Newspaper Page Text
THE TIMES. WASHINGTON. SUNDAY. AUGUST 7. lS9a
18 "Yewtcrdajs In lic Philippines." --Joseph Earle Steven, author of "Yes terdays In the Philippines." may con sider himself an unusually fortunate man. especially if we should keep the Philippines, and make them the subject of our first experiment in Oriental colo nial government- There probably was no croup of islands about which, until !?. Mnr ihr American oeonle knew so little and there Is probably no group of i linn., .iiiu lllt"- . , I a more burning desire to know- Mr. Elevens lived for two years in the Phil ippineshe vas a correspondent there, the solo correspondent in the islands, during the Chino-Japanese war; he had good opportunities for obseration, and he knows how to write. All thee tend to make his book valuable to the public and to himself, and when it Is consider ed that besides all this, he was the first and thus far the only man in the field, his position Is plainly enviable. In the near future there will be dozens of cor respondents in these Islands, gleaning facts and local color as fast as possi ble, but tho Orient cannot be learned in a day, and meanwhile Mr. Sevens has the field. And the way in which he has writ ten his book makes one quite willing that he should ha e the field for a time. One cannot read a page of this book, anywhere between the two covers, with out seeing that the w riter is a very br.ght joung man. The volume is composed mainly of letters written home and to home papers during the writer's stay in Manila, as agent for an American firm He says that he and one other man, h colleague, .made up 50 per cent of the American business co'ony in Manila, from 1E91 to 1SG In 1S95, owing to the mutter Ings and growllngs of a revolutionary storm, the American firm concluded to retire from the islands and place their huiness in the hands of some English men, long established on the ground, who expected to pass the rest of their davs In the Philippines. The beginning of the revolution is recounted by Mr. Stevens In the following succinct way: The Spanish troops were at the south, aid that mysterious native brotherhood of the Katipunan called its members to attack the capital A nus fcicre was plumed, but the right leader-, were lacking, and tae attempt fail d The topi re recalled, guards dtuuled. drawbridges into old llatiila pulled up. n:plul. aiTe's aad crecutuiH made. As is well known, one ! undrcd hi, it. were crowded into that old duneon tn the mer, Illct nt f h t-mfr nl i!m tt. u .ill onrl liil.A it came on to rain at nightfall an olliccr thut I down the trapdoor Uad n,- to the prwne-s' c-'K to keep out the water. Hut it alst krpt cut the ' ... -..J ..... i - : .... .1 1 it, mini srcii iiiuiuu-i; ia. j ULl (I me vile II n- dred prisoners were suffocated Thus Manila had her BiacV Hole. One of the most noticeable things in the book Is its humor. This crops out in al-nw-t every page, and wni'e no bright say ing or comical happening is dragged in for the sake of diplav. there K enough fun in the experiences rnd observations of the author to Keep tne reader smiling sliding s.a Oiell windows liad tj 1 shut and a good part, of the tlnr. An t-piMjde j bolstered up for precaution Tne tvphoon s emed which occurred aboard ship is worth quot- to Im? advancing s'owb, as the often do, bat its Sng- for the Joke that there is in it. The ! course w a, ture. Our 5 o'clock dinner hour p.s, etamer had forty missionaries jboard. I f"dthc "J'','1 1,c'ran J'lowl , Hefo t tu n n,' and the captain was not e-pecmlly partial J iSIS, to misbionaries. It did not aud to his Ilk- jf thev decided to jou nev off throush the air in lng for them when he found that they had arranged a Sunday mission service without mentioning the fact to him. He found posted up in the companion-way this notice: Service in the Saloon. Surdav, 10 a m. Rev. X Y. Z. roith, of W ng Kiang. China, -iU Sieak on mu on woik in h bpper Yaagt e All arc invited The captain made his plans and when the pasengers came down to breakfast Stmdav morning they saw another no tice posted beneai h the first one: Sundav, Nov. 29th, Ship croses 1-Oth meridian, 9 30 a in. After which it will be Monday. What the missionaries did about It Mr. Btevens does not say. One of tho first things that the joung American discovered in his Philippine home was the frequency of earthquakes Tho enterprising Americans who build houses In those inlands will hae to con- trl e some sort of substitute for lath and , ... , . .. . . , i 5ter if they wish to keep their heads plaster and their crockery intact. The natics -s j use celling cloths. Three or four points are strongl brought out in this book. One is the ex ceeding cheapress of liing In Manila. A full suit of clothes may be bought for $2.00 It Is made of white cotton and the American puts on a. clean ono each day, and his washing bill is some J2 a month. He rents a largo country house, with servants and stables, for $15 a month. He pajs his cook 40 cents to buy and cook a dinner for four persons. Everj thing else is in proportion. It appears that nothing is dear in Manila except what cannot he had. And there are some com forts unpurchaseable at any price. Ice in any quantity seems to be one, and good butter another. Another point brought out Is the gentle ness and good-nature of the Filippino, and still another is the uncertainty of the cli mate. Altogether, living in Manila is, ac cording to Mr. Stevens, a curious mixturs of monotony and excitement, comfort and misery. In general, the place Is healthy. but typhoid fever is quite common, and Emalipox walks unabashed about the streets. The natives object to vaccina tion, and as a result of this prejudice or as a cauc of it To per cent of them are Immune by experience from smallpox But tho best wa of reviewing this book I to quote from it, at random. All the chapters are written In the same etyle. Here, for instance, k a street-scene: Manila streets, outside of the citj proper, are eniooth, hard and well shaded b the arching batdbapc. THey arc alread proving attractive to the bicycle, which, though verv expensive out here at the antipodes, is growing in favor, cspe cseliv among the wealthier half cartes, or mes tizos. Tramcar service is slow, but pretty generallv go d The car is a thing bj itself, as is the tne lean pony that pulls it. It takes one man to drive and one man to wo k the whip, and if the wiwl Mows too lia d service is generally su pended. The conductor carne3 a tnall vahs' suspended from his neck, and whistles through his lips "up hill" to Etop, and "down hill" a? the starting sign. The uiial notice. "Smoking allowed on the three tear teats onlv," is ab.ent, for cverjone smokes, even to the ronduc'o-. who generallv drops the ash off a J5-ccnt cigarette Into your lap as he hands you a receipt fo- our doz centavos. The chief rale of the road savs- "This car has seats lor twelve persons, and places for eight on each platform. I'a-sencrsaie