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pIE AO F ISE
Corplete Text of This Important Document As It War Signid at Paris and Which Is Now Causing Discussionjn This Country. EVERYONE SHOULD READ IT The people of the United States-have been asked, by both the pioponents and the opponents of the peace treaty and League of Nations covenant, to give expression to their desires as to the ratification of the treaty %a It stands or with amendments or reser vations. Some of them have respond ed, at the Meetings addressed by the president and by the opposing sena tors, or by commurications to their senators. But the vast majority of the people are handicapped by their ig norance of the matter. Probably not one in ton thousand has read the covenant of the League of Nations as it was presented to the senate, main ly because few have had the oppor tunity. In order that our readers may be prepared to do their full duty as citizens in regard to the controversy. the complete text of the covenant is herewith presented, and they are asked to read it carefully. THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. The high contracting parties, in order to promote international co-operation and to achieve international peace and security by the acceptance of obliga tions not to resort to war, by the pro scription of open, just, and honoralIe relations between nations,4y the firm establishment of the understandings of International law as the actual rule of conduct among governments, and by the maintenance of justice and a scru pulous respect for all treaty obliga tions in the dealings of organized peo ples with one another, agree to this covenant of the League of Nations. ARTICL! 1.-The original members of the Ienaue of Nations shall be those of the sign:tories which are named in the annex to this covenant and also such of those other states named in the annex as shall accede Without reserva tion to this covenant. Such accession shall be Efec :.- by a declaration de posited with hi secretariat within two months of the coming into force of the covenant. Notice thereof shall be sent to all other io :Leis of the league. Any fully se-f-go' -rning state, do mninion, or col:: y not named in the an nex may beccei. a member of the league if its ad h s:on is agreed to by two-thirds of the assembly, provided that it shall give effective guarantees of its sinctre it::ut;... t , a its international obligations, and shall ac cept such regulations as. may be pre scribed by the league in regard to its military, naval and air forces and arm aments. Any mebe, cf t(he 'eague may, after two years' r rtce of its intention so to do, withdraw from the league, provided that all its .' ýŽrnational obligations and all its obligations under this cove nant shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawaL ARTICLE 2,-The action of the league under this covenant shall be effected through the instrumentality of an assembly and of a council, with a permanent secretariat. , ARTICLE &-The assembly shall Consist of representatives of the members of the league. The assembly shall meet at stated in tervals and from time to time as occa sion may. require at the seat of the league or at such other place as may be decided upon. The assembly may deal at its meet ings with any matter within the sphere of action of the league or affecting the peace of the world. At meetings of the assembly each member of the league shall have one vote, and may have not more than three representatives. ARTICLE 4--The council shall con sist of represenatives of the principal Sllied and associated powe'rs, together with representatives of four other members of the league. These four members of the league shall be select ed by the assembly from time to time in its discretion. Until the appointment of the representatives of the four mem bers of the league first selected by the assembly, representatives of Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Greece shall be mem bers of the council. With the approval of the majority of the assembly, the council may name members of the league whose repre sentatives shall always be members of the council; the council with like ap proval may increase the number of members of the league to be selected by the assembly for representation on the council. The council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, and at least once a year, at the seat of the league, or at such other place as may be decided upon. The council may deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of the league or affecting the peace of the world. Any member of the league not rep resented on the council shall be in vited to send a representative to sit as a member at any meeting of the coun cil during the cgnsideration of matters specially affecting the interests of that member of the league. . At, meetings of the council, .each member of the league represented on the council shall have one vote, and may have not more than one repre sentative. ARTICIB 5,;-Except where other wise expressly provided in this cove nant or by the terms of the present treaty, decisions at any meeting of the assembly or of the council shall re quire the agreement of all the mem bers of the league represented at the meeting. All matters of procedure at eflengs the assembly or of tg councilv in ' ingt the appoeatment committees to investigate particular matters, shall be regulated by the assembly or by the council and may be decided by a ma Jorty of the members of the league tr se elf at thznetS; g t¶ ftt RV1lfn ci.r bse auiblT iS the nest meeting et the sauncit b sn aee by th pt f 47 .Ww"tb ,f7meº ARTWLIB a-T'he permaneat secre tarlat shall be established at the Neat of the league. The secretariat shall comprise a secretary general and such secretaries shi stat as may be re quired. The first secretary general shall be the person' named in -the- annex; there after the secretary general shall be appointed by the council with the ap preval of tha .majority of the- assembly. The secretaries and staff of the sec retariat s.all be appointed by the sqc retary geibral with the approval of the council The secretary general shall act in that cqpacity at all meetings of the as sembly and of the counciL The expenses of the secretariat shall be borne by the members of the league in accordance with the apportionment of the expenses of the international bureau of the Universal Postal union. ARTICLE 7.