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The Libby herald. [volume] (Libby, Mont.) 1911-1913, October 26, 1911, Image 6

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85053292/1911-10-26/ed-1/seq-6/

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SN MORE senses than one England
and America are drawing nearer
to each other. The latest phase
of this approaching nearness iE
foretold in a geographical sense
by Sir Edward Morris, premier of New.
foundland. His scheme is geographi
cal because he proposes to cut off a
whole day in transit between the two
countries. The saving of a day, 24
hours of time, is the same thing as
taking up the United Kingdom by its
roots and planting it in the middle of
the North Atlantic, at least a thousand
miles nearer Canada and the United
States.
Sir Edward's proposition would be
interesting merely as a theory, but the
premier is in earnest about it. He
proposes in brief to construct first a
railway from Quebec to a point on
Cape Sir Charles across the Strait of
Belle Isle at its narrowest part oppo
site Newfoundland. This railway will
connect with two steamers of the Lusi
tania and Mauretania type to run
between Cape Sir Charles and Liver
pool. The sea distance between the
two points is only 1,656 miles, running
between Ireland and Scotland and
through the Irish sea. There will be
a ferry across the straits to Newfound
land.
"This would be by far the shortest
passage across the Atlantic, and with
steamers of the Lusitania type the
voyage from land to land could be ac
complished with only three nights at
sea," said the Newfoundland premier.
"The route would be open all the year
round--occasionally drift and floating
ice would be met with, but nothing
to obstruct properly built and equipped
steamers.
"From Cape Sir Charles to Quebec
is about 1,000 miles, and with a line of
standard gauge this could be covered
at sixty miles an hour, which means
that passengers could be landed in
lower Canada and in the United States
twenty-four hours earlier than by the
Lusitania to New York today.
"This can readily be seen when it is
explained that the ocean passage
would be 1,200 miles shorter and that
the 1,000 miles will be covered on land
at sixty miles an hour, which is nearly
three times as fast as the Lusitania
and the Mauretania travel."
The Mauretania's best time is about
thirty land miles an hour.
The period of self-absorption of
American capital in transportation
schemes of a domestic nature still con
tinuing, and his partial bridging of the
North Atlantic having its terminals re
spectively in the mother country and
her colony, it is British capital, con
sequently, which proposes to father
this project, which sounds and looks
so much like a dream.
But Si: Edward, who has never been
accused of being a dreamer, said that
he had discussed the plan with a syn
dicate of British capitalists in New
York. "There are in New York at the
present time," he said, "the represen
tatives of a large and influential Eng
lish syndicate who have acquired
rights to a railway running out of Que
bec and who have a charter to build a
railway in the direction of Cape Sir
Charles and Newfoundland, the width
of the strait at that point being only,
seven miles."
So far as the steamers themselves
are concerned, marine experts say that
the only saving would lie in one day's
steaming coal. an econonmy of $3,000
or $3:.500 a trip. The provisions saved
on a three-day trip would not be count
ed at all.
The cost of running a great steam
Philp such as the new \Vhite Star liner
Olympic. pictured above, is tremen
dous. To bring the Olympic from
Southampton to New York and tie her
safely to her pier costs inll the neigh
borhood of $10it,000. 'his vast sum
is made up principally by the pur
chase of coal, the wages of the men on
board and the buying of food for the
passengers. The value of the coal
consumed-- about b00 tons per day
was only a trifle ltss than the cost of
the food eaten by the passengers, This
latter item was increased about $10,000
on the return voyage because the first
and second cabins were filled when
the leviathan departed.
