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THE TIMES, WASHINGTON, feJXDAY, OCTOBER 20, 1899.
THE DBPARTMEMT WOMEN Their Hard Battle for Recognition by the Government. The IEmpIoj-Hicut of VcshhIch in tlie PHbllc Service IICKnu During IViir Tlmus Demonstrated Their Tnct, Ability, ami ISMicluHcy Jlen Given PrcfcreHcc in Certain Instance. The Postoffice Department, it Is said, has done more to encourage women to seek em ployment fa Government service than all of the other departments combined. Forty yeus ago the number of women employed by tbe Government was so insignificant and their positions were so humble that they were never taken into consideration. To day there are many thousands of women filling very responsible places in the service, which it was formerly contended coaM only be propeniy occupied by men. To overcome tbe strong prejudice that prevailed against bavins; women in office. and the thoroughly rooted belief that a woman oouid not do clerical and executive work nearly as well as a man, the women of the country had to struggle hard, but they fought their battles bravely, persist ently, and intelligently, until at last they accomplished very nearly all that they could bone for. During the Civil War the Government found that it required tbe services in the field of many of its brave clerks and offi cial heads of divisions. Tbe Government also saw the necessity of providing, as far as possible, for the widows and orphans caused by the war. The opening for this fatherly care came when the male clerks went to the front, and the women were given inferior places. Since then, by an exhttttton of fidelity to their labors, ability to perform them and an aptitude for pro motion, the number of women employes has been constantly increased. August W. Matcben, superintendent of the free delivery mail syfctem, has made the employment of female clerks a subject of careful and unbiased study, and the re sult of his observations in tbe Postoffice Department must be gratifying to the women workers. Mr. Matcaen Lelieves ab solutely in woman's worth, capacity, and general fitness to perform the duties as signed her in Government positions. When, after the outbreak of the Civil War, women were employed, they ere as signed to the lowest grade of clerical work, such as cutting coupons off bonds, counting bills, and copying documents, and their salaries ranged from $4S0 to ?5Q0 a yestr. Those who received this maxi mum smoont were very few. A Theory Afirniiiht Women. The records in the appointment clerk's office of the Ijetofflce Department show that when female clerks were first em- ployed the Third Assistant Postmaster General acted upon the theory that one mrfederkwis equal to two female clerks, uibic j ch ' aad be therefore appointed two women at tWB each to fill the vaeancv caused by the ! , Jr j;. h hj , rL.Tle b- ?.' ! r.I rrTL.7- . rT -. - .7 . rVr-i Zeverlev believed the theory- a correct one until his eyes were opened in the dead let' ter office, Male clerks in taie division had been accustomed to turn in 126 letters at tended to as a good day's work. The fe male clerks appointed to do this work easily raised the standard to 360 letters a day, and when General Zeverley recover, ed from his astonishment, he issued an or der to the effect that unless male clerks could keep up to this standard they would be doritnnt inefficient and he would remove them. The Innovation of women clerks in the departments met with much opposition from the male clerks. So bitter did this opposition become that Congress was fre quently appealed to and it was not until after a hitler fight that lasted for years that Che -women emerged from the battle victorious and that their right to receive Government employment was firmly estab lished. Prom the time that the debated question was finally settled to the present, the number of women and the efficiency ot their work in the departments has con stantly increased. Congress, during the mis nxea tne maximum salary tor women clerks at 80 a year, hot in 1870 this was . abrogated and male and female clerks j were placed on the same salary basis. One of the most forceful advocates of this act r-rott .r w n p hh , t I As an illustration of the character of work now being performed by female clerks, attention is called to tbe Free De livery Division of tbe Postoffice Depart ment. Five years ago the highest position In this department that a woman might as pire to fill was that of stenographer. Today the work has been distributed among the clerks, regardless of sex, and the greater portion of it requires judgment, execution, ability, tact, and diplomacy. One woman handles all matters pertaining to the pro motion and removal of letter carriers, dic tates all