requested lo stand in equal numbers oul on both platforms, to prevent derailment." And so if there ere four "fare." oa tie frcnt and ix on the back platform somehodv las to stumble forward to equalize the w cisht! No one Is allowed to stand inside, and if the car con tains its quota of pascngers the driver hargs out the eign "Lleno" (full), and doesn't stop even for the archbishop. It is jut as well, perhaps, to sit at the front end of the car if ou are afraid of smallpox, for the other morning a Philippine mamma brushed into a seat holding a Ecantilv-clotred babe well covered with evidence? of that dieac One Evmpathtzcs with the single ponj that docs the pu'hrg as he sees thirtj peo ple besides the car in his losd, and it is no un common tlung on a slight rise or sharp turn for til hands to get off and help the driver over the difficult. The driver holds the whip by the wrong end ard lets the heavr one come down with double force on the tembly tough hide- of the motive power. Aside from tramcars some of these little beasts, however, ere pos esscd of great speed, and with a reckless cochcro in charge it Is no uncommon sight to see three or four turn outs come tearing down the Btreet abreast, full tilt, clcaing the road, killing dogs and roosters, and making one's hair stand on end. Speaking of roosters, they are the native dog In the Philippines. The inhabitants pet and cod dle them, smooth down their plumage, clean their combs or pull out their tail feathers to make them fght, to their heart's content, and it is a fact that these cackling glass-caters really ien to show affection for tJitir proprietors, in u great measure as they exhibit hatred for their brothers. Ever native lias his fighting cock, which is reared with the greate t care until he has shown sufficient pr wes to entitle him to an entrance into the cocl pit. In cae of fire the rooster lb the first thing rescued anil removed to a place of safetj, for babies common luxuries in the Philippines are a secordar consideration and mo'c caul duplicated tlnn the feathered biped It is jlrao't imposible to walk alonr anv street in the suburban pirt of the town without teeing dozens of r-tives trudging along with rnoclrr under their arm, winch f'C being Hlk- cd to and petted to distraction At everj other little roadside hut in imp omptu bittle will be going on between two birds of equal or unequal merit the two p.vpricto'8 holding their respect- fn rcm-.il rs liv the tails in order that thev mai not come into too close quaiter'. The cockpits while gathering are held on Thur'dajs and hun dajp, are Hrpc enclosures covered with a rcof of thatch wed onto a framework of bamloo The are open on all ides jnd banked up with tiers of rude scat that iirrourd a .i d ist ring in the tei ter. Outside the gates to the flims structure nt a rnotlej crowd of women, oung and old, selling eatables whoce dark, greasv te lure- beggars description, while 1 ere and there in the ojen rpace a couple of natives will le giv ing their respective loosters a sort of prelimi nary trial with each other. As the show ges on ir'idc shiuts and applau'e resound at eer op portunit, and at tin clo'e of the perfo nunc a number of two wheeled gij;s carrj off tne ictou with their fpoils, while the losers trudge home through the dust on foot. Other familiar treet scenes consist of Chinese ba'bers, who carrj around a chair, a pair of sci-vors and a razor wl cretcr thej go, and stop to giie jou a shae cr a hair cut at anj part of the block; or Chinese car clcancis, who eoop out ot these organs some of the unprintable epithets hurled bj one natne at another. Another chapter of Interest is that which describes the typhoon: Farh in this eicntful week warnings came f-om our met excellent obsenatorj, run b the Jesuit priests, that trouble was brewing down in the l'aeific to the south and ea t, and y Fri daj tigiial Xo 1 of the danger stcm was dis placed on the flagstaff of the look-out tower. The news about the storm was indefinite, but the wllain was supposed to lie slowly moving north west, headed diTtt! for Manila Satuidaj up went signal o. 2, and in the aftenrrn No .1 and b evening To 4. Still everything wjs calm and peaciful, and Sundav mo nin dtwned pleas ant but for the exception of a duU Irae. Kar y in the afternoon up went signal No. 5, which neans that thirds are getting prett) bad, and which is not far from No. S, tne wo st that can be hoisted. Evorjbcdj now bvgan to get read for the in visible mon'tcr. All the stcameis ai d ships in the nvor put out Citra cable, and the vessels in the 1bv citra anchor: No small cratt of an kind v ere permitted to pasj out b tie bnak-watc-, and later navigation in the river itself was prohibited. Still everything was c-ilm and quiet, but the hare thickened, ard low cloi,d. be gan to rail in from the- C-una Sea. Flio tl after titlin at our residence b the ea-ide our gaze v as attracted bv a native coming down the ttreet, d c-ed in a blacK coat, with "-hi-t tails hanging out bcn.ath. and wearing white trousers and a tall hat. He carried a decorated cane, wore no sluts, ai.d marelied down the center of ths st eet, giving utuiance- to "wlenn tcnterccs m a deep cubical voice In Miort, he was the ofliciil crier .,0 '""'d the coming of toe tvpnocn, and, as 1C ma'1F'I skip, the liells np in the o d church IwVOnd nllr nO.t mill, rmt wli it nmrj .imOrl pill w T. ----i- "- "- ,-w... .. u ... a w,Id "ning p'ea. The natives e-tiuo ite brtran hasti'v to slinc -one? j over the thatch of their light siintes and one of the ugiishmcii wlo lived not far baevc of us had alreadv stretched go d M)hd cables over the I ctecp, s'opinp roof of his domicile. K vrt of lui'h prevailed", and then sudden gusts began to . blow in off the lui. The read c!o ids me caseel and apjcared to ite in a fearful hurrv. The roar i Of fhfi uirf l.llli?fiAl qml i.t i. .-. 1ia ..l.n nttm cempan with the loof, -nd later tried to sleep amidst a t-rnftc dm of ratthngs. But slumber was impossible. Our hou-e tr milled like a blu h mg bride be ore the altar, and fo- the triumphal muic of the wedding march the tin was ud denlv stripped off our rain 'lied roof like to much paper. And then the racket! Great pieces of tin were slapping around again t the home; tie trees in the frent garden were sawing against the cor nice", as if thej wanted to get in, and the ruh of air outride semed to generate a vcunn within At S a. m. tilings got 'o bad that it seemed as if Fomrtlung were going to buf-t, and mr thum and I d?ded to take a lat look into the parlor befcre seeking the safetv of t-'e cedar. No glass would have withstood the gu'ts that came pouncirg in from the bay, but our ea shell w n dows did rot ield The rain wa. sizzling in through the cracks le hot greac when a frc-h doughnut is dropped into the spider, and the noie outride was deafnmg. As our house ccmed to be holdirg tegtther. however, we gave up go ing to the reg.ons below, and turned in again, thankful that we were not oft en the ships m the bav. Now and then the wind lulled some what, and blew from another fpnrter, but bv earlv morning came some of the most terrific blowings I have ever felt, resulting from the change of direction. Down came all the wires jl'1" T"!,;Vr went i".1 d,oz ?,."