From a chief ste ard's viewpoint it
is said the Olympic is a bad vessel foi
an economizing head of the eating
department, because the very steadi;
ness of the vessel helps a passenger
to eat three good meals per day, and
maybe four, whereas if the chief stew
ard could only rock her a bit, you
know-well, quite a number of the
hopefuls would be clutching the rail,
gazing at the sea and thinking about
a biblical expression that is quite apro
pos. The principal items of expense
in moving the Olympic from South
ampton to New York are:
Wages of employee................. 15,000
Laundry .............nd r ... . 2,000
Meals for first cabin passengers..... 17,000
Meals for second cabin passengers.. 4,420
Feeding the third cabin passengers.. 3,960
Feeding the employes................. 6,000
Eighteen tugs for docking........... 400
Transferring third class cabin to El
lis Island .............................. 75
Transferring third cabin baggage.. 75
Here is a part of the list the chief
steward made up to restock his larder
before sailing again: Three thousand
pounds of Philadelphia broilers, 3,000
pounds of Philadelphia roasters, 2,000
pounds of capons, 3,000 pounds of
ducklings, celery fed; 2,000 pounds of
fowl. 500 guinea chickens, 100 dozen
squabs. 7,000 pounds of fish, 30,000
eggs, 7,000 pounds of butter, 35,000
pounds of beef, 10,000 pounds of mut
ton, fifty spring lambs, 3,000 pounds
of veal, 3,000 pounds of pork, thirty
tons of potatoes, 1,500 quarts of ice
cream, 100 Virginia hams, 100 dozen
sweetbreads, 1,000 sheep kidneys, 500
ox kidneys, 200 corned ox tongues,
1,000 pounds of sausage, thirty bar
rels of clams, 100 dozen soft shell
crabs, 200 barrels of flour, 100 dozen
asparagus, 500 dozen lettuce, twenty
four boxes apricots, 100 boxes Newton
pippin, 100 boxes cooking apples, fifty
crates cantaloupe, 100 boxes grape
fruit, fifty boxes lemons, 200 boxes
oranges, fifty boxes peaches, 200 crates
strawberries, fifty boxes peaches, 200
crates strawberries, fifty crates water
mellons, twenty dozen crates pineap
ples.
The Olympic is the largest vessel
ever constructed. It is 882% feet in
length, 100 feet more than the world's
tallest building, and has a width of 92
feet 6 inches. Its displacement is 66,
000 tons. From the bottom of the keel
to the top of the captain's house is 105
feet and 7 inches, while from the bot
tom of the keel to the top of the fun
nel the hight is 175 feet.
The vessel is supplied with electric
elevators, Turkish bath and swim
ming pool, a squash racquet court and
hand-ball court, a golf course, palm
court and sun parlor. It has a dining
rogm with a capacity of 550 guests
and a dance hall accommodating 200
couples. It can carry 2,500 passengers
and crew of 860. It has 2,000 win
dows and the number of its floors is
14. The Olympic was built in Belfast,
Ireland, and cost approximately $10,
000,000.
Nicknames of Papers.
Nicknames for newspapers have
gone out of favor. While the Times
was forme:ly Granny and afterward
the Thunderer, the Morning Post used
to be known as Jeames, that generic
name for flunkeys being attached to it
in allusion to specialization on society
news. When the Morning Herald and
Standard had the same proprietor
and to a large extent the same staff,
and used to appeal to each other as
independent authorities, they were
familiarly known as Mrs. Harris and
Mrs. Gamp. The Morning Advertiser,
as the organ of trade, has at various
times been dubbed the Barrel Organ,
the Tap Tub and the Gin and Gospel
Gazette. The Pink 'un scarcely counts
as a nickname, being officially adopt
ed as an alternative title for the
Sporting Times.-London Chronicle.
Golf and Kisses.
"Seashore golf seldom amounts to
much," said ii. Chandler Egan, the
golf champion, on the Wheaton links.
'SSeashore golf always suggests to
me the dialogue between Jack and
Jill.
"'Oh, Jack, dear, don't!' whl.pered
Jill. 'The caddie will see us.'
"'No he won't,' said Jack. 'He's
too busy looking for the ball, and it's
in my pooket.'"
PLAIN REASONS WHY THE WINDI
BLOW.
Astronomers and other scientists
have not yet succeeded in ascertain
ing just how far the atmosphere o1
dur earth extends above the land and
the sea on which it rests, but some oi
them hope to some day soon. The
Astronomer Royal of England, whc
has completed his report for the fiscal
year ending May 10. tells some very
interesting things about the varying
densities, altitudes and temperatures
of the air cushions, air pockets and
air currents surrounding the earth.
