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fc. ' "rs "Tr-vtr - THE TIMES, WASHINGTON. SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 25. IS99. (-- !&,.JT-r-!'S "ift V f "Folta From Dixie." ' "Folks fro.m Dixie," by Paul Laurence Dunbar has met with a success which In dicated that -whether there -was anything new in the book or not people wished to read it. It has been anions' the books in demand injtwo or three cities, and all reviews of it thus far havo been favorable. It is a. collection of about a dozen short stories of negro life, illustrated by E. W. Kemble. The quaint, humorous and pa thetic elements of the negro character havo furnished themes for so many South ern writers of late years that some critics were Inclined to think the subject ex hausted. The life of the cotton field and the "quarters" has been described over and over again by writers whose earliest and tenderest recollections were mixed up with the turbaned head and crooning -vo'lce of "mammy" or the never-failing folk lore of "Uncle Remus." Ruth Mc Enery Stuart, Thomas Kelson Page, Harry Btilwell Edwards, Grace King, Richard Malcolm Johnston, Joel Chandler Harris, George Cable, Lafcadlo Hearn, Mark Twain, F. Hopkinson Smith, Frank R. Stockton, Matt Crim, and some other magazine writers not so well known, have dealt in various ways with th character istics of the plantation negro, while George Ade has handled the town negro of the West in that Httlo volume of sketches called "Pink Marsh." All this literature proved the subject a good one for story tellers. It remained to bo seen whether anything more could be gotten out of it. The difference between the work of these writers and that of Mr. Dunbar Is so subtle that most people will not stop to analyze It. It Is the difference be tween observation and intuition. Mr. Dunbar knows his people. His touch is Instinctively accurate. He may not rea son that such and such a character will behave In a certain way under given cir cumstances; he knows it. The white man either reasons or guesses about the thoughts and actions of another race. His reasonings and his guesses are oft en clever, but they are not infallible. There is a subtle. Intangible quality in the genius of every race which only an Individual of that race can thoroughly understand, and it is this quality which is present in "Folks From Dixie" and ab sent in the work of other delineators of negro life. The expression of this racial Idea might be less Bkillful than it is, but the Idea would atill be there. The stories themselves, regarded purely as literature, are thoroughly interesting. They range from the humorous to the pathetic, and In one or two of them the relations between tho races are touched lightly. The humor is gently satirical; it does hot move to laughter, but it keeps one smiling. The pathos is very much like that of some of the wild, mournful negro hymns; It Is absolutely spontane ous, without straining after effect, with out artificiality. And the pathos and humor are very cunningly mixed on oc casion. The dramatic touches come nat urally in the course of the story, and there is so little plot in some of the tales that one almost wonders at first what the purpose of them Is. But tuere Is not One which does not "Portray skillfully some trait of negro character or some dramatic Incident. If there is a fault In the diction it Is the use of too many long words, but the words are suited to the meaning, and seem, after a little, as perfectly adapted to the story as the staccato Gallic idiom of a French novel. The way in which the author uses plantation dialect and Anglo-Saxon words when it happens to suit his fancy to do so is quite satisfactory. Borne of the dialect expressions are hap jjljr', as when tho Btory of "A Family Feud" Is introduced by the remark: Dey-iln't nuffla to hide 'bout it nohow, ca'se sll quality families has de came kin' o' 'spectable fnsstsr The sermon of Rev. Elias Smith at "Bull Skin" is a fairly good example of the dialect work in the book. The scene is described as follows: The preacher waxed more and more eloquent ss he proceeded an eloquence more of tone, look and gesture than of words. He played upon the emotions of his willing hearers, except those who had steeled themselves againit his power, as a fckiUful musician upon the itrtngs of his harp. At one time they were boisterously exultant, at another they were weeping and moaning, as if in the realization of many sins. The minister himself lowered his voice to a soft, rhythmical moan, almost a chant, as he raid: "You go 'long by de road an you see an oV shabby tree a-standtn' in de o'chud. It ain't ba'dly got a apple on It. Its leaves are put' nigh all gone. You look at de branches, dey's all rough an crookid. De tree's all full of sticks an stones an' wiah an ole tin cans. Hit's all bruised up an hit's a ha'd thing to look at al together. You look at de tree an' whut do you say In yo" hea't? You say de tree ain't no 'count fu' by deir fruits shell you know dem. But you wrong, my mens, jou wrong. Dat tree did ba' good fruit, an by hits fruits was hit knowed. John tol' Gawge an Gawge tol Sam, an evah one dat passed erlong dc road had to have a shy at dat fruit. Dey be'n th'owin at dat tree evah sence hit began to ba fruit, an dey's 'bused it eo dat hit couldn't grow straight to save hits life. Is dat whut's de mattah wif you, brothah, all bent ovah jo staff an a-groanin wif yo' burdens? Is dat whut's de mattah wif you, brothah, dat yo' steps are a-wcary an you's longin fu yo' home? Have dey be'n th'owin atones an cans at you? Have dey be'n beatin' you wif sticks? Have dey tangled you up in ol wiah twtll you couldn move han ner foot? Have de way be'n all trouble? Have de sky be'n all cloud? Have de sun Tefuscd to shine an' de day be'n all da'kness? Don't git werry; be con soled. Whut de mattah? "Why, I tell you, you ba'in' good fruit, an' de debbil cain't stan' it. By deir fruits shell you know dem. "You go 'long de road a little furder an you Bee a tree standin' right by de fence. Standin Tight straight up In de air, evah lim' straight out in hits place, all de leaves green an shinin an lovely. Kot a stick ner a stone ner a can In sight. You look 'way up in de branches, an dey hangin' full o fruit, big nn' roun an solid. You look at dis tree an whut now do you say in yo' hea't? You say dis is a good tree, fu' by deir fruits shell you know dem. But you wrong, jou wrong again, my frien's. De apples on dat tree are bo sowab dat dey'd puckah up yo' mouf wuss'n a green pu'simmon, an evahbidy knows hit, br hits fruit Is hit knowed. Dey don want none o dat fruit, an dey pass hit by an don't bothah dey haids about it. "Look out, brothah, you goin erlong thoo dis worl' sailin' on flowery