?,P?" nouses to cne side of us. and kenilunV broke off cntrj,,je trccs hat for mXj ears had withtood the blat. The tt'eet was a mass of wreckage as far down as the ec coald see, and few signs of life were visib'c. One of the bank managers! was to give a dinner dance at his louse the next evening, to which everjone was invited, when word came that the bangjlon could onl be reachtd b boats, and that the festivities would have to-be put off until the parlor floor appeared. Xot all of Mr. Steens' descriptions are of Manila itself. He made several excursions in.o jthe interior, and gath ered much InfoTir.ataon and manj expe riences, as those mill find who read his book. (Xew York: Charles Scribner's Sous) "The IMnj of Animal." "The Play of Animals," a work by Karl Groos, professor of phllosophj "in the University of Basel, h-aa hecm translated into English .by Elizabeth Baldwin, and will prove of much interest and assist ance to rthe scientific student It deals net only -with animal pscIiolog, but, by analogy, with the play of young children and the reason, thereof. and ithus is of value to students of psjchology in gen eral. The book is in five chapters, the first of which is devoted to the "surplus energ theorj of play," expounded by Herbert Spencer. This theorj is based on the idea that the play of animals is simplj a means of emplojing superfluous and re dundant energ. Professor Groos con tention Is, howe-ver, that this Is not the case, and that the playful actions of ani mals are the result of Instinct, and are matters of serious moment to the crea ture. In short, he holds that play is sim ply undeveloped work. In Chapter II he expands this Idea, giving observations of the actions of animals at play, and con sidering imitation, in its relation to play, tho inheritance of acquired characters and tho rise of instincts, and the place and function of intelligence in these ac tivities The two following chapters de scribe the plays of animals in detail, di iding them into two general clasBes those which are "love plajs" and those which are not. In the fifth chapter the psjchology of animal play is considered. Prof. Groos considers play to be an instinct developed by natural selection, on a lev. el with o her instincts so de veloped. He considers it useful, first, because it is, as we say, "good exer cise;" and, second, because the animal learns to do many things in a playful way which it would otherwise have to learn to do through special inherited in stincts. He suggests that the real mean ing of infancy is that there may be time for idas. In the course of discussing the psychol ogy of animal plays, Herr Groos brings out the Idea that there are two distinct kinds of plays; those in which there is "conscious self-illusion," and those in which there is not Everj- one who has observed the games of children under stands the difference between these two things. In tho one the animal or the child knows that the situation is not real, and still behaes very much as if it were; in the second the player loses all consciousness that there is illusion Among the causes of play as considered by Herr Groos appear several sources of satisfaction pleasure of satisfying an in stinct, pleasure of movement and action, but most of all, pleasure in being a cause, or pleasure in experimenting. Whether what may be called the pleas ure of freedom, the feeling of "don't have to," enters into the play of animals is not quite certain; it emphatically loes enter into that of children It needs only a very little exercise of the memory to see that whenever the element of "must," of obligation, enters into the action of a child, tho pla -feeling stops. Still further in his argument Prof. Groos traces a connection between play and wrt. He finds that the art-consciousness is of an "inner imitation" which is "make believe" as contrasted with reali ty. The "pleasure of being catise"' and of "experimenting" also come into the art-consciousness, and as for the pleas ure of freedom, most artists, whether painters, writer, or musicians, agree that when they are obliged to create pot-boilers the pleasure of creation Is gone. The field of animal psjchology has re mained comparatively free from cultiva tion, since in the Occidental world the animal has generally been held so far below man ab to have but little interest for tho hignei consciousness. The theorj- of Darwin, of courbe, has changed this feeling to some extent, but that the ory has onl been In working order among scientists for about fifty years. Profes sor Groos' book has-, therefore, a value as a sort of pioneer venture in the line of animal psjchologj, and at. aniin.il psy chologj' and humin psychology are, after all, much more nearly allied than old fashioned philosophers wished to think, this work may prove of especial value to future students of the laws of thought (New York: D. Appleton &. Co ) Ilccent Fiction. "The Terror" ris n mew novel bj' Felix Gras, author of "The Iteds of the Midi," and has some of the characteri&tlcs of the author's former woik. It Is vivid, dramatic and inciblve in style, and the plot lb cleverly worked out The story is that of a joung girl of the French nri&tocrac', Adeline, daughter of the Marquis d'Am brun, who was "hidden In Paris, among working-people who were her friends, to protect her from the evil des'gns of hu man wild beasts who desired her monej. The introduction, -which , remarkably clever, arouse one's interest In the story at once. It is ilmplj- the report of a ctvn verjaition among scnoolboj on the eve of thoir holldajs. Each tells what he is to mave for a hoMdny treat, ami the lust of all is a Kttle fellow whose enter.ain incau is only "the stories of OM Pascal." De-terminett not to allow the others to outshine 'him, he saje, You should have heard the ttorj that Old Pas cal told us last winter, 'evening after evening, while wc sat around him in the shoemaker's shop It vas about vvnat happened to him after he lan awav from X'alcmort. He had to run away bc-cau-e the Marquis d'Ambrun'a game keeper, a bin' fellov nmtd Surto, wanted to kill turn The marq us' daugHer, Mile Adeline who wis as sweet ard good as she could be let I'as calet out of the cellar where Surto had shut him up to starve Then the good pntit of Miltmo't, iIonicur liandoulet, got him off safe at night and he went all the wa afoot to Vvipxon It vas in Avignon that he met Vau- cla r autlalr was a sergeant in the National Guard, and he was as kind to Pa-calct as he could be. Ard eo was Lazuli, Vauclair's v.nfe. She took as much care of I'ascalet ai rhe did of Claire t, her own little ion Laruh i im aged to rescue Adeline frcm a