In reference to air currents and
the reasons why the wind blows, the
report explains that air consists of
gaseous particles, all trying to get
away from one another, and that, un.
der certain conditions, they can be
compelled to come closer together by
contraction, or forced to fly further
apart by expansion. A quart bottle,
for example, holds 22 grains of air at
the temperature of 70 degrees. If the
bottle be cooled by surrounding it
with ice, the air inside contracts.
When this occurs, more air rushes in
through the bottle's neck. The quart
of air now weighs more than 22 grains.
If the bottle be heated, the air it con
tains expands, its tiny particles fly
further asunder, and many of them
escape from the bottle altogether.
There is still a quart of air, but it
weighs much less than the original 22
grains.
Now, consider the earth and the sea
under the influence of varying degrees
of the sun's heat. Where the heat is
greatest, the air is made lighter and
expands. Where the heat is least, the
air is unexpanded and heavy. Both
the hot and the cold 'air have weight,
but the cold, being the heavier, is
drawn more effectively down to the
ground. In doing so it drives the light
er air up out of its way, just as a lump
of lead dropped into a pail of water
forces some of the water upward. If
the earth were equally warm at every
part, and continued at a constant tem
perature, wind could not exist. It
"blows" because of heat and gravita
tion. In other words, air moves from
the place where its weight or pressure
is most, toward the place where its
weight or pressure is least.
HORSES DECREASING IN PARIS.
The number of horses in Paris
steadily decreases under motor compe
tition, and the horses that remain
have to thank the automobile as well
as the efforts of various societies for
the better treatment they receive, for
to survive in these days they must be
fit. The army authorities take a cen
sus of the number of horses, and the
figures for 1911 show 72,488 in Paris,
compared with 96,698 in 1901. This
means that the number of horses has
decreased 24,210 in ten years, or al
most exactly a quarter. The military
authorities are somewhat perturbed
over this fact. It is true that for
transport of war material and provis
ions automobile traction saves the use
of many horses, but there remain the
needs of the cavalry and 'artillery. The
old standby for trained horses, the
omnibus companies, will soon be of no
assistance, for autobuses are rapidly
supplanting horse-drawn stages.
BIRTHPLACES OF FRUITS
The raspberry is native to temrn.
perate Europe and America and cer
tain parts of Asia. The apricot orig
inated at China. The peach, too, was
originally a Chinese fruit. The cher
ry birthplace was near the Caspian
Sea, and the plum comes from the
Caucasus and Turkey. The pear is
native in temperate Europe and West
ern Asia. The quince came from
Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus
and the Caspian region. The apple is
native all over Europe, in the Cau
casus, round the Black Sea and in
Persia. The fig seems to have origin
ated in the lands bordering on the
Mediterranean, particularly in Syria.
The red current grows wild all over
Europe, in the Caucasus, the Hima
layas, Manchuria, Japan and Arctic
America. The sweet orange origin
ated in Southern China and Cochin
China and the citron in India.
THE USE OF THE COMMA.
The point on which most writers
are at odds with the compositor is
the comma, says the London Chron
icle. It is not that he misplaces it so
outrageously, as in that sentence
which was the cause of many tears in
a Berlin newspaper office some years
ago: "Prince Bismarck walked in on
his head, the well-known cap on his
feet, large, brightly polished top boots
on his forehead, a dark cloud in his
band, the inevitable walking stick in
his eye, a menacing glance."
No, but he is too fond of this par
ticular pundtu$tion point. Hie takes a
delight in breaking up the flow of
sentences with his artificial pauses.
We all say: "Why then did you do it ?"
in one breath. It is the composite.
who says, "Why, then, did you do it?"
It is possible to be too hard on the
comma. It has its undeniable uses.
CHRONOLOGY OF INVENTIONS.
Barometers were first mate by Tor,
ricelli in 1842. Bombshells were first
made in Holland in 1495. The lirst
almanac was printed in Hungary in
1470. Iron pavements were first laid
in London in 1817. Buckles were first
made in 1680. Brandy was first made
in France in 1310. Roller skates were
invented by Plympton in 1863. Cov
ered carriages were first used in Eng
land in 1580. Alcohol was discovered
in the thirteenth century. Stem wind
ing watches were the invention of
Noel in 1851. The first iron wire was
drawn at Nuremburg in 1,351.