beds of case. Look out, my sistah, 3-ou's a-walkin' in dc sof pals an a dressin' fine. Ain't nobidy a-troublin' you, ain't nobidy a-backbitin you, nobidy ain't a-castin you' name out as evil. You all right an movin tmoov. But I want you to stop an' 'zamine yo' se'ves. I want you to settle whut kin of fruit you ba'in, whut kin of light you showin' fo'f to de worl'. And I want you to stop an tu'n er Toun' when you fin dat you ba'in' bad fruit, an de debbil ain't bothahed erbout you 'ca'se he knows you his'n, anyhow. By deir fruits shell you know dem." Two little stories of city life arc par ticularly quaint and original. One is Jimsella," a story of a plantation couple transplated to New Tork city, and the other Is "Aunt Mandy's Investment," a history of that rare bird, a negro con fidence man. The career of this confi dence man Is touched by that inevitable eoft-heartedness which Is characteristic of the race, and while he can disappear with the money of the "Afro-American Investment Company" untroubled by conscientious qualms, he cannot betray the trust of "Aunt Mandy." The Inter view between the two, when the confid ing old lady brings her painfully-saved five dollars for Investment, Is worth quoting for the simplicity and tenderness of it. Says "Mistah Ruggles:" "Of course, we can't promise you no fortune In return la' an investment of fi' dollahs, but we'll do de bes' we kin fu you." "I do' want no fortune scr nothin lak dat What I wants Is a little mo' money "cause 'cause I get a boy; he alius been a good boy to mo an' tuk keer o' me, but he thought he would do better out Weft, so he went out dere, in' fa' s. while he got along1 all right an' sent Bis mosey rcgIr. Den he took down sick an fet out of wexk. It was ha'd fu' me to git along 'dout his he'p, 'cause I's old. But dat ain't what hu'ts me. I don' keer nuffln' 'bout myse'f. I's willin' to sta've ef 1 could jes' sen' fu dat boy an' bring him home so'e I could nuss him. Dat's de reason I's a-'vestin dis money." Solomon Ruggles fingered the bills nervously. "You know when a boy's sick dey ain't no bidy kin nuss lak his own inothah kin, fu.' she nussed him when he was a baby; he's pa't o' huh, an she knows his natur. Yo' mothah. lirin, Mistah Buggies?" "Yes; 'way down South she's ve'y ol'." "I reckon some o' us ol' folks does live too long pas' dey times." "No, you don't; you couldn't. I wish to God the world was full of jes' such ol' people as you an my mothah is." "Bless you, honey, I laks to hyeah you talk dat way 'bout yo' mammy. I ain't 'fred to trus' my money wif no man dat knows how to 'spect his mothah." The old woman rose to go. Bug gies followed her to the door. He was trembling with some emotion. He shook the investor warm ly by the hand as he bade her good-bye. "I shall do the ve'y bes 1 kla fu' you," he said. Perhaps the most striking quality in Mr. Dunbar's work is tho simplicity of its effects. He seems to have the power of taking a hackneyed theme and getting a new view of it. One of these stories is woven about that old, old plot of two young men planning a duel for the sake of "honor," but tho outcome is most un expected. Another Is the story, familiar to tho South, of a bereaved father who lived In memories of the days "before the war," and that also is treated in a new way. There is a tale of a wooing by proxy which was not, in the end, happy for the go-between, and another of a young colored preacher and his work among tho people of a shiftless little ne gro settlement. There is no effort to teach a lesson in any of the stories; facts are presented with gentleness, can dor and accuracy, and the reader is left to draw conclusions. To anyone, North or South, who enjoys studies of negro life, this book will be delightful. (New Tork: Dodd, Mead & Co.) The Corelll. There must always be a certain pro portion of the human race addicted to such pursuits as playing the mouth-organ, roller-skating on the sidewalk, chew ing gum in public, wearing high hats In the theater, and doing other things which grate upon the nerves of their neighbors like a file drawn slowly across the front teeth. So there must always be readers for a certain class of fiction. The penny dreadful and shilling-shocker of the Eng lish cockney maiden indicate that she has a taste for print, if not for litera ture. The readers of E. P. Roe and Lau ra Jean Libbey are readers, at any rate. But it is one of the most abstruse prob lems known to the human race the question whether this sort of reading really Is any better than gossiping over the back fence with one's neighbors, or studying the last new style of front hair. Perhaps it is. The reader is, at any rate, speechless while engaged with her novel. There are grades in this sort of fiction, and Marie Corelll Is a grade above the Libbey and Roe class of literature. Her work la of a kind fondly supposed to be "improving." It is not pure sugar; It has a dash of some sort of med icine in it, that appeals to the public, which pays more for pat ent medicines than for circulating li braries. Her latest mixture of chocolate cure-all Is "The Mighty Atom," and the dose Is worth taking for the experience which it affords. The story is evidently Intended to re fute those bad. wicked theories which in volve evolution and natural law in the creation of the world. It is meant to show how much more logical and beauti ful is Milton's picture of the newly-created beasts squirming tip out of the ground, trying to get their hind legs free of the Imprisoning earth, than the notion of progress continuing through thousands of years, and requiring the patience of eternity and the forethought of an al mighty mind. Miss Corelll Is made fran tic by these scientists." She will have none of them. They believe that the first cause of everything was an atom, and that there never was any God, or any cceation, or anything good at all. And while In this frantic state of mind she dashes off a novel which is intended to prove beyond a doubt that all fathers who dabblo in science are cold, cruel and hard-hearted, and that all wives of sci entific men are likely to go wrong, and that a child not brought up on the old fashioned Sunday-school plan will go and hang himself at the age of ten. Un doubtedly our grandfathers and grand mothers raised some very fine families on the Sunday-school plan, but it is barely possible that the youthful generation of the present day has not only a happier but a more healthful existence. The story of this novel is, In brief, as follows: There Is a small boy, called by the aristocratic name of Lionel Vallls- court, and his father is a dreadful scien tific skeptic who does not believe the Bi ble. The logical result of this is that he determines to cram his boy as full of his