algeciras, to hear the griev ances of Germany. France claimed a predominant in-. terest ih Morocco by reason of the fact that Morocco immediately ad joined a French province, which suf- fered as A result of Moroccan convul sions. The commercial interests of France in the sultanate were large; and, moreover, Morocco directly con-, fronted France across the Mediter ranean. For these reasons France claimed the right to see that order was preserved in the Shereeflan em pire. Against these claims Germany ad vanced her theory of internationalism. If Morocco proved troublesome, let all the nations take a hand in discourag ing her. It would be easier so to se cure equal commercial rights among nations and to maintain the open door. If France were to be allowed to police, Morocco it would be but a short stepl to French possession. A settlement was finally reached at. year after the kaiser's visit to Tan gier. The powers decided that the, sultanate should be policed by troops: under French and Spanish officers,. jointly answerable to the sultan and' the diplomatic corps at Fez. In Tan gier and Casablanca both French andl Spanish officers were stationed. Spain was intrusted with the exclusive po licing of Tetuan, on the Mediterran ean, and Larache, on the Atlantic; tc, France fell the policing of the At lantic ports of Mogodor, Saffl, Ma- zagan and Rabat. On the financial. side France fared equally well, being allowed to hold three out of fifteen: shares in the new Moroccan bank, noc other European nation being allowedc to control more than one. France had got practically every thing she had a right to expect. The special interests of France in Moroc co, recognized by the powers of 19068 were specifically admitted by Germany in February, 1909, in what is known as the Franco-German agreement. In that document Germany admitted that she possessed only economic interests. in Morocco and that France was. bound to bestow on her only such com mercial and industrial rights as were enjoyed by other nations there. This. was regarded as a formal conclusion of peace between Germany and France so far as the Moroccan im broglio was concerned. Yet recent events show with suffi cient clearness that neither the Al geciras conference nor the Franco German agreement has disposed, as was confidently asserted at the time, of the troublesome Moroccan prob lem. All that was needed was a spark to kindle the old resentment into. flame. That spark was afforded by the recent revolt of tribesmen in Mo rocco and the investment of Fez. Ger many was pleased to regard the in terference of France to save the sul tan as gratuitous. No European lives, Germany contended, were imperiled. by the uprising. There was no call for French troops to march to the re lief of Fez. The military demonstra tion was only another attempt to ex tend the French zone of influence in Morocco. Further complications were' introduced by the Spanish occupation of Alkazar and the resultant friction with French officers. France suspect ed Spain of playing into the hands of Germany and althaogh Spain dis claimed any such purpose and prompt. ly apologized, the tension was by no means relieved. The upshot of the new trouble was that Germany sent a gunboat to Agadir and landed me rines. Thus for the second time Ger many brought on a crisis which has been occupying the diplomats of gi1 dountries.