-The seat of the league is established at Geneva. The council may at any time decide that the seat of the league shall `be es tablished elsewhere. All positions under or in connection I with the league, including the secre tariat, shall be open equally to men and womefi. Representatives of the members of the league and officials of the league when engaged on the business of the league shall enjoy diplomatic privi leges and immunities. The buildings and other property oc cupied by the league or its officials or by representatives attending its meet ings shall be inviolable. ARTICLE S.-The members of the league recognize that the maintenance of peace requires the reduction of na tional armaments to the lowest point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by common action of in ternational obligations. The council, taking account of the geogra; :!cal oi. i i and circum stances of each state, shall formulate plans for such reduction for the con sideration and action of the several governments. Such plans shall be subject to recon sideration and revision at least every ten years. After these plans shall have been adopted by the_ several governments. the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded without the con currence of the council. The members of the league agree that the manufacture by private enter prise of munitions and implements of war is open to grave objections. The council shall advise how the evil ef fects attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to the necessities of those members of the league which are not able to man ufacture the munitions and implements of war necessary for their safety. The members of the league under take to interchange full and frank in formation as to the scale of their arm aments, their military and naval pro grams and the condition of su h of their industries as are adaptable to warlike purposes. ARTICLE *.-A permanent commis sion shall be constituted 'to advise the council on the execution of the provi sions of articles 1 and 8 and on mili tary and naval questions generally. ARTICLE 10.-The members of the league undertake to respect and pre serve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing I political independence of all members of the league. In case of any such ag gression or in case of any threat or, danger of such aggression the council shall advise upon the means by which C this obligation shall be fulfilled. ARTICLE 11-Any war or threat of I war, whether immediately affecting any of the members of the league or, not, is hereby declared a matter of con- I cern to the whole league, and the league shall take any action that may be deemed wise and effectyal to safe guard the peace of nations. In %case any such emergency should arise the secretayr general shall on the request of any member of the league forthwith summon a meeting of the council._ It is also declared to be the friendly right of each member of the league to bring to the attention of the assembly or of the council any circumstance whatever affecting international rela tions which threatens to disturb inter national peace or the good understand ing between nationg upon which peace depends. ARTICLE 12-The members of the .league agree that if there should arise between them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will submi. the matter either to arbitration or to in quiry by the council, and they agree in no case to resort to war until three months after the award by the arbitra tors or the report by the counciL In any case under this article the award of the arbitrators shall be made within a reasonable time, and the re port of the council shall be made with in six months after the submission of the dispute. ARTICLE 18.-The members of the league agree that whenever any dis pute shall arise between them which they recognize to be suitable for sub mission to arbitration and which can not be satisfactorily settled by diplo macy, they will submit the whole sub ject matter to arbitration. Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of iuterna ticnal law, as to the existence of any fact which if established would con stitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to the extent and na9 ture of the reparation to be made for any such breach, are declared to be among those which are generally suit able for submission to arbitration. For the Consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitration to which the case is referred shall be the court agreed on by the parties to the dispute or stipulated in any con vention existing between them. The members of the league agree that they will carry out in full good faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not resort to war against a member of the league which complies therewith. In the 'event of any failure to carry out such an award, the council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto. I ARTICLE 14.