tory, Latin, Greek and mathematics as possible, at the earliest possible age. That Is the natural thing for a scientific man to do, after spending many years in stu dying the workings of the brain and the laws of physical development. All hu man companionship Is rigidly excluded from the "splendid mansion" in which the family live, and even the frivolous little mother of the youngster is estrang ed from her child by the system under which the head of the household arranges things. While still In knickerbockers, however, the youthful Lionel begins to see truths which his father and tutor do not, and to try to explain the universe to them. They, of course, get the worst of the argument and become cross, and then the youngster "sinks wearily into his chair" and remarks: "It's very funny but I've always noticed people get angry over what they can't understand! And they won't listen to any suggestions, or try to learn, cither. The professor knows as well as I do that there is a cause for everything only he won't take the trouble to reason it out as to whether it's an Atom or a Person. He's got a theory, and nothing will alter it." Among other things the child has been taught that tho Christian myth Is one of a group of twelve, Including Phta and the Egyptian mythology; Brahma, Vish nu and tho Hindu gods; Odin and tho Norse beliefs, and so on. This Is, of course, tho kind of thing which a scien tific man would wish his boy to learn at tho age when other children are studying their primers. He would also take pains to teach tho infant that there was no God, but that the First Cause of the Universe waa merely an Atom, produc tive of other atoms which moved in cir cles of fortuitous regularity, shaping worlds indefinitely, and without any Mind-force whatever behind the visible Matter. The fictitious Boston baby is nowhere beside Lionel with his Atom. Having created this creature a sort of hydrocephalus Fauntleroy Miss Corelli is naturally obliged to do something with him. Two courses are open to her one, to have him convert his father and friends to an orthodox form of belief in place of the "blasphemous and obscene" teach ings of Darwin and Huxley; the other, to have him die. Miss Corelll sternly chooses the latter. She will probably get letters streaked with tears from the" peo ple who make up her public, Imploring her to rewrite the book and make It end right. But her hero hangs himself with his own blue sash ribbon. In this devel opment she Is thoroughly original. A few heroes of fiction have committed suicide, and one or two have gone out of tho world In a state of suspense, but never one at so early an age that he could use a blue ribbon sash embroidered with daisies for the" rope. If the boy were real there might bo something pa thetic in this denouement. But It is hard to get up any emotion over the spectacle of a straw baby dangling from a hook In the wall. The comment of most crit ics on this latest work of Miss Corelll will probably bo that resigned remark of Lincoln, that if people like that sort of thing, that is Just the sort of thing they like. (Philadelphia: J. B. Llppln cott Company.) A Sew Field In Fiction. "Whether White or Black, a Man," is the rather striking title of a novel by Edith Smith Davis, and the book is ful ly as original as its name. It Is an at tempt to present a picture of the educat ed negro of the South, and of tho condi tions under which he lives. The author says, In a preface which clearly defines the scope and purpose of the book: It has been my good fortune to know men and women among the colored people of the South of such great worth and character, men and wom en of such sterling qualities, men and women of such culture and refinement, that it has seemed my duty no less than my privilege to make them known to others. In sending out this story, I wish to say that there is no character in it that I have not per sonally known; no incident that has not been paralleled by fact; and in many instances the words used are the exact words of colored men, uttered under circumstances of similar charac ter. The book is sent out with a desire of making men and women better acquainted, not with the typical negro of minstrel shows, or with the ne gro as caricatured in comic newspapers, but with the refined and cultured negro gentleman. This is a point of view sufficiently rad ical in Its novelty to make the story un usual. Mrs. Davis is absolutely the first writer who has attempted anything of this sort in fiction, and this book Is evi dently tho work of an author without very much experience In that line of writing. It is crude to the last degree in places, and the diction is sometimes care less. The pictures of Southern aristoc racy have some rather serious faults, and the condition of things pictured in the last few chapters will strike most peo ple, South or North, as decidedly Im probable. It Is unlikely that any such conditions of amity and mutual respect between the races will be reached In this country for some time to come, if at all. Tho character of the Northern school teacher is also presented with a some what determined attempt at idealization. But so far as the educated negro is con- cerned, the writer has done precisely what she meant to do; she has given a picture which Is essentially accurate and entirely without exaggeration. The type portrayed here Is not the average negro, but the best type of the race, which, except in one or two of Cable's stories, has never gotten Into fiction at all. It is certain that the character of the hero Is drawn from life, and that the words put into his mouth are those uttered by a real man at some time or other. The scene which takes place at his fu neral also bears the stamp of realism, and is perhaps the strongest and most dramatic chapter in the book. Although tho purpose of the novel is so radically different from anything in the Southern idea of the proper solution of the race problem, there is one thing for which Mrs. Davis must be given due credit. She evidently wishes to bring out the facts that It Is conditions and not malice which make the lot of the edu cated negro hard; that the representa tive white people of the South strongly disapprove of anything which will stir up Ill-will between the races, and that the element which creates mobs and lynch Ings is a low-class element. She also touches on race-feeling as it exists in the North, and there is notfiing which can be called sectional prejudice in the book. The way In which the race problem Is regarded by her is fairly well expressed in the words of the hero during a dis cussion of that question: I believe that it is God's thought for us that "We rise or fall together, dwarfed or God-like, bond or free." The necro is here in the South