horrible old wiii an with a sharp knife, mined La Ja"cara.se Ade line's own mother had given hr to La !awras to be killed 'Vcu see, if Adelirc. wa ki 1 d, and her brother Itobe.t was killed, and the marquis was killed, too, tnen tie marquise and Surto would have all their men. And then l'accalet became Adel nt's little lover. That was whi'e thev and Pergt. awJair and hi- vvi'e were .11 living" together in Paris with a j mcr named Planchot hi tie Impasfe Guemenet: right close bv the rums of the Uastile v '-u to ind La lacarasfe, who had murdered her fatner and her b-other Itcbcrt, hunted all over Pam a ter her o tint thev might murder he", tco Vnd I know tl at 'he had all o ts of a bad time get ting awaj from them and getting awa from the guillotine lor she was a noble vou see, md it the Iteds had caught her ihey wouid have sliced her head tiht oft Put she did get ava, and Old Pascal must know how she did it; and that's wliat I wart him to tell It'll be a storj to stretch jour car 3 out as long as jour arms! This introduction is to be commended as a mean" of awakening the interest of the leader, and also dispensing with the need of length explanations at the beginning of the book. In It one getfa as in a nutshell tne whole of the pre vious history of the characters, and.tho author is enabled to plunge at once into the heart of the btorj with the certalntj that the reader is as anxious as the schoolboj'b to know how Adeline got away, and what happened to her while she was being hunted through Paris,. The storj of that chase occupies near lj 500 snug'y-filled pages, and embraces manj startling and thrilling adventures La Jacarasse Is fulij' as horrible as anj ogre of the imagination could be, and Surto it. hardlj less fearful to think up on. Not far behind them In inlqultj is one Calibto, a dandified serving-man, who is implicated in the plot to gain pos session cf Adeline But through it all moves the slender little figure of the patrician waif, Jike that of Alice in her Wonderland, some times frightened, sometimes dismaj-ed, but alwajs winsome and sweet. The character of Adeline is not onlj the most attractive, but one ot the bet drawn, in the book She is just on the borderland between childnood and womanhood, and there are few heroines of this indetermin ate age -who can be made thoroughlj in teresting. Little Adeline is one of the few. Naive, sweet and simple, she seems In very truth the little princess of a fairj tale a historical fairjtale. "The Ter ror ' Is a book to read for the storj-. It carries one along with the Irresistible in terest one used to feel in fair' tales and books of adventure, during the age of awakening imagination It Is an interest ing storj, well told, and a good picture, withal, of the fearful dajs of the Revolu tion as they appeared to the hapless hu man beings who helped to make up the chaos. Victor Hugo and other great nov elists have dealt with the controlling in fluences of that time; this Is simply a storj- of those ivhose fate it was to be controlled the lambs harried bj- the wolves. Much credit Is due the translat or, Catharine A. Janvier. It Is not the easiest thing in the world to translate a Trench novel so as to giva the epigram matic, idiomatic force of the original ex pressions, unimpaired, to the English or American reader. In fact, it maj be doubted whether this has ever actuallj been done But the present translator comes as near to writing French in Eng lish as any one can reasonably expect to do, and the result is pleasing. (New York: D. Appleton & Co.) "For Freedom's Sake," by Arthur Pat erson, is a story of the border wars of Kansas and of the early deeds of John Brown It is told with a manifest preju dice in favor of old "Ossawatomie," and an evident knowledge of the subject, and there Is a good deal of rough truth and force in tho telling, though the. book is far from being artistically perfect The hero is a New Engjand man, one Robert Holdenough, who comes to Kansas with the intention of d.lng what he can to prevent the Missourians from making the new territory a slave State. The scene is laid near Ossawlitomie, and old John Brown and his sons are prominent figures in the storj-. There is a thread of a love storj-, the heroine being a Southern girl, and the villain a Virginian, with more zeal than Judgment; but the real central figure of tho novel is John Brown, and the real theme the struggle between pro slavery and free soil elements in the first half of the centurj-. It may be a good thing, even at this late daj-, to have presented to the public this particular view of John Brown. Fanatic he was, without doubt, and charitj' must hold him a monomaniac; still, ate fair as that rwas possible to n dis ordered mind, he was sincere, and Be be lieved that he was doing a right and nec-essarj- thing. He was conscious of the unpopularity of his course, and was pre pared to .be condemned and abused bj- all men; and to a man in this frame of mind arguments do not ihave much Tvelgjht. There are people -who, in these Hater days, have called him a hj-pacrite. It may bo well, therefore., ito have a word or two spoken on the other side, rfor the sake of fair dealing. This seems, at any rate, to have "been tho view of Mr. Paterson, and he has ,gl en, oh he whole, a strong prc- (Philadelphia: Lip- "The Chase of an Heiress," by Chris tian Held, is ono of the most thoroughly readable novels in the summer libraries. Tho scene is laid in Santo Domingo, and the heroine is a young Spanish-American girl, who has suddenly fallen heiress to a large fortune, whether in England or America the author does not say, nor is It stated whether the three principal characters in the talo are English or American. From their character and conversation they might be either. There Is a good deal of local color in tho book, most deftly laid out, and one may learn, Incidentally, In the course of reading it, much of the history of Santo Domingo (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.) "A riag of Truce, and Other Stories," by Kato Phelan Hunip.on (Mrs Wade Hampton, jr.) la a book of short sto ries and sketches, showing considerable talent in the writers Mobt of them first appeared in the Philadelphia Times. Two of the sketches, "The Dead in the Bice Fields" and "The WhKe Robe Del ta," are, original in conception and skill ful in execution. Thej- are more artistic than the stories, because more true lo life. (Washington: McGlll & Wallace.) "The Looms of Time," by Mrs. Hugh Frnser, is a -very entertaining novel, with a good deal of originality in plot and treatment. The scene is laid in Chile, and the heroine is a joung, half-English, half-Chilean audi wholly charming maid en, called Gilda Edmomlbon, while the hero is an English officer by the name of McCalmont. When the btorj- opens the two j-oung folks are on a steamer, bound to Valparaiso, by waj of Cape Horn, and the description of that part of the voyage which leads through tho