-The council shall for t mulate and submit to the members of the league for adoption plans for the 1 establishment. of a permanent court 1 of international justice. The court I shall be competent to hear and deter . mine any dispute of an' international character which the parties thereto submit to it. The court may also give - an advisory opingion upon any dispute - or question referre4 to it by the coun Scil or by the assemnbly. .ARTICLE 15Al.f ,there should arise - between members of the league any * dispute likely to lead to a rupture, which is not submitted to arbitration * in aecordanee with article 13. the mem .bers of the league agree that they will s submit the matter th the couztciL Any ii party to the dispute may effect such * submission by giving nutice of the ex .istence of the disp~ute to the secretary a general, who will 'make afl n~cessary arr~angements for~ a tul investigation y and consideratiofl thereof; U For this purpose the parties to the pf dispute will cosmmunlcatO4 't6he see British Empire. IZberis. at Canada. Nicaragus. 1 Australia. Panama. c South Africa. Peru. lib New Zealand. Poland. China. ' Roumanlt. - ci Cuba. Serb-Croat-Sl@s " Ecuador. vene state. W France. Siam. ti GrB~~ee a. Czecho-Slovakla. c' (iuaetau~s. Uruguay. States invited to accede to the cove* nant: a Argentine Repub- Paraguay. o - lic. Persia. m Chile. Salvador, 1 Colombia. Spain. a Denmark. Sweden. s t Netherlands. Switzerland. a 1 Norway. Venezuela. II. First secretary general of the s League of Nations: The Honorable Sir James Eric Drum e mond, K. C. M. 0., C. B. o CHINA, SHANTUNG AND JAPAN a The following are the sections of f the Peace Treaty that refer to China e and to Shantung Province that are " e the subjects of discussion in all parts n of the nation: ti - CHINA. 1E r ARTICLE 125.-Germany renounces ti - in favor of Chinrall benefits and privi- si leges resulting from the provisions of r: e the final protocol signed at Peking on e September 7, 1901, and from all an- c - nexes, notes and documents supplemen- b t tary theretro. She likewise renounces I e in favor of China any claim to indem- R - nities accruing thereunder subsequent t] to March 14, 1917. a e ARTICLE 129.-From the coming into t, - force of the present treaty the high e contracting parties shall apply in so t' 1efar as concerns them respectively: a 1 1. The arrangement of August 29, f 1902, regarding the new Chinese cus- t' toms tariff. b 2. The arrangement of Sept. 27, 1905, n regarding Whang-Poo, and the provi a sional supplementary arrangement of a April 4, 1912. China, however, will no a d longer be bound to grant to Germany p the advantages or privileges which she t allowed Germany under these arrange- b e ments. b ARTICLE 180.-Subject to the provi- b ,t sions of Section VIII of this part, Ger- n e many cedes to China all the buildings, O wiarves and pontoons, barracks, forts, o arms and munitions of war, vessels of e all kinds, wireless telegraphy installa- a tions and other public property belong- s ing to the German government, which b are situated or may be in the German n a concessions at Tientsin and Hankov or s elsewhere in Chinese territory. t It is understood, however, that prem ises used as diplomatic or consular res idences or offices are not included in t the above cession, and, furthermore, o that no steps shall be taken by the Chi- o o nese government to dispore of the Ger- l; man public and private propert situ- a ated within the so-called legation quar- } e ter at Peking without the consent of j the diplomatic representatives of the f powers which, on the coming into a force of the present treaty, remain par- a ties to the final protocol of September I " i ns _ ARTICLE 131-Germany undertakes to restore to China within twelve months from the coming into force of the present treaty all the astronomical instruments which her troops in 1990 1901 carried away from China, and to defray all expenses which may beTn curred in effecting such restoration, in cluding the expenses of dismo-iiting, packing, transporting, insurance and installation at Peking. ARTICLE 133L-Germany agrees to the abrogation of the lease f i'bra the Chip-.e government under which the German concessions at liankow and Tientsin are now held. China, restored to the full exercise of her sovereign rights in the asove areas, declares her intention of opening them to international residence and trade. She further declares that the abroga tion of the leases under which these concessions are now held shall not af fect the property rights of nationals of allied or associated powers who are holders of lots in these concessions. ARTICLE 133.-Germany waives all claims against the Chinese government or against any allied or associated gov er nent arising out of the internment of German nationals in China and their repatriation. She equally renounces all claims arising out of the capture and condemnation of German ships in China or the liquidation, sequestration or control of German properties, rights and interests in that country since Au gust 14, 1917. This provision, however, shall not affect the rights of the par ties interested in. the proceeds of any such liquidation, which shall be gov erned by the provisions of Part X (eco nomic clauses) of the present treaty. ARTICLE 184.-Germany renounces, in favor of the government of his Bri tannic majesty, the German state prop erty in the British concession at Sha meen at Canton. She renounces, in fa vor of the French and Chinese govern ments conjointly, the property of the German school situated in the French concession at Shanghai. SHANTUNG. ARTICLE 156.-Germany renounces, in favor of Japan, all her rights, titles and privileges-particularly those con cerning the territory of Kiao-Chau, railways, mines and submarine cables which she acquired its virtue of the treaty concluded by her with China on 6th March, 1898, and of all other ar rangements relative to the province o Shantung. All German rights in the Tsing-tao Tsinan-Fu railway, including its branch lines, together with its subsid iary property of all kinds, stations, shops, fixed and rolling stock, mines, plant and material for the exploitation of the mines are and remain acquired by Japan, together with all rights and privileges attaching thereto. The German state submarine cables from Tsing-tao to Shanghai and from Tsing-tao to Che Foo, with all the rights, privileges and properties attach ing thereto, are similarly acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges and incumbrances. ARTICLE 157.