beenu Jin n brought here, but he is here to stay, and just what his relation to the white race is to be I do not know. But this I do know, that the negro cannot be kept a slave in a land of freedom. He cannot be kept a sen-ant, for in a land o'f liberty, if he possess God-given qualities of strength, he will rise above his surroundings and prove himself a man of strength. But I have been wondering why it is that as a people we are so thoroughly misunderstood. I can remember that when in Boston a dear old lady invited me to her home and gae a dinner party in my honor. Every conceivable attention was heaped upon me, not because I amounted to anything one way or another, but because I was black and her husband had "been a distinguished abolitionist. And once I heard Prof. Boyesen, the scholarly Norwegian, lecture, and in speaking of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" he said that-before leaving Norway he had read the book, and from the study of Uncle Tom he had supposed that the negro" was more saint than human, but since coming to America he had found that the negro did not come up to his preconceived ideal. We are not saints like Mrs. Stowe's idealized Uncle Tom; we are not heroes as the dear old lady in Boston seemed to think; we are simply black men who have been slaves and are not today; and we have the odium of the past to overcome in the oppor tunities of the present. But I wish that people could realize that it is only a fair chance for which we ask. It is not to be made more or less of became of our color or previous condition, but it is to stand on a level with other men and be allowed to work out our own fortunes in the same way and manner. Any one who reads this novel, with Its passionate desire to see justice done to the educated negro, and then, meeting the half-educated negro politician, preach er, or servant, jumps to the conclusion that the author has been guilty of gross exaggeration, will make a mistake. There aro men and women like those she de scribes, but they are, as a rule, engag ed In work for their own race, and aro but little known to white people, North or South. There are college men among them, who have spent years of study in Europe, but who can get no foothold here In any professions which would bring them In contact with white men. Conse quently they either go back to Europe, as did Tanner, the artist, whose pic ture has been purchased by the Lux embourg, or, like Burghart DuBols, ac cept positions in some colored college, or, like many others, without money or in fluence, whose names are never known, strive to get a decent living without be coming valets or waiters or Pullman por ters, until they die, disheartened and dis appointed. The view taken by this au thor is decidedly optimistic. There Is more tragedy underlying this peculiar and little known phase of the race ques tion than any fiction writer has cared or dared to paint. By some writers tho "free-issue" negro who has any aspira tions beyond being a good servant is treated with simple ridicule; by others he is Ignored completely. If Mrs. Davis, or some one else who takes her view of the question and is possessed of the story-telling genius, chooses to go Into this field there will be found some rich gleanings which nobody else has touch ed. This book Is a pioneer, with all the weaknesses of a pioneer. It is with lit erature as with science and discovery, somebody always has to blaze the way for a new venture, and Mrs. Davis has introduced a new character in fiction. (Chicago: Fleming H. Revell Company.) Other New IlooTcs. "The Lust of Hate," by Guy Boothby, is the odd title of a romance of love and revenge, whose scene ranges from South Africa to England and back again. The hero, robbed of a valuable mine by his mortal enemy, follows the enemy to Eng land, determined to obtain revenge. He there meets with a sort of Mephistophe les, called Dr. Nikola, who agrees to give him his heart's desire, and who is the author of some mysterious and horrible murders which have shocked all London. The murdered man In every one of these cases has been found lying In the middle of the street, evidently killed by the use of an anesthetic, and with the left eye brow cut completely away. This Dr. Ni kola is decidedly the most interesting character io. the book, and the way in which he Is finally disposed of is unsat isfactory. He disappears as mysterious ly as ho has appeared, and we are not told why he is going about killing people. although it is hinted at that he is an anarchist agent, or why the left eyebrow is cut away, or why ho consented to gratify the hero's thirst for revenge. In the latter case, however, the murder was not effected, and the would-be murderer 13 thus saved by the skin of his teeth from having raised nn effectual bar rier between himseIC and his lady love. The remorse which he feels during the time when he believes himself to ba a murderer has a salutary effect on his character, and from being a somewhat irresolute and unworthy scapegrace he becomes a respectable member of society, a rich man and the husband of the hero ine. The book is full of Incident and movement, and interests the reader from beginning to end. It will also serve as an inducement to read the other books of Mr. lljothby. If one has not already pe rused them, so as to discover who this interesting Dr. Nikola may be. (New York: Appleton & Co.) A weo book by Mary E. Wllklns is "The People of Our Neighborhood," which belongs to the Ladles' Homo Jour nal Library of Fiction, and consists or! sketches which originally appeared in that publication. It might be called Miss Wllklns In miniature, so thoroughly do the brief and finished little stories re flect her personality. They are of the type already familiar in "A Humble Ro mance," and "A New England Nun," as accurate, as exquisite, and as dainty as a Japanese flower-palntlng. "Timothy Samson; the Wise Man" describes one of those notables to be found In every New England village, and for that mat ter, most other villages the man who, having no book learning, yet seems to possess all knowledge; who knows some thing about everything; who can cure sick people as well as a doctor, draw up wills as well as a minister, make as good prayers as the parson, and do bits of car pentering that the village carpenter would think beneath his dignity or be yond his power. Thero aro six little por traits in all, of which the most charm ing is "Little Margaret Snell: the Village Runaway," the most pathetic is "Cyrus Emmett: the Unlucky Man," and the most comical, with a sly, quaint humor that is the author's very own, is "Phebe Ann Little: the Neat Woman." Besides these there are three stories, describing "The Quilting Bee," "The Paring Bee" and "The