the correspondence relative there to, makes rulinga and passes upon Impor tant questions that continually arise. An other has direct charge of the distribution of the letter carrier force, prepares and t considers all data relating to it, passes upon applications for additional service, scrutinises the schedules under which Car riers IF. MnnlrfMTAjf mnA AimHittii & .M.....J, ! .. . f . .. I. 1 epondence bearing upon these subjects. The books and accounts of the division, cover ing the annual expenditure of about $13. W.PW, are kept by an accomplished young woman whose fine executive ability and special qualifications have more than once placed her in full charge as division super intendent, acting in the absence of tbe su perintendent and hie assistants. lu Other Departments. The sane degree of proficiency has been attained by women in the Treasury and the Interior Departments, and !n tbe other branches of tbe Government service. It is said, however, that, notwithstanding the rapid advancement of women employes and the excellent character of their work, dur ing the teat two years.-there has been an evident Intention on tbe part of officials to fill all vacancies by male appointments, and that even where the vacancy is made by the retirement of a woman, it is filled by a man. Politics is tbe only reason alleged for this procedure. "I think that as the civil service gets older the greater will be tbe decrease of the appointments of women to positions in the departments." said Frank A. Vander llp. Assistant Secretary of tbe Treasury, to a reporter of The Times. Tbe remark was the outcome of a question put to Mr. Vanderllp as to whether there Is an un derstanding or agreement, express or im plied, among the heads of departments to cubstftute men for women employes. In replying to this interrogation. Mr. Vanderllp said posit v el y that so far as the rreaaary Department was concerned, there re no such understanding, and that the de partment is not following the practice of isbstltatlng male for female employes. lie qualified this denial considerably, how ever, by saying that the filling of vacan cies very largely depends upon the chiefs of divisions and bureaus, that they are the people who have charge of the work and who are responsible for It, and that thev do demand generally that a man shall be appointed to fill a vacancy. Because of this reason, Mr. Vanderllp said, there was likely to be more call for men than for women, although in some ot tbe divisions, sueh as those employing counters, where deftness is a necessary qualification, women are given tbe preference by the chiefs. In bureaus like that of the Auditor's of fice the proportion of men appointed Is greater than that of women, and Mr Van derllp added that he thought it would con tinue so, subject to the ciivl strvice rules. In such divisions, Mr. Vanderllp said, the belief of the chiefs is that men make more efficient employes than women. The As sistant Secretary denied that the depart ment had any desire to substitute men for women when the one was as efficient as the other. Men III the Pension Ofllee. H. Clay Evans, Commissioner of Pen sions, said in relation to this question that he has now 450 women in his department, and that the number will not be Increased. "The duties of the employes in the Pen sion Office," he said, "relate purely to legal and medical questions, and it is difficult to teach women, especially the older ones, the technical knowledge required. There fore, for the work here I want men when I can obtain them. When 1 was First As sistant Postmaster General I had many -women under my direction who were very efficient in performing their duties, but the class of work in the Postoffice Depart ment is different from that done in the Pension Office. "Whenever a vacancy has been made by a female employe of late it has been the practice to fill it by the reinstatement of a veteran." Clarence G. Allen, acting chief of the appointment division of the Interior De partment, said that he knew that the Geo logical Survey and Patent Office preferred women to men for employes when practi cable. He knew that no discriminations were made against womenv and that as typewriters and stenographers they were given the preference. He said that the Pension Office and Land Office had been filling vacancies made by. women by the reinstatement of old soldiers; that in the Indian Office there had been no discrimina tion. Views of Mr. Ilentli. Perry Heath, First Assistant Postmaster General, said that during the last six weeks more women then men had been appointed, but he attributed this to an unusual de mand for stenographers. In the Postoffice Department, he said, there were some women more efficient than men, but he ad