-The movable and im movable property owned by the Ger man state in the territory of Kiao Chau, as well as all the rights which Germany might claim in consequence of the works or improvements made or of the expenses incurred by her, di rectly or indirectly, in connection with this territory, are and remain acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges and incumbrances. ARTICLE 158.-Germany shall hand over td Japan within three months from the coming into Kforce of the present treaty the. archives, registers, plans, I title deeds and dscumuents' of every kind, wherever they hany be, relating Sto the administration, whether civil, Smilitary, financlal, Judicial or other, Sof the territory, of Kiao-Chauw SWithin the eame pariod. Germany w halU give portipulars to Japans of all treaties, aryan aat5 et agreememts irelating to the rightg, title or peivie tryen yere6l*s to the two rgreeMR statemeats - their case with all the o relevant facts ta paper5, and th$ 0 councl may forthwith diteot the pub 1106103 thereof.,t The council sallaa1 4e! to effect' ti a s~t~efeito! ao 1~*, a if such t eforts are su eaPtl, a stat*1m entshal bb madl Vubil giving euch fates and L expian*ati0h8 teat4"ar tue dispute and s the terms of settlement thereof` as the o council may depia appropriate. - t U the dispute is not thus settled, the t council either unanimously or by a ma- . jority vote shall make and publish a c report Containing a statement of the facts of the dispute and the recom- I mendations which are deemed just and proper in regar4 thereto. e Any member of the league repre- 11 sented on the council may make public t a statement ot'the facts of the dispute t and of its conclusions regarding the t same. If a report by the council is unani mously ag' ee 1 to by the -members t thereof other tnai the representatives a of one or m.re (.a the parties to the dispute, the mtr wr of the league a t Iagree the' ia y wifl rot go to war with any prt r to . h dispute which compli.i ,with t.e rec .i1mendations of the report. e L If the couop'1 ftiis to reach a repo t 8 which is unr Lmoduoiy agreed to by the members theL. j f0 e than the repr - sentatives o, a: * or :.pre of the ra.r ties to the di a la tih members of tUe league refer'- a thermeives the right I s to take such .ection as they shall con- ! - sider necessary for the maintenance of t f right and j a If the dis t:te betwe'fn the partics is t - claimed by oie of th nm, and is found - by the council to arise out of a matter w which by intcsrnational law is slely - within the dome tic jurisdiction of t t that party, the council shall so report, i and shall make no recommendation as ' a to its settlement. 1 The council may in any case under a this article refer the dispute to the as- I sembly. The dispute shall be so re I, ferred at the request of either party to - the dispute, provided that such request 1 be made within 14 days after the sub i, mission of the dispute to the council. 1 - In any case referred to the assembly a f all the provisions of this article and of 0 article 12 relating to the action and I V powers of the council shall apply to t e the action and powers of the assem - bly, provided that a report Mfade by the assembly, if concurred in - by the representatives of those members of the league represented 9, on the council and of a majority ,. of the other members of the league, 1 f exclysive in each case of the represent - atives of the parties to the dispute, shall have the same force as a report h by the council concurred in by all the 1 n members thereof other than the repre r sentatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute. ARTICLE 16.-Should any member of the league resort to war in disregard of its covenants under articles 12, 13. or 15, it shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed an act of Wvar against all other members of the league, which hereby undertake immediately to sub ject it to the severance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between their nationals and the nationals of the covenant breaking state, and the prevention of all financial, commercial, or personal intercourse between the nationals of 1 the covenant-breaking state and the nationals of any other state, whether a member of the league or not It shall be the duty of the council in suclrcase to recommend to the several governments concerned what effective military, naval or air force the mem bers of the league shall severally con tribute to the armed forces to be used to protect the covenants of the league. The members of the league agree, further, that they will mutually sup port one another in the financial and economic measures which are taken under this article, in -order to mini mize the loss and inconvenience re sulting from the above measures, and that they will mutually support one another in resisting any special meas ures aimed at one of their number by the covenant-breaking state, and that they will take the necessary steps to afford passage through their territory to the forces of any of the members of the league which are co-operating to protect the covenants of the league. Any member of the league which has violated any covenant of the league may be declared to be no longer a member of the league by a vote of the council concurred in by the representa tives of all the other members of the league represented thereon. ARTICLE 17.