Christmas Sing." Miss Wllkins has never written any thing more demurely comical than the tale of the paring bee In the Stockwells barn, when there was a fire caused by an overturned lantern, and the guests and the family were so startled that It spoilt the festivity, and they all went to eat cold bread, dried apple sauce and one pumpkin pie. fco tea, coffee, milk or butter. Nobody dared ask a question. Finally, just as every one was leaving, the hostess was overcome by a flood of recollections. She had prepared a fine supper, but the fright had driven It all out of her head. The picture of the two Stockwell women standing at the gate, and walling over the contretremps, and enumerating the mince pies, tho apple pies and Indian pudding and plum pud ding, and pumpkin pie and cranberry pie, and doughnuts and cheese, and hot bis cuits, and beans and pork, and pickles and chicken pie, and coffee, and tea for them that wanted it; and poundcake and fruit cake and sponge cake, and ginger cookies and seedcakes, which they had prepared and left In the pantry, to bo eaten up by the family, is one of the funniest things in modern literature. And it is recorded that as the guests went down the road they heard their hostess saying: "There were fried-apple turnovers and currant jelly tarts,'' said Hannah Stockwell, feebly, but insistently, "and p?ach preserves and tomato ketchup" Where that list ended and what was done with all the goodies Miss Wllklns leaves us to imagine. The book is ono of tho prettiest and most satisfactory of her volumes of short stories, and is il lustrated with a portrait of the author and several pictures by Alice Barber Stevens. It would make a charming gift book for anyone who enjoys skillful char acter studies. (New York: Doubleday & McClure Company. Washington: Wood ward & Lothrop. 50 cents.) "Four Months After Date," by Randall Irving Tylor, Is a story sul generis. It is not likely that anything Just like it has ever appeared before. It is called "A Business Romance," and It is one. Tho hero is one Billy Burt, of whom wo are told at the beginning that when he got married he was $100,000 in debt. The plot of the story deals with his scheme to liquidate all of his various debts, and bo able to provide a separate establishment for the "peo-plo-in-law" who made his home uncom fortable, all by one grand stroke of busi ness. The Interesting feature of the book Is tho character of thlB hero. He Is one of those people wo all know them who are liked by everybody, who are always full of schemes of one kind or another, who are always In debt, always have to Increase their debts for some occult rea son, and yet manage to keep a sublime confidence in themselves and the Implicit trust of their fellow-men. It is a relief to see one of theso jolly good fellows clear himself of all incumbrances, even in a book, and the reader is led breathless from chapter to chapter In the eager hope that he will do it. He does on the last page but. like most of his kind, he saves himself by the merest chance. There is a love affair which forms a sort of side Issue to relievo tho monotony of Billy's schemes, and notes, and foreclosures, and bluffs, and checks, and buying and sell ing of railroad shares, and this love af fair has also its element of business. It has to do with Billy's partner. Billy himself is married and ready for work when the romance begins. The pages of the story are crammed with Wall Street phrases and technicalities, but they are used with a deftness which enables tho unlessoned reader to understand what is going on. Tho story cannot be said to bo exactly artistic, but it is Interesting, and it Is unique. (New York: Stuyvesant Publishing Company.) "Klondike Nuggets" is a story of life In the almost obsolete region of -the Klon dike, by E. S. Ellis, of the Deerfoot and Log Cabin Series. If this were a book for grown folk it might have to wait for its popularity till tho revival of tho Klon dike boom, but as it is intended for boys, it may find readers even now. It Is a good story, well written, and affordng a certain amount of information about the region of the Yukon. It describes the ad ventures of two youngsters who, in com pany with veteran miners, go seeking gold during three adventurous months in Alaska, and return with snug little for tunes and valuable experience. (New York: Doubleday & McClure Company, publishers. Washington: Woodward & Lothrop.) "The Broken Locket," by Will Garland, is a little volume bound in pink paper, and evidently tho -work of an author not very experienced in the art of novel writing. It shows talent, however, and there is more plot than style in the story, which is a good fault to have at the be ginning of one's career. The book ac quires additional Interest from the fact that tho author Is one of the Arkansas Volunteers. '(Little Rock, Ark.: The Ga zette Publishing Company.) Mr. J. A. Altsheler's "A Soldier of Man hattan" has been published In Australia. Among the many favorable English re views of this novel has been a notice of considerable length In the London Times, which gives cordial praise to the book. Mr. Altsheler's new novel, "A Herald of the West," which will be published be fore long, is regarded as his most im portant work. Prof. Mommsen, the historian, has writ ten declining to support the proposal for the erection of a statue to Heine. He ad mits that Heine is one of our most emi nent poets, "but," writes the professor, "he was not only an ill-bred darling of the graces, but a man of no honor. What I know about his personal character and political life is simply shameful, and even If genius makes up for all errors, it does not excuse Infamous deeds." LITERARY NOTES. A dictionary of the proper names and notable matters In the writings of Dante has been compiled by Mr. Paget Toynbee, of Oxford, and will soon be issued by tho University Press. The second issue In the American ex plorer series, of which Francis P. Har per Is the publisher, will bo "Forty Years a Fur Trader on tho Upper Missouri," the personal narrative of Charles Lar penteur, edited by Dr. Elliot Coue3 from a hitherto unknown manuscript. Tho work will be In two volumes. Tho American edition of Henry James' book, "In the Cage," Is to be brought out In November. Among future Lark Classics will be Kipling's "Departmental Ditties," pub lished in the same volume with ."The Vampire" and other poems. The book will be ready this month. The National Library of Belgrade, has had a most unfortunate experience, which Indicates that either the inhabitants of Belgrade are very hungry for knowledgo or that their honesty is a missing article: A few years ago the Institution possessed 40,000 volumes, but tho borrowers havo run off with all of them, and the libra