CARING FQR SHEEP IN FALL
Lambs Should Pe Weaned Just al
Hot Weather Sets In-One Great
Aid Is Plot of Grass.
(Dy ELMER E. HIENDERSON.)
At this season of the year it is very
necessary that the sheep, both ewel
and lambs should be given every pos
sible opportunity to keep in the best
of thrift.
In traveling along the road one is
impressed with the number of lambs
that are allowed to suckle their
mothers uritil almost the opening of
the breeding season.
Such a practice keeps the ewes
unnecessarily thin and without any
compen:,ating benefit to the lamb.
It is coming more and more the
practice for our best farmers to wean
the lambs just as hot weather com
mences, say about the first of June.
There are many points of advantage
in this. One is that the lambs are
fully weaned and dependent upon
themselves before hot weather gives
the backset, as it almost invariably
does.
Another is that it gives the ewes
a chance to recuperate and be in good
strong condition for fall breeding,
after being suckled thin by their
young.
Another advantage of the early
weaning is that the ewes will breed
considerably earlier and early lambs
mean early sales and quick profit.
To keep the lambs going well after
they are weaned is sometimes a little
difficult, but that does not excuse one
from doing his best to keep them
coming.
One of the greatest aids to this we
have is a nice plot of fresh grass,
oats, rape or clover-all good, but to
secure something succulent and fresh
is the important thing. We like to
have it in small lots.
The lambs then graze off the plot
in a few days and are turned to an
other, thus havingO fresh pastures
every few days.
This grass is supplemented by a
little grain, almost a pound a day be
ing allowed each lamb. There is no
better single food for lambs than oats.
A little corn is not amiss, but care
must be taken not to feed too much.
Oil cake or oil meal makes a very
good supplementary food.
We should not think of trying to
raise our lambs without some of this
wonderful supplementary food.
What we use and prepare is a mix
ture of the three. About equal parts
oats and corn and one part oil cake
to four or five of those, .being our
standard mixture.
FARMERS MAKE OWN MEATS
Concrete Smokehouse Eliminates Al
Danger of Destruction by Fire
Good for Storage.
In these days of high prices o1
meats we farmers ougnt to remember
that we can make our own meats
both fresh and smoke, the same as our
forefathers did in years gone by. Thf
old smokehouses have gone on mans
farms, and it is time the good, old
arrangement was revived.
A smokehouse made of wood, how
ever, is a little dangerous, and ai
lumber is getting high in price, and
rather scarce, we must turn our atten
tion to something else.
The one thing which I conside,
ideal and indestructible is concrete,
says a writer in Farm Progress. A
small house can be ,ullt of concrete,
and there is no danger of it being
burned.
A good smokehoues can be made of
concrete on a foundation of stone laid
below the frost line, and besides being
safe from fires, with the right kind of
doors and locks there is no danger of
any of our meat being stolen.
Then, too, the smokehouse is not
only suitable for the storage of meats,
but other things as well. If it is
made of concrete there is no worry
about anything in it.
If a suitable location can be had ii
will be a good plan to dig a cellar un
derneath the smokehouse, and by ex.
tending the concrete, down to the bot.
tom of all, and laying the proper
drains, an ideal cellar can be made
and not interfere with the storage
above.
I have one on my farm that has
been in use for the last five years,
with a cellar underneath, and it has
given the very best of satisfaction.
It is located on a south slope, and
is naturally well drained; therefore,
it has proven to be an Ideal building
for the purpose.
Best Egg Layers.
"Chickens with short toenails are
the best egg layers," Prof. J. E. Rice,
Poultry expert of Cornell university,
told students of the Agricultural col.
lege of the University of Missouri.
"Chickens have short toenails," he
said, "by continually scratching for
food. A chicken that is constantly
scratching for food is sure to be in
dustrious." The hen of the olden time,
Professor Rice said, laid on an aver
age only 16 eggs a year. The mod
ern hen of pure breed will lay from
100 to 200 eggs annually.
Noxious Weeds.