-In the event of a dis pute between a member of the league and a state which is not a member of league, or between states not members of 'the league, the state or states not members of the league shall be invited to accept the obligations of member 1 ship in the league for the purposes of such dispute, upon such conditions as the council may deem just. If such ini vitation is accepted, the provisions of " articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be ap plied with such modifications as may be deemed necessary by the council. Upon such invitation being given the council shall immediately institute an i inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recommend such action as may seem best and most effectual in the circumstances. If a state so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of membership in the league for the purpose of such dispute, and shall resort to war against a member'of the league, the provisions of article 16 shall be applicable as against the state taking such action. If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the obliga tions of membership in the league- for the purposes of such dispute, the coun cil may take such measures and make such recommendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the set tlement of the dispute. ARTICLE 18.-Every treaty or inter i national engagement entered into here I after by any member of the league I shall be forthwith registered with the secretariat and shall as soon as pos 3 sible be published by it. No such treaty i or international engagement shall be a binding until so registered. ARTICLE 19,-'The assembly ma from time to time advise the reconsid eration by members of the league of treaties which have become inapplicable - and the copsideration of internalional - conditions whose continuance hight - endanger the peace of the world. B ARTICLE 20,-The members of the r league severally agree that this acove - nant .is accepted as abrogating all ob 1 ligations or understandings inter se 5 which are inconsistent with the terms a thereof, and solemnly undertake that they will not hiereafter enter int9 any g engagements inconsistent With the a terms thereof. tIn case any member of the league shall, before becoming a member of the league, have undertaken any oh rligation. Inconsistent with the terms -of this covenant, -it shall be the duty of such member to take linuiedlate steps to preoore its release from such obli r atlons. SARTWWLZ 21-Notbiug in this cove eaut shall be dgemed to affEot the ma I 114ty of laternatiolalt eugagemenits. F tlj, as testles 41t .,bitrationu or r< tqasit uutertamainugs like the Mtourse Doctrine, for securing the maintenancs of peaoe. ART1IC'L 23.-To those colonies an.! territories which as a consequence of the lat;n war have ceased to be under the so ereignty of the states wMich forimerly governed them and which are i:nhabitted by peoples not yet able to staýnd by themselves under the strenu oxis conditions of the modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well-being and development c.f suwh peoples form a sacred trust of civilization and that securities for the perfornmafnee of this trust should be embodied in this covenant The best method of giving pracl cal effect to this principle is that the tute lage of such people should be intrusted t to advancil nations who by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as mandataries on behalf of the league. ( The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of devel r-m)ent of the people, the geographical -t-1ation of the territory, its economic imnditions and *other similar circum st." nces. C rtain communities formerly be kn 1 ing to the Turkish empire have reci.hed a stage of development where r existence as independent nations -' be provisionally recognized subject << the rendering of administrative ad vice and assistance by a mandatary un til such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communi ties must be a principal consideration in the selection of the mandatary. ] Other peoples, especially those of central Africa, are at such a stage that L the mandatary must be responsible for , the administration of the'territory un i 'der conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of pub lic order and morals, the prohibition of - abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and t the prevention of the establishment of - fortifications or military and naval bases and df military training of the º natives for other than police purposes f and the defense of territory, and will I also secure equal opportunities for the ) trade and commerce of other members - of the league. There are territories, such as South 1 west Africa and certain of the South Pacific islands, which, owing to the I sparseness of their population or their r small size, or their remoteness from the centers of cipilization, or their geo - graphical contiguity to the territory of the, mandatory, and other circum t stances, can be best administered under i the laws of the mandatary as integral - portions of its territory, subject to the B safeguards above'gentioned in the in terests of the indigenous population. In every case of mandate the man datary shall render to the council an f annual report in reference to the ter ritory committed to its charge. The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised by the mandatary shall, if not previously agreed upon by the members of the league, be explicitly defined in each case by the counciL A permanent commission shall be constituted to receive and examine the annual reports of the mandataries and I to advise the council on all matters re l'ting to the observance of the man e dates. ARTICLE 23.