Straits of Ma gellan is most fascinating. It is evident that the author has- oither traveled over this route at some time or other, or had access to some -verj- good description of the region. There are also some fine de scriptive bits in the part of tho storj which deals with Chile. Tho significance of the tltlo lies in the connection between the prologue of the story and the last few chapters. The prologue reeounts the tragic ad venture of a Spanish captain, hunting for gold among the mountains, and tricked by the Indians whom he has compelled to become his guides He finds the gold of which he is in search, but he also finds death: and the reader is naturally aware that this gold mine, and the bones of the unfortuntte Don, are going to figure in the storj- at "ome future time. Thej do; but when the gold mine Is again brought in as a factor in the plot, the Interest of the storj- has shifted to another point, and 'the gold has become of -econdarj-Importance, merelj rounding out in a fit ting manner the- happj ending of the love storj'. There is tome strong char acter drawing in the book, the charac ters of Carlos Edmondbon, of the hero and heroine, and of the small waif who answers to the name of Ernie. Not the least interesting personage is the -weird being known as the "puma boj" half idi ot, half biute, green-ejpd, lithe and sub tle, flitting through the scenes of the story like a gnome. In most books of ad venture this character would lote realism and become altogether ttncannv-, but in Mrs. Fraser's book he appears qu'te real and possible. The storj is a good one to take into a hammock on some drow-ij afternoon It keeps one awake without being too exciting. (New. York: D. Ap pleton . Co) ' The Queen's Cup," by G. A. Hentj-, is one of the characteristic Hentj novels, full of dath. vigor and Interest. The hero, ono Capt Frank Mallett, Is a fine, manly joung fellow, and Is In love with a prettj and sensible girl. Bertha Greendale, who is suited in everj waj- to be the heroine of a story of adventure. Mallett'b bete noir is a man by the name of Carthew, who has been interfering with him In va rious, underhand v.avs ever since the two were at school and at Oxford together-Carthew- is the means of Mallett's losing first place in a swimming match, a row ing mntchy and his clas3,;ttiischool, and as these things are recounted in the first chapter, the interest and sympathy of the reader are at once enlisted for the hero Carthew is one of the most con sistent villains in recent fiction. His master-stroke i tne abduction of Miss Greendale, wif.h whom he naturallj falls in love as soon as It is well estab lished that Mallett 5eeks her hand, and the joung lady is carried in a jacht to a lonesome place in Haiti. Mallett follow ing, of cour-e After various livelj- ad ventures she is rescued, the villain is foiled and left behind with a broken head, and tho .much-tried lovers are made man and wife On the last page Carthew reappears in disguise, offers to assist In rowing the boat which is to take Capt. Mallett i (and his bride on board their vachfc and manages to sink the boat and grab Gapt. Mallett around the waist, with the Intention to take him to the bottom This plan, however. Is frustrated bj' the prompt action of Mal lett' s valet, who knifes Carthew and re moves all apprehension as to -the possi ble future of the wedded pair. The in terest of the story is kept up through out, and the book is an excellent one to Include in a summer librarj-. (New York: D. Appleton & Co) Current Mnfrnrlncs. The Centurj for August is a sort of melange of war articles and the regu lar midsummer fiction, pleasantly com bined. Thero is an article by Mr. Trank A Vanderlip, Assistant Secretary of tho Treasurj-, entitled "Facts About the Phil ippines, with a Discussion of Pending Problems." Walter Russell contributes a paper called "An Artist with Commo dore Sampson's Fleet." Dr. George M. Sternberg, surgeon general of the armv, writes of "The Sanitary Regeneration of Havana." Another article, by Osgood Welsh, is on "Cuba as Seen from the Inside," and there is a sort of sjmposlum on the battle of Manila Baj-, by three ejevvitnesses Tho series of articles on "Confederate Commerce Destrojers" is continued One of the articles which will prove especially interesting to most peo ple is "The Trumpet in Camp and Bat tle," bj- Gustav Kobbe, in which some of the trumpet calls of the, army are repro duced. Frederick A. Ober writes of "The Island of Porto Rico." a suoject with which he is thoroughly familiar. Two particularly good stories are "The Coon Dog," bv Sarah Orne Jewett, and "Sangro de Cristo," by Mary Bradford Crownin shleld A little poem which is exquisite ly simple and pathetic, is "A Mother of Spain," by Minnie Leona Upton. McClure's for August is, as announced on the cover, the midsummer fiction num ber and the fiction is very good. The first storj-, a second saga of schoolboy life by Kipling, is entitled "In Ambush," and' recounts an adventure of those delightful joung scamps, Stalkj-, Beetle, and McTurk, In their war with the re doubtable king. "Love in a Fog," by Hester Caldwell Oaklej', Is a little sketch of considerable originality and a decided ly novel denouement. Other stories are "While the Evil Daj-s Come Not," by William Allen White, author of "The King of Boyville." and "A .Letter from the 'Hio," by Rowland E. Robinson. There is a particularly interesting paper on "Military Europe," hy Gen. Miles, and another entitled, "My Ride Across Cuba: The Story of a Secret Mission to the Cuban Leaders' by Andrew S. Rowan. The Review of Reviews for August con tains several articles of particular inter est at this time. The etory of "Our Bat tle With Cervera-'s Fleet" is told in a profusely illustrated .article by Winston Churchill. "TheiSlege and Capture of Santiago" is a paper by John A. Church, formerly editor of the Army and Navy Journal. There Is an article by Park Ben jamin, entitled "Watson and His Squad ron," and an Illustrated editorial on "Our New Hawaiian Territory." Two other fnnfurno nt thA maxrazine are "The Pres- I ent Problems and Politics of France," by turo in his novel, plncott & Co.) Baron -"Pierre do Coubertin, and a dis cussion of the question "What Shall we Do With the Philippines?" The cartoon department this month is made up large ly of cartoons from newspapers of Mad rid, and they are highly amusing, though not precisely in the way in which their designers intended them to be. Tho leading article In the Forum for August is "The Spanish War and tlte Equilibrium of the World," by Brooks Adams, author of "The Law of Civiliza tion and Decay." Edward Farrer writes of "The Anglo-American Commission," and S. Leonard Thurlow of "The Repeti tion of History in Our War with Spain." Hon. George L Rives, formerly Assistant Secretary of State, contributes a paper entitled "Our Need of a Permanent Dip lomatic Service." Other articles in this number are "Tho Development