ded that in the filling of a vacancy the re quest of the chief of the division is usually considered. If he asks for a man to fill a vacancy be generally gets one. The First Assistant Postmaster General said that he knew of no desire on the part of anyone to discriminate against the appointment of women. Some reasons, al leged by division chiefs, for not wanting women to fill executive positions, are that many men having business with the de partment do not like to transact it with a woman. Some men feel a restraint placed on them when this is necessary, and others may be uncouth and in an undesirable con dition for women to meet. "All kinds of people come here," he said, "and they must be attended to." He frankly said that he believed that in filling any vacancy, prefer ence should be given a veteran over a woman, but as an evidence that there Is no discrimination against women he said that the temporary roll, which does not re quire the approval of the Civil Service Commission, at present contains thirty-six names, twenty-four of which are those of women. "Reinstatement," said the Secretary of the Civil Service Commission, "is the lea son so many men of late have been ap- i pointed to vacancies created by women." "" . ,r T , Te. "cretary said that the number of original appointments was small, except , JLhnP ,.t nrtmjttwl that tho Ior stenographers, but admitted that the number of reinstatements of men had been large. Of the stenographers that had been appointed after civil service examination there were 11 women in 1S97, and 14 in 189S, as against G2 men in 1897, and C2 in 189S. As to the appointment of clerks, 21 women were appointed in 1897 and 6 in 189S. as against 34 men in 1897 and 50 In 1S9S. All of the females were appointed to clerkships out of Washington. Seventy three men were also appointed to posi tions out of this city, but eleven obtained good places in the departments here, and the women obtained none. SUICIDES OF DOGS. Death by Drowning mid Stnrvatlon Dclihcrntvly Cliomcn. (From the London News.) The papers report that a dog committed suicide the other day in the Lake of Corno. He was determined to end his life, for a man pulled him out when the big dog was half drowned, and drove him away from the water. The dog was very handsome, and the man had been admir ing him as the animal stood gazing into the water. To see what further might happen, the spectator returned to the lake's brink, and soon the dog was back again and. in the water, his head resolutely kept beneath the surface. Again his admirer Piea mm to snore anu maae nun run on inland, the man -returning to his post of observation, whence, later he heard a dis- tant splash, and recognized the dog s back. THirt nsiisw fnMrm vac cU'imn;nfr foot- oin. i. tic JfW lev, ..no ofiiiiu.iu(3 .iu)i cti.tijr from shore, his head, as before, held under water. His rescuer jumped into a boat and pulled hard for where the dog was struggling, but was, to his sorrow, too late. The lifeless body already floated on the water. An autopsy proved that the fine animal was healthy in every organ, and it was consequently surmised that the "rash act" must have had a "moral" cause. Clearly, the dog must have been unhap py and tired of life. Canine suicides have long been chronicled. About thirty years ago a wretched old dog was turned from a thankless master's door. The poor brute sought shelter in another house, and on being driven away was seen to stand gaz ing at the rapid waters of the Loire. He lifted himself at last, slowly and evident- lv P&nfu!ly, for a spring, and fell into the river. The spectator held out a stick to the dog. but he turned away and without struggle was washed rapidly down Stl stream. " The dellberatn suicide of a valuable ?Cew. foundiand belonging to a solicitor at Holm flrth i6 recorded in Jesse's "Anecdotes of Dogs." This dog seemed causelessly mel ancholy, and tried to drown himself sev eral times, but was rescued. At last he. too, kept his head under water till he died of suffocation. A Mr. Nicol told Mr. Jesse that he had seen a foxhound drown himself of set purpose. "The informant said he was ready to make oath of the fact." George Jesse, in "Reseaiches," gives an ac count of a small Havana dog who drowned himself at Honlleur. F. P. Cobbc tells the following story, vouched for by a friend: "A very old New foundland, tbe constant companion of the cbildren, and of invariably good temper, was one day sleeping, when a lltle girl, to arouse him, gave ham a child's kick. The dog started from his sleep and seized the small leg with his teeth, but not sharply enough to do any harm. "Tbe nurse, however, ran up and beat him with her handkerchief, scolding him and telling him he should not go with them for