-Subject to and in ac- 1 I cordance with the provisions of inter national conventions existing or here-: after to be agreed upon, the members S of the league: (a) will endeavor to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of labor for men. women, and children, both in their own countries and in all countries to which their 1 commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish and maintain the necessary in ternational organizations; (b) undertake to secure just treat ment of the native inhab itants of territories under c conitrol; (0) will intrust the league with the general supervision over the l execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in wows en and children and the traf fic In opium and other dan gerous drugs; (d) will intrust the league with the general Apervision of the trade in arms- and 'ammunl tion with the countries in which the control of this traffic is necessary in the common interest: t (e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of cothmunications and of tran sit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all I members of the league. In this connection the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of 1914-1918 shall be borne in mind; (f) will endeavor to take stcps in 1 matters of International con cern for the prevention and control of disease. ARTICLE 24.-There shall be placed under the direction of the league all international bureaus already estab lished by general treaties if the parties to such treaties consent. All such in- I ternational bureaus and all commis sions for the regulation of matters of international interest hereafter consti- I tuted shall be placed under the direc tion of the league. In all matters of international inter est which are regulated by general 1 conventions put which are not placed under the control of international bu reaus or commissions, the secretariat of the league shall, subject to the con sent of the council and if desired by the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render 4 any other assistance which may be nec essary or desirable. The council -pay include as part of ] the expenses of the secretariat the ex penses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the league. ARTICLE 25.--The members of the league agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of duly authorized voluntary national Red 1 Cross organizations having as purposes. t the improvement of health, the preven tion of disease, and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world. ARTICLE 26.-Amendments to this - covenant will take effect when ratified e by the members of the league whose s representatives compose the council t and by a majority of 'the members of r the league whose representatives com e pose the assembly. No such amendment shall bind any e member of the league which signifies f its dissent therefrom, but in that case - It shall cease to be a member of the S league. f ANNEX. * I. Original members of the League of Nations signatories of theUety of,, peace:, United States of lHaitl. America. Hedjas. .. Belgium. R~ondurse. 2 1 1Italy. ' Wirta~i. Japta. 4 ARKANSES RiAQ RIOT bJ Not Insurre to Bring Test C~ by A Gile St. Paul,Mmj1 tion of the Ele riots by a corre Chicago Daily Nesot facts more noteworh severity of punishe out to the allege n tionlists. get Back of the report that two whott ened fire on a pea meeting. Back oft is an attempt of a to organize and coiled bring a lease-testine the courts. Back of t to bring a court case tation store system ma'y parts of the 80 The negro rents the. wor'ks on the half-su and he has to buy his from the owner of the t3on or from a store d by the owner. It is the Ssystem which enables th lord to exploit the teo At the end of the cry when the tennat is readj bill from the storekee has previously found o what the tenant will his crops. The storeke to know this so as tolu high to make the bill fo, plies. Elastic Bills "There are thousands of easily found," says the News correspondent, "wiy groes took up during the goods valued at not over made a crop of which share was $1,000 or more when the time came for a tlement were told that thi for the year's supplies $1,200, leaving them indelt next year to the ext* $200." The negro is prevented unwritten law from leavii land of an owner so long as in debt. The owner is tho sured of having his land on these unfair terms asly he juggles the store The system is widely uil Arkansas plantation ownen little effort is made to it. Rather it is justified as ing necessary to "keep the gers from owning the cowi, Wanted Test Case In the district where the ing broke out the formed a fraternal or, known as the Progressive ' ers' and Household unit America. Each male was to pay $1.50 and ehd male member 50 cents. poration papers were draft by Williamson and Wilti white attorney of W Ark. The announced pulP the organization was coar tion to force proper sett from owners of the land there appears to be no e of revolutionary purpose such action through the could be so regarded. In the rioting which f the first shooting at th church, 25 negroes and 5a are said to have been News dispatches from Ark., indicate that al negroes hay c been holny murder chc: ges, of who511 sentenced t, death, a more negroes are to come trial. s The plantation store is undoubtedly safe inthe tion of America for thee being. But its evil re ut on there and throueo south and in time dufl t other serious itur '7'he, e is no s5bsti deafing mocracy and fair Reag tý.een man and man. ierences do not iutpid06 -rorn the w:orker the his e UwerSysteT I frtuate7,too,th i o '~ods do nit mke t~o n bet\ een the t a ieten(ant* Ah whitet 'ons rot protec t th hte political powCe O tlhen11 ers vhich nrotce sof the fr'om ½he 01rva'O 0 gp Thousands of ivh lie fa' Texas, for int -e hered housCs atth tions, have to trad nee tation store, 8r evr0 of debt.