ry Is now closed. Tho Macmlllans will publish a "History of Philadelphia," by Agnes Reppller, written along the same lines as Graco King's charming book about New Orleans The London "Athenaeum" says that Mr. Colllnwood's life of his uncle, "Lew Is Carroll," will contain considerable ex tracts from a highly characteristic diary, including a record of a Russian tour with Canon Ltddon. Among Lewis Carroll's effects were three albums filled with pho tographs taken by himself. They include hitherto unpublished portraits of Mr. Ruskin, Tennyson, Lord Salisbury and his children, the Rossettis, the Duke of Albany, Mr. Holmnn Hunt, Mr. George MacDonald, etc. These will appear in "The Life," as well as several fac similes from manuscript magazines edit ed by Lewis Carroll. William Archer contributes an article on "Anglo-American Literature" to the Pall Mall Magazine for this month, In which he maintains the Identity of Eng lish and American literary expression. Joseph Rodman Drake, author of "The American Flag," is burled In a little out-of-the-way cemetery In Morrlsanla, bor ough of the Bronx. The cemetery Is sit uated In the midst of a copse of about an acre In extent, and would be easily overlooked by the casual passer. A descendant of Baron Munchausen the real, not the fictitious baron is now In New York, and is trying to restore his ancestor's reputation for veracity. The book of travels bearing that name was written by one Raspe, and has effectual ly damaged the name of Munchausen for all time. Miss Helen Hay, elder daughter of the new Secretary of State, is about to pub lish a volume of poems in London under the title of "Some Verses." Houghton, Mifflin & Co. have in preca a book by W. H. Slebert. of Marysvlfie, Ohio, which will give the whole history and operations pf the "Underground Railroad" of ante-civil war times. Mr. Slebert resided in Cambridge, Mass., for a year or two, but has now gone back to his Ohio home. The great bell of Schaffhausen, frofi which Schiller took the Inscription, "Vi vos voco; mortuos plango; fulgura fran go," as a motto" for his poem, "Die Glocke," has been cracked, and is ac cordingly useless for chiming purposes. It Is not to bo melted down, however, the town council having decided to retain it as a curiosity. Tho list of literary Americans now re siding abroad becomes somewhat formi dable when seriously considered. Is it so utterly impossible for Americans to have, -a literary center that all our great men must needs "go to Europe? Lindley Murray set the fashion. Ho was a New York man, but lived In England on ac count of his health. Irving spent twenty three years abroad. N. P. Willis was as much In London as New York. Henry James expatriated himself too long ago to bo considered as a real American, and Bret Harte seoms to be on the way to the same end. Marion Crawford was born in Italy, and has lived there much of his life. Harold Frederic, author of "The Damnation of Theron Ware," is a recent recruit to the American colony in Lon don. Henry Harland, otherwise "Sidney Luska," Is in London. Charles G. Le land, of "Hans Breltman" and "Gypsy" fame, Is In London, and so Is Gertrude Atherton, while Blanche Willis Howard has taken up her residence in Germany and married a German of rank. The fashion of cheap magazines, like some other American fashions, has reach ed England, and is .said to be extremely popular. Harmsworth's, at threepence is said to have.a; clrcfffaj'oln something like that of thc-NTy4ftjournal, and the first issue of the RoF Magazine, at the same prlcejls said to have num bered a million copies. There are al ready several sixpenny magazines In England, and these new ventures are to theso what the Nickell Magazine and the Black Cat are to the Cosmopolitan and McClure's. Jane Austen Is becoming fashionable In France. A translation or "Northanger Abbey" Is coming out in the "Revue Blanche," and "Emma" will probably fol low. In Mr. Arthur Paterson's new novel of tho civil war, "The Gospel Writ in Steel," the author describes the scenes In a Western town when the President first called for volunteers, and his pictures of the home sentiment and the preparations are of extreme Interest. The story af fords a graphic account of Bull Run, and later the hero undergoes stirring ad ventures in Sherman's march to the sea. Mr. Paterson's romance, which Is to bo Issued soon by D. Appleton & Co., will be awaited with especial interest. The literary editor of the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, In commenting on the new book by Mary E. Wllklns, "Silence, and Other Stories," takes occasion to revive some of the old reproaches against the Puritans. He says that the hard life of the New England colonist impelled him to treat the Indians as the Indians treated him. Perhaps ho did, but it is not recorded that he ever scalped, tor tured, or burned any of his Indian cap tives, though doubtless they would some times have preferred that treatment to the spelling book and the plow handle. Indian wars are not by any means con fined to New England. As for the perse cution of the witches, it is as well to re member that witches were hanged, tor tured and burned in England a hundred years after the Puritan had repented in dust and ashes over the brief madness of the Salem persecution, and that there were fewer victims of this craze, in pro portion to the population, than In Eng land two generations later. The Salem horror was an outgrowth of bad seed from Old England, brought overseas, and even when superstition and intoler ance were at their worst no man or wo man was ever burned at the stake In New England. Finally, it Is well to remember that persecution and misunderstanding do not, except In the case of unusually pure and gentle natures, tend to sweeten tho disposition, but rather to develop sternness and self-repression. The Puri tan was, on the whole, more just to oth ers than others had been to him, but it was only justice; he was not often Im pelled by a kindly feeling to do good to his enemies. That is not characteristic of human nature at any period of the world, orln any country. CURRENT VERSE. September. Purple asters here at laatl And thistle seed a-hlowingi' And what is this in the blackbird's sons? The loost pipe is shr.il and long, Over and over, "Past past past The summer days are going!" Slay, chattering squirrel I Why this fret For hoard you're sure to gather? And cunning spinner, why so soon A vhroud to weave a last cocoon? The Xllter frost is far off yet, Though summer days are going. Perhaps (who knows?) to grass and fern Comes hitter pang in turning From jouth to age. Perhaps the wood Itfbels against a faded hood. And would escape if it could; And that with wrath the sumacs burn, When the summer dajs are