Keep down noxious weeds and do not
let them mature seed on the lawn. It
is much easier to destroy the plant be.
fore the seeds are ready for distribu
tion than get rid of the young plants
after the seeds have been scattered.
Do not let the weeds get a start.
Tuberculosis Among Fowls.
Tuberculosis has its victims among
animals and human beings where
there is a scarcity or fresh air and
sunlight. Roup ..nd kindred diseases
attack fowls deprived of these essen.
tals.
POKEWEED USED AS A REMEDY
FOR ITCH AND SKIN DISEASES
Poisonous Plant Is Native of. United States and Found iu
Rich, Moist Soils, From Maine and Northern Illinois
to Florida and Westward to Texas, Eastern
Kansas and Southern Minnesota.
The Poke Weed.
There is a large number of poison
ous plants in the United States which
on account of their limited area o:
growth, and sometimes of the uncer
tainty of our knowledge concerning
their evil effects, are comparatively
little known. All poisonous plants are
not equally injurious to all persons
nor to all forms of life. The United
States Department of Agriculture has
gathered information concerning those
that are well known and widely spread
in growth. The well known poke root
has various local names, to-wit; Poke;
poke root; garget; pigeon berry; co.
cur; jalap; shoke; American night
shade; crowberry; cancer root; chonp
gras (La.); redweed; red-ink plant;
pocan bush.
Description and Where Found.-A
smooth, rank, succulent, perennial,
six to nine feet high, with a thick
half-woody root, purplish stems, large
alternate leaves, and numerous elon
gated clusters of small greenish-white
flowers, which blossom through the
summer, and are followed in autumn
by shining purple-black berries. The
plant is native to the United States,
and grows in rich, moist soils, espe
cially as a weed in cultivated and
waste grounds, from Maine and North
ern Illinois to Florida, and westward
to Texas, Eastern Kansas, and South
ern Minnesota.
Uses.-The poke weed has many
household uses, but some chemical or
mechanical manipulation seems neces
sary to prevent ill effects when it is
eaten. The root and the alcoholic ex
tract of the fruit are quite commonly
used as a household remedy for the
itch and other skin diseases, and for
rheumatism. The fresh shoots are
rather widely esteemed as a substitute
for asparagus, but in the preparation
considerable care is exercised to re
ject the root, for small quantities im
part a bitter taste to the mess, and
larger amounts will prove dangerous.
The water in which the shoots are
first boiled is also rejected on ac
MEADOW FESCUE FOR STOCK
Meadow fescue is of little value for
temporary seeding since it takes about
three years for the plants to get well
established. On rich soils that do not
count of the poisonous substance con
tained in it. The flesh of the berries
is eaten with impunity by some birds,
but its use by human beings cannot
be recommended.
Poisonous Character.-Most in
stances of poisoning arise from over
doses when the plant has been used as
a medicine, but there are also acci
dental cases due to the eating of the
root, which has been variously mis
taken for that of the parsnip, arti
choke, and horeradisB. A few fatal
cases of poisoning of children have
been attributed to the fruit, but
whether death was really due to the
seed or the pulp is uncertain. The
evidence is chiefly against the seed,
for it is known to contain a poisonous
substance.
Poke weed is a violent but slow act
ing emetic, vomiting beginning only
after about two hours. It also affects
the nerves and muscles, producing
retching, spasms, severe purging, and
sometimes convulsions. Death is 'ap
parently due to the paralysis of the
respiratory organs.
CALVES DRINK
MUCH WATER
Half Barrel Cleaned and Re.
plenished Twice Daily Will
Serve Nicely as a
Drinking Trough.
Calves, like other farm animals, get
thirsty even though milk forms a
large part of their ration. Calves
three months of age will drink as
much as five quarts of water daily
per head. They like to drink often,
sipping a little at a time.
A half barrel cleaned and replen
ished twice daily, will serve nicely
as a water trough. Another good
device is an automatic waterer which
may be easily cleaned, situated a lit
tle above the floor to keep out the
litter.
dry out it gives good results, the
plants being relished tlr all farm
stock. It should have a place in all
permanent pasture mixtures.

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