of the Policy of Reciprocity," by Hon. John Ball Osborne," "The Problem of Immor tality; Some Recent Medlumistic Phen omena," by James H. Hj'slop, professor of Logic and Ethics, Columbia Univer sity, and "New Trials for Old Favorites," a literary paper by Brander Matthews LITERARY NOTES. Tho Werner Company, of Akron, Ohio, is publishing a "War and State Librarj-," which will doubtless prove popular. It consists of six: volumes, uniformly bound and handsomely illustrated, and the library is accompanied by a small oak case of artistic appearance. The books are: "Personal Recollections of Gen. NelsoirA. Miles," Including reminiscences of tho civil war, Indian campaigns and the development of the West, and illus trated by Frederick Remington; "Deeds of Daring by the American Soldier," a collection of stories of personal adven ture, described as "strictlj non-sectional;" "The Story of American Heroism," be ing narratives of personal adventure dur ing the civil war, by such men as Gen. Fitzhugh Leo, Gen. Lew "Wallace, Gen. Wade Hampton, etc.; John Sherman's "Recollections" (two volumes), and "The Story of Cuba," by Murat Halstead. Book News for August contains a por trait and verj brief biographical sketch of Anthonj- Hope. It continues its pollcv of asking tho popular authors of the day why they wrote their books, and receiv ing answers from them. It maj' bo re marked in passing that an examination of tho signatures of the authors, repro duced in facsimile after these letters, is calculated to destroj the theory that a man's signature and a woman's are es sentially different. Francis Wilson's au tograph Is verv feminine, and Helen Wat terson Moodj's very masculine, accord ing to tho old Ideas of what signatures ought to be; and there are all sorts and conditions of chirograph- among the va ilous authors. A new work on India has been written by Sir Richard Temple, formerlj- gov ernor of Bombay, at present a member of Parliament It will be called "A Bird's Ejo View of Picturesque India," and will be illustrated from drawings bj- the author. It is published by Chatto & Wln dus, London. Limson, Wolffe . Co. have in tj-pe for publieat'on in the near future a book bj" Elizabeth Woodbridge, of New Haven, calktl "Drama t'c Law ond Dramatic Technique," which is hlghlj- Indorsed bj-Proftts-sor A. S Cook, of Yale. The au thor is inclined to think that the English are clc-ar to tho Greeks in svmpathj th in to the French of the seventeenth centurj-, which is probablj- true- Dr. Douglas Hjde, editor of "Love Songs of Connaught," and author of "Be side tho Fire," and other works, has v.rltten a hlstorj- of literarj- Ireland, which Fisher Unwin is to publish in Oc tober. E P. Dutton & Co will publish In Sep tember a historical storj- bj- Mav Halcej Miller, called "Raoul Iron Hand: a Tale of the Fourteenth Centurj-." Houghton, Mifflin & Co sav that they are literallj- flooded with manuscripts rela ting to Hawaii, the Philippines and the West Indies, which thej- cannot use, and other publishers are tellng the same tale. No ancient information rehashed from en cjclopedlas is finding a sale just now. What Is wanted is live, interesting, accu rate Information from people who have been in tho tropics, and there is not room for verj- much even of that. Charlotte Perkins Stetson, the brilliant and philosophical poet of the Pacific Coast, has written a book on "Woman And Economics," which is a lucid si ate ment of a verj much vexed question It will hardly be popular among those who sweep awaj- everj-thlng connected with tho so-called "woman question" with the smiling remark, "Well, women must always marry in the end, and then all these questions settle themselves." -Mrs. Stetson is inclined to think that thej will not settlo themselves without more or less intelligent thought, and she makes a strong plea for her view of the case. Teachers who attempt to do "current events" teaching a branch which re quires more knowledge, more hard work and more tact than almost anj- other will find "The Book of Parliament," bj Michael Macdonough, of great use in their work. In it thej- will find the hlstorj-, theorj, parliamentarj' practice and daily working machinerj- of the two houses of Parliament A new and striking book by Dr. Paul Carus is "Buddhism and Its Critics." Two of Maupassant's best-known novels, "En Famille," and "Bel Ami," are now being adapted for the stage. Ma dame Laure de Maupassant, mother of the novelist, lives at Nice, and is fre quentlj asked for permission to drama tize her son's novels She seldom con sents, but has allowed the dramatization of these novels and two others, "Mont Oriol" and "Pierre et Jean." A short biographical and critical ac count of Tolstoi is published bj- Fisher Unwin It Is the work of Mr. G. W. Perns, and is entitled "Leo Tolstoi, the Great Mujik." One of the multitudinous books about Spain now being published is "The Es tablishment of Spanish Rule in America," bj Prof. Bernard Moses, of the Universi ty of California- Ptof. Moses compares the colonial rule of England and of Spain. Two recent numbers of the "Half-Moon Series" of papers on Old New York are "Old Taverns and Posting Inns" and "New Amsterdam Family Names and Their Origin," both of which will prove Interesting to tho student of colonial times. In the monograph on "New Am sterdam Familj- Names," which is the sixth of the series, tho following curious explanation of tho name Manhattan Is given: Somebody tells that Manhattan, in its various spellings, means the "Big Drunk;" because, ac cording to Indian tradition, which, bj the wa, is as reliable as if graven in stone, the first meet ing of red and vvhite men resulted in the utter stupefaction of a Oung Indian who courageously dared to drink the goblet filled with wine which the white men offered in token of friendship and which the older men of his tribe had suspiciously refused. He fell ipon the ground, completel overpowered by the hitherto unknown beverage, and the place was called the "Big Drunk," or, in colloquial Spanish (the first white men com ing here having been Spaniards) Monado or Mon hado, meaning the same. This Spanish word passed, like a great many others, into the Indian dialects, and is now considered an Algonquin Indian word. In the monograph on "Old Taverns" (No. 7 of the series) it was stated that the first tavern in New Amsterdam was the Stadt Harberg, or City Tavern, tho property of the West India Company, and that it stood on the site of the ware houses now occupj-lng the huildlng, 71-T3 Pearl Street, and facing Coentles Slip. In 1653 this tavern became the City Hall. CURRENT VERSE. Prophecy. Comes a cry from Cuban waters From the warm, dark Antilles, From the lost Atlanta's daughter Drowned in blood as drowned in seas; Cornea a crj of purpled anguish See her struggles, hear her cries 1 Shall she live or shall she languish? Shall she sink, or shall the rise? Shall she rise by all that's holy? Shall she live and