going! Jane Mireh Parker, in the Outlook. Better DajH. Better to smell the violets cool than to sip the glowing wine; Better to hark a hidden brook than to watch a diamond shine. Better the love of gentle hearts than beauty's favors proud; Better the roses' lling seed than roses in a crowd. Better to love in lonlincss than bask in love all the day; Better the fountain in the heart than the foun tain by the way. Better be fed by mother's hands than eat alone at will; Better to trust in God than say, my goods my storehouse fill. Better to be a little wise than in knowledge to abound; Better to teach a child to love than fill perfec tion's round. Better sit at a master's feet than' thrill a listen ing state; Better suspect that thou art proud than be sure that thou are great. Better to walk in the realm unseen than watch the hour's eient; Better the "Well done" at the last than the air with shouting rent. Better to have a quiet grief than a hurrying de light; Better the twilight of the dawn than the noon day burning bright. Better a death when work is done than earth's most favored birth; Better a child in God's great house than a King of all the earth. George Macdonald. The Cowllla. Not because of their own music As they tinkle down the lane. But from memories interwoven Would I hear the bells again. With their jingle, jingle, jangle As up from woodland tangle Bess and Moll come home. Melody I've heard that's sweeter Swelling from the thrushes' throats; But there's country peace and quiet Mingled in the cowbells' notes. With their jingle, jingle, jangle. As up from woodland tangle Kate and Nell come home. Possibly because I'm weary Of a city's ceaseless strife. That my heart swells out in longing For the quiet rural life. Where with jingle, jangle, jingle, From lowland, dell and dingle All the cows come home. Elizabeth D. Preston. The Women "Who "Walt. He went to the war in the morning The roll of the drums could he heard. But he paused at the gate with his mother For a kiss and a comforting word. He was full of the dreams and ambitions That youth is bo ready to weave, And proud of the clank of his saber And the chevrons of gold on his sleeve. He came from the war in the evening The meadows were sprinkled with snow, The drum and the bugles wot silent. And the steps of the soldiers were slow. He was wrapped in the flag of his country When they laid him away in the mold. With the glittering stare of a captain Replacing the ehevrons of gold. With the heroes who sleep on the hillside He lies with the flag at his head, But, blind with the years of her weeping, His mother yet mourns for her dead. The soldiers who fall in the battle May feel but a moment of pain. But the women who wait in the homesteads Must dwell with the ghosts of the slain. Minna Irving, in Boston Pilot. A Ghost. Love, will you let me in? I am knocking at the door. Love, can I shelter win Close beside you as of yore? Of my grave I am aweary, Narrow, narrow, dark and dreary; Wildly from its clasp I flew, Love, just to look at you. I am so white and chill; Love, will you shrink away? . If you will not kiss me still Do not let me in, I pray. I have cross' d the mighty river; Will you fear me? Do you shiver? If your arms refuse to woo. Death is more kind than you. Love, if you were a ghost And I were alive and warm Ah, perhaps I will not boast I might shudder at jour form; 1 might flee before the presence Of an unembodied essence. Hush! hush! it is not true, Love, I should know 'twas you! Longman's Magazine. The "Tel. and Tel. Conipnny." Aug. 12, 1S9S. The poles of the Telephone and Telegraph Company, of Kew England, are thu3 inscribed. Saddened and gray tie Summer sky, Dim to mine eyes the August shore; The throbbing wire hangs dark and high Before my door. Quivering, it thrills the weight to bear Of half a thousand settling birds That dip, and cling, and listening, hear Strange, unknown words. Impearled throat- elusive wing. Oriole and swallow, gold and gray Sparrow and robbin! What the thiwr That you would say? Cuddling, they murmur each to eaeh; Tell me the myitery fair or fell! Translate the language and the speech: "We tell! We tell!" Ah, gentle whisperers, could ye say How long across our land shall flow The blood-red river, hot today, Of war and woe! How long our heroes, writhing, lie Scalded beneath a tropic sun! How long our women kneel to cry: "God! Spare this one!"- But cicsc the birds upon the line. Preserve their secret 111 or well; Mocking, they answer, scornful, fine: "Might tell! Won't tell!" Ah. hark! Loud calls the silent bell: Articulate the electric fire; What the birds knew, but did not tell, Burns on the wire. The word flics flashing far and near, From eager heart to anxious home. From trembling lip to joyous car: "Oh, Peace has come!" Elirabcth Stuart Phelps Ward, in the Youth's Companion. The Oldest Sons of All. When life is jouth and skies are glad, And everything is young, Oh, listen, lass and lad, Unto the song that's sung! When every sound jou bear's a tune That seems your heart to call, When every gift of God's a boon. And love's the best of all! There's green around and blue above, Wherever you are bound; 'Tis then that first you feel 'tis love That makes the world go round 1 But when your world grows gray and sad, When care the heart has wrung, Oh, listen, listen, lass and lad, Unto the song" that's sungt When smiles have turned to tears and sighs, When hands jou clasped are cold, And those whose love has been a prize, Are weary, worn and old, If one dear gift, the rest above, Still by your side he found 'Tis then you know, indeed( 'tis love That makes the world go round!" Clifton Bingham, In London Mail. . NOTES AND QUERIES. " . 3k ..When was the last leap year, and when wfll the next be? B The last leap year waa 1S56; the next leap year will be 1&. Which weighs the more, a pound of gold ora pound of feathers? o. M. A pound of feathers; It 13 weighd by avoirdupois weight, which has 7,000 grains to a pound, while a pound of gold"& weighed by Troy weight, which has on ly 5,760 grains to a pound. Which is the heavier, tin or aluminum? 2. Does aluminum work easily? 3. Wfcat & hy drogen gas? J. a. K. Tin, whose specific gravity is 729, to 260 for aluminum. 2. Compared with tin, no. 3. The lightest substance known and one of the most plentiful. It is found In water and all organic substances. Is it true that fresh water can be secured by diving, or by any other means, under the level of the salt waters of the Red Sea or of tha Persian Gulf? C. F. S. It seems not to be true. In fact. Is be lieved by those who have studied the Red Sea that the lower strata of water are more salty than the surface strata It Is the same way with the Persian Gulf. There may be springs of- freah water along the shores, but if so they are local. Did the United States Treasury issue a $2.S0 gold piece about 1S10? 2. What vahws of stamps are issued in connection with the Omaha Expo sition. H. K. R. The United States began to coin a two-dollar-and-a-half piece in 17S6, under the provisions of the act of April 3, 1W2. Thiss piece, known as the quarter eagle. Is still coined. 2. One cent, two cents, four, five, eight, ten, fifty cents, and one and two 'dollars. What arc the different classes of revenue stamps of the latest issue, and the dtnominaticn of eaeh, class? A. S. There are two kinds of internal rev enue stamps of the present Issue docu mentary and proprietary. Of document ary stamps there are one cent, two cents, three, four, five, ten, twenty-five, and fifty cents, one, three, five, ten, and fifty dollars. Of proprietary stamps there are one-eight cent, one-quarter cent, three eighths cent, five-eighth cent, one cent, one and one-quarter cent, one and one half cent (this stamp not Issued yet), two cents, two and one-half cents, four, and five cents. Please inform me of yoor knowleilge of any event in history, wherein the vanquished were allowed free transportation to tfceir enieiry, slm- iiar to the conditions granted by tke United States Government to the SpanUh troops wfco surrendered at Santiago? Is it true that at tke clote of the War of Independence the British' sol diers were helped in some way to reach their homes by the Government of this eoualry? - J. H. We know of no similar case. After tke Revolution the British and Hessian pris oners were supported while they were taken to the ports whence they were to be shipped back to Great Britain, but they were not shipped out as wo hava shipped Gen. Toral's men. , Why are twenty-one guns fired in a natiosal salute by our navy? A. J. M. The salute of twenty-one guns Is tha President's salute, not the national sa lute. Tho national salute is one gun for each State In the Union, and Is fired oa the Fourth of July, and seldom, or never on other days. The President's salute was' fixed at twenty-one guns because that was the English royal salute. It is suggested, that that number was chosen in Great Britain because seven was the orlgitfaT .salute and three times seven would slsr. nify one seven for each of the three di visions, England and Wales, Scotland, and' Ireland. The definite reason Is not known, however. What li U origin ol ihe name "mugwump"' as it is used now? E.'JjJ The name wan applied to the Indepen dents In the Blaine-Cleveland campaign of 1SS4. The New York Sun was the first to apply It to them. Previous to the Inde pendent movement starting, hut in the same year, the same paper had applied1 it to a Mr. Bradley, the owner of Ashury Park, N. J., hut then it used it as we use nowadays the name "Pooh-Bah," "mean-" ing one who holds many offices. The word is the Algonkin translation of the .word, which the translators of the Bible 'into English make "duke" In Genesis -xxxvl, 15-19. It Is found in Eliot's Indian Bible, spelled "mugquomp." , What are the largest cities In the world, and their population, and the lanrest in the United States and their population? A READER. The ten largest cities of the world ara these: London, with 4,433,01S Inhabitants! New York, about 3,200,000; Paris, 2,447.957; Chicago, 1,500,000; Berlin, 1,677,351; Vienna, 1,C64,54S; Toklo, Japan, l,234,113r Philadel phia. 1,250,000; St. Petersburg, 1.035,439, and Constantinople, about LWO.0CO. The ten largest cities of the United States are: New York. Chicago, Philadelphia. St. Louis, 630,000; Baltimore, 625.270; Boston, 550,000; Cincinnati, 400,000; Buffalo, 3S9,0r Cleveland, 3S5,O0O; San Francisco, 350,000. - To whom should I apply for the year book Is sued by the Department of Agriculture? 2. Are these books distributed free to all who apply far them? Are they issued every year? 4. Are all Congressional reports and other Government publications distributed free to persons agfily ing for them? 5. Are seeds for experimental uses distributed free to applicants? A. k H. The Secretary of Agriculture. 2. No; the distribution Is largely In tha hands of members of Congress. 3. Yes. 4 and 5. No; applicants should apply to their Con gressmen. Please give a short biography of Gen. Shatter. j. a. a. William R. Shafter was born In Mary land, on October 16, 1S35. He entered tho volunteer army on August 22. 1SSI. as first ' lieutenant of the Seventh Michigan In fantry; there he served just one year, and on September 5, IS62, became major of the Nineteenth Michigan. He waa promoted colonel on June 5, 1S63, and was mustered out on April IS, ISM; the next day he was made colonel of the Seven teenth United States Colored Infantry, with which he was mustered out on No vember 2, 1S66. Meanwhile he had been appointed lieutenant colonel of the Forty-first Infantry of the regular army, and on April 14, 1S6D, was transferred to the Twenty-fourth Infantry. On March 4, 1S79, he was made colonel of the First Infantry, and remained In com mand of that regiment until promoted brigadier general on May 3, 1S97. He was brevetted brigadier general of volunteers on March 13, 1S65, and colonel in the reg ular army on March 2, 1S67, for gallantry at the battle of Spottsylvania. SInce.tho civil war he has served In Indian cam paigns on the Rio Grande, and in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. He Is now brigadier general in the regular army, and major general of volunteers. Please give the origin of these national sengs: "Hail, Columbia," "Star Spansltd Banotr, "Dixie," "Yankee Dcodle," "Maryland, My Maryland," and "Conquered Banner." J. R. F "Hail Columbia" was written by Jo seph Hopkinson, In 17S3, to be sung by an actor at a Philadelphia theater on his benefit. The President was expected to attend, and the actor wanted some nov elty. A German musician named Fayler. wrote or adapted the music. "The Star Spangled Banner" was written by Fran cis Scott Key, while he was detained on a British vessel off Baltimore, watching the bombardment of Fort McHenry, Sep tember 12 and 13, 1S14. When Mr. Key came ashore after the bombardment he showed the poem, which he had writ ten on the back of a letter as he walked the deck watching the bombardment; to his uncle, who had It printed and sung. The tune was composed either by Dr. Samuel Arnold, an English composer, or by John Stafford Smith, a later English composer. "Dixie," was written by Al bert Pike. "Yankee Doodle," like Top sy, "jest growed." It Is probable that the words were written by Dr. Shack burg, a British army surgeon, In Albany, about 1755. The tune is common to many., countries to Hungary, to England, to Germany, to Spain. -' James R. Randall wrote "Maryland, My Maryland." - ?- NtjC . S.