sliall she last; Itie as we when crushed and lonely From the blackness ol the past? Did her strike! So it is written. Blood for blood and life for life; Bid her smite as1 she is smitten; Stars and Stripes were born for itrife. Once we flashed her hchls of freedom, Lights that dazzled her dark eyes Till she could but earning heed them, Reach her hands and trj to ri-c; When they stabbed her, clicked her, drowned her, Till wc scarce could heir a note; Ahl those rustling chains that bound her! Oh! thee robbers at her throat! And the land that forged these fetters? Ask five hundred jeans of news, Stake and thumb'crtw for their betters? Inqusitiona! Banished Tews! Cliana and slaver! "hat reminder Of one red man in that land? Why, thee verv chains that bind her Bound Columbus, foot and hand! She sliall ris as roce Columbus From his chains, from shame and wrong Ri'e 33 morning, matchless, wondrous Hisc as some rich morning song Rise as rinin song and stor. Valor, love personified, Stars and Stripes cpou.se her glory. Love and Libert allied Joaquin Miller, in 1S0. HIcIiiiioimI. Yes! I did say on the pirc barren view, As wear I journeyed the wild road along, Virginia's ludc soil I would glad bid adieu And never remember Virginia in song. I had passed through her towns and no converse had met, Tliouh in converse my heart knew its fondest delight; And so firm in my breast had dear friendship been set, That of friendship I thought I might challenge the right. But soon was the change when to Richmond I came. For the Granger here met with a heart like his own; And he sigh-i that Ilia verse will ne'er equal its fame. And give it for friendship the highest re nown. In the house on the hill a free welcome he found, The welcome that told him its friendship was true; And long shall the prai-e of its master re sound. While gratitude claims from his heart the just due. Oh, woman, he-e, too, both in beautv and sene. Thou art blen with the boon which art cannot improve; Tli looks and thy smiles such sweet favors dispen-e Tl.at the heart of the stranger is tempted to love. Then. Richmond, accept a stranger's farewell! If the tear of regret of his love be the proof. Long, long in his heart shall thy memory dwell. And in age be the theme of the davs of his jouth. Thomas Jlcore, first published in the Bookman. "Who Ik M AeiKhbor? Who is my neighbor? It is he vvhOjasks mv help in time of need; When in disiics or mi-cry His cr) for succor I must heed. Mv neighbor Is the poor and blind, The prisoner, the halt and lame; Let him but call, and he must find Me at his service, in Christ's name. And if he suffers pain and loss, In all his trouble. I mut take A share, and bear it as a cross Upon m shoulders for Christ's sake. A neighbor's duty is to give In chant all vve can spare; Make earth a heaven while we live With God all kindness is a prayer! Hen-y Coyle. riiinilment. El Emplazado, the summoned, the doomed one, Spam, whom the nation- denounce and abhor, Robe th disma in the black Sabcmto. Come to the frowning- tribunal of war. Curst are tby minions, their roster and scutch eon, lva, Alfonso", archarchons of hate; Pillared on bigotrv, pride and extortion, Topples to ruin th mansion of state. Violence, cruelty, intrigue and treason: The-e the fal-e courtiers who flatter thy throne; Empi-es, thv .istei, forebode th'c disiter, Even th children their mother disown. Beautiful Cuba, thv suffering daughter, Famiahed and bleeding and buffeted sore; Ghastlv from gashes and stabs, of th rancor. Binds up her wounds at an alien door. Courts and corregidors erst at th bidding, Bam-hed or butchered Morcsco'and Jew; Ghosts from all Chntendom, shades of the mar tvrs, Flock from the scpulcher, thee to pursue. rath of retribution, justice o'crtakes thee; Brand of time's malison blUters thy brow. Armed cabahero and crowned things of Bourbon, All arc unable to succor thee now. El Emplazado, the summoned, the doomed one, God's inquisition condemns thee todaj; Earth sliakmg cannon bolt thunder thv sentence, Heav en re echoes the auto da fe. W. H. Venable. An Old Favorite. Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit, from pole to pole, I thank whatever god there be For m unconquerable soul. In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced, not cried aloud. Under the bludgeomngs of chance M head is blood, but unbowed. Beyond this place of wrath and tears Looms but the horror of the shade. And vet, the menace of the years Finds and shall find me unafraid. It matters not how strait the gate. How charged with punishment the scroll, I am the master of my fate; I am the captain of mj soul. The Soiipr of the Cnmji. "Give us a song!" the soldiers cried, The outer trenches guarding. AVhen the heated guns of the camps allied Grew wearj of bombarding. The dark Redan, in ilcnt scoT, Lav grim and thrcatenirg, under: And the tavvnj mound of Malakoff Jo longer belched its thunder. There was a pause. A guardsman said: "We storm the forts tomorrow; Sing while we ma ; another daj ill bring enough of sorrow!" Thev lav along fie battery's side, Below the smoking cannon; Brave hearts from Severn and from Clyde, And from the banks of Shannon. They sang of love, and not of fame; " Forgot was Britain's glorj ; Each heart recalled a different name, But all sang "Annie Laurie." Voice after voice caught up the song, Until its tender pasion Rose like an anthem rich and strong Their battle eve confer. ou. I Dear girl, her name he dared not speak; .But as the song grew louder, Something upon the soldier's cheek, Washed off the stains of powder. Be ond the darkening ocean burned The blood sunset's embers, While the Crimean valleys learned How English love remembers. And once again a fire of hell Rmnerl nn the Uns-.mn minrtnra With scream of shot, and burst of Ehell, And bellowing of the mortars. And Inh Nora's eyes are dim For a singer dumb and gor ; And English Mary mourns for him Who sang of "Annie Laane." "51 Sleep, soldieps! still in honored rest Your truth and valor wearing; The bravest are the tendercst The loving are the daring. Bayard Taylor. Good Clieer, Have you had a kindness shown? Pass it on! 'Twas not given for you alore Pass It on! Let it travel down the years, Let it wipe another's tears, Till in heaven the deed appears Pass It onl New York Tribune. NOTES AND QUERIES. Is M. Emlle Zola a Jew? No; he Is a Roman Catholic. ELI W. When did the use of revenue stamps on checks cease under the old law? STAMP. On July 1, 1S83, in accordance with the provisions of the act of March 3, 18S3. Can you give the addrcs of a United States Government detective, or to what authority to write on a matter pertaining to the secret servics cf the Government? L. M. The chief of tlte secret service divis ion of the Treasurj- Department Is J. E. Wllkle. His office is In the Treas ury building, "Washington, D. C. Write to him for information. Kindly inform a subcnber what will stop the growth of hair, and whether or not it will injure the skin. Tnere are many ao-coHed depUaSqxiea on she market, and some of rhem may be efficajeSous. A m-st-clasa aTJOEhecary might be able to advise rvvhat K use. anil so Should any reputable reguiar physi cian. Please give the following distanets: Havana to Cadiz, Spam. 2. New York to ecatt ef Spain. 3 New York to Liverpool 4. Cadiz to JIanlla. via Suez. S. Havana, to Manila, via Cape IfMn. fl. San Francisco to Manila. SUBSCRIBER. About 4,800 English miles. 2. About 3. 120 miles. 3. 3.017 miles. L About 3,600 miles. Z. About IS.-SGJ milea. 5. About 6, 300 miles. what is meant by a "battleship stripped fcr action?" E. Y. In clearing for action guard rails, email boats, awnings, and a. lot of ma terial that Is not essential to the fight ing outJit. are lashed together and pitch ed overboard, to be recovered later. Ex plosion of shells aboard ship are made much more dangerous by the presence of material that will splinter. The dan ger of fire Is lessened, too, and valua ble room Is made. Who appoints the paymters in Uie army, what are their duties in genetai, and their fcyt B. B. a T. The President bj- and with the eoasant of the Senate, appoints the paymasters in the army. Their duties are to pay the officers and men, as a rule; some times they are placed on other duties. Thev- draw the paj of their rank, what ever that may be. They begin as majors and get $2,500 a year to start with. X. "W. H- The order of the Spanish squadron in leaving Santiago was Infan ta Maria, VIzcaya. Cristobal Colon, AI mirante Oquendo, Pluton, Furor. The or der of their destruction or beaching was Pluton, Furor, Infanta Maria, Oquendo, Vizeaj-a, Coion. L. G. The Hawaiian Islands are in Oeeanica. but perhaps these United States will have the bounda ries of that division of the world's tends cnanged. M The vowel sound in "news' is that of tube, "nooze" Is Incorrect Clifton. Schlej- is pronounced "Sly." Xo Xarae.-Patronize is speMed with a "z." How is extract of witchhazel made, and how much of the wood or bark to be usd far any given amount of the extract? Z. Y. X. This is one of monv formulae: Take of hamacnelk shoots and twigs, ten pounds; water, twentj- pints, alcohol, one and a half pints Put the hamamafi In a still, add the water and the alcohol and allow mixture to macerate twenty-four hours. Distill to ten pints bj- applying direct hent, or preferably bj- ineeins of steam. This should be made onlj- from fresh young twigs of hamameHs, collect ed in ime late autumn when the plant is in flower. Do the best medical writers recgfze any general cause of canter? Do thev believe ihac the disease, when of sueh a character as aiSlcted Gen. Grant, is curable after reaMwable deyIp ment bj any yet discovered treatment? X. X. X. T3te origin of cancer is by no means known certainlj- The onlj- thing defi nite about it seems to be that some ex ternal cause operating upon a depraved condition of the blood, will produce the disease. No treatment other than the knife has bean found riiat ; successful, and even the knife simplj- prolongs Hfe without permanentlj- removing the can cer. The great trouble with cancer is U3 tendency to grow again. What is the money loss to Spain in the ships captured and destroyed by our navy since the war began? "a. II. H. The four big vessels, the Almirante Oquendo, Cristobal Colon, Infanta Maria Teresa and Vizcaj-a, cost about $3,6KMJ0Q apiece. Ten other vessels, at least, have been destroj ed or captured which coat at a low average about $S00.0X each. That gives a total loss of HS.000,000 in vessels alone at the lowest estimate. We cannot find the exact cost of the smaller vessels. Spanish newspapers saj- that the loss of Cerv era's fleet caused a monej- loss of $20,000,000. How did the Crimean war begin and end. and which contestant had to pay the mdtmmty? b. a. The Crimean war began by Russia in terfering in Turkej- in behalf of certain Greek (Church) Christians, who had been prevented bj- the Turkish government from having their treat- rights in Jeru salem. To prevent Russia obtaining the pre-eminence in European matters that her Interference and victory would have given her. Great Britain Interfered In be half of Turke-. Then Napoleon III oZ France thought he would interfere, too, to prevent England getting too much glorj-; besides, being a Napoleon, he thought his trade was war; and Savoy joined hoping- to use its alliance- wrfth England and France as a reason later for getting control of Italj. So they let the Greek Christians go, and fought Rus sia. The latter countrj made a geoel fight, but lost. When peace was made, it hael to surrender a part of its territory, but no monej indemnitj- was required. Is it true that there is now building far the British government a battleship to eost about $11,000,008 and to carry la-inch puns? 2. WTbc was the size of the largest krupp gim at tfee World's Fair, and what wa the rze of its pro jectile? 3. How does the United States army 16 mch gun compare with other big gun of" tlte world? J. D. We think not. Such a vessel would ear ly too many eggs in one basket. Eight-een-inch guns are not adapted to naval service, the British government has given up tho use of the 16-inch naval gun. of which it had several ot some of its ohler vetsels. 2. It weighed 124 tons and was IC-mch caliber. It i? not so large as the British 1G 1-t-inch rifled gun, but it is bet ter. Our guns are the best In the wjorld. It Is generallj- believed that the extreme size of guns has been reached, and that guns larger thnn 13-Inch are not service able in proportion to their size. what was the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde pendence 2. Were Sigsbee and Sieard bfcher in rank than Sampson and Schley before tne war commenced? It. J. T. Toward the end of Maj-. 1773, Col. Thom as Polk, of Mecklenburg count-, N. C, called a meeting of the elected committee of the countj. The committee met la Charlotte courthouse on Maj- 31. and chose Abram Alexander, chairman, and Dr. Abraham Brevard, clerk. A cam mlttee on resolutions was appointed, con slsting of Dr. Brevard, Rev. H. J. Balch. and William Kennon who reported a pre amble and twentj resolutions. The pre amble read: "Whereas, bj an address pre sented to his majesty dj both houses of Parliament in Februarj- last the Ameri can colonies are dcclareel to be in a state of actual rebehon, we conceive that all laws and commissions confirmed by or derived from the authority of the Klni; and Parliament are annulled and vncatetl and the former civ U constitution of these colonies for the present wholly suspended'. Therefore, resolved. Th.tt these colonies, are Independent," etc. The other resolu tions provided for the government of Mecklenburg countj-, a sort of anti climax: to the declaration of independ ence. 2. Admiral Sieard was highest In, rank, then Commodore Schlej. then only two numbers later came Capt. Sampson, and several numbers further down th list came Capt. Slgsoee.