their walk, and when he tried to follow she shut the gate against him. Not long after a groom saw the dog try ing to drown himself in a ditch, and pull ed him out. shutting him up afterward in a vard. That day and the next he" refused all food, but escaped to the same ditch, where he was eventually found drowned." Nearly all records of canine BUlcldes have to do with drowning, but the last history and some others where dogs have been in deep grief for a master's death show a deliberate intention to die by starvation. The author of that more than delightful volume, "False Beasts and Truo," com ments thus on some of the cases above cited: "It Is hard to resist the conclusion thai if these tales be true the creatures who thus acted both knew what death Is, and also were able deliberately to decide that the short pain of death was better than the prolonged one of a miserable life. Even supposing the dog, however, to pos sess the very high mental faculties needed for such an argument, the further mani festation of deliberate will, powerful enough to conquer the natural clinging to life of all creatures, and to make the ani mal resolutely keep his head under water when a few strokes of his paws would save him, is most amazing." Elsewhere this true dog lover says: "As thought is still thought, in whatsoever brain it Is carried on, and love Is love In every breast which beats with emotion, wo are justified in as suming that there is a real correspond ence between the mental p.-ocesses and ; feelings of animals and our own." THE DEAD LETTER OFFIG Its More Commodious Quarters iu the New Building. Kifrlit Divisions IIuhj- Hjimllliipr Struy I')n(iiI Mutter The Museum Xow Incorporated "WItli the Depart ment's Uencrnl K-vhililt The An mial Sale of Unclaimed Mutter. The Dead Letter Office is now located in its quarters on the third floor ot the new Postoffice Building. In the old build ing on Seventh Street, this department was scattered about on various floors and in sundry corners and its work was neces sarily hampered. Now the working force is in close association. In order that all the room necessary should be provided, the general corridor was closed and there is now no public passage around the build ing on this floor. This permits the accom modation of the full force of about lib persons. A five-foot passageway, how ever, for the department's use, is open. The Dead Letter Office is organized in eight divisions for the handling of Its dif ferent classes of matter. These are separ ated by iron wire fencing, so that while detached from each other so far as the transaction of business is concerned, they have in common the advantages of air and light. In the old building, this department conducted a museum in which was dis played a variety of objects from a lock of hair to bottles of poison. Knives, pistols, watches, articles of clothing, infernal ma chines, petrified snakes, soldier buttons, and, in fact, almost anything that could be enclosed in a mailable package, were in cluded in the exhibit. Many Article Conftacntcil. Many articles prohibited by law from being mailed are at once confiscated and sent to the Dead Letter Office. As there is no room for this museum on the third floor of the building, it has been Incor porated with that of the General Postoffice and Is located on the second floor, on the Twelfth Street side. Besides, a large por tion of the curiosities in the General Pos tal Museum were derived from the Dead Letter Office and It was deemed Inadvisable to keep up two exhibits of substantially the same general character. i Each year in December, generally a week j preceding Christmas, the department has i an auction sale ot property and matter for I which it has been Impossible to find an j Matter received without address, however, is held only six months prior to the sale. These auctions are conducted by the auc tioneer firm of the city making the low est bid of percentage for conducting the sale. But for these annual cleanings out the collections would soon become so im- 1 mense that it would be simply impossible to preserve them. - -j The aggregate receipts frqm each, ,saje , amount to approximately three thousand ' dollars. Before the sales a cataldgue 'is1, prepared, In which everything to bo soldji is entered. But a package submitted for , sale is not necessarily in the same form' I as it was when received. Numerous artl- i cles of the same general eharacter are often Included In one package, and the catalogue gives a description, necessarily a very gen eral one, of its contents. This is intended to prevent, so far as possible, any imposi tion upon the purchaser. For example, a parcel may be offered containing "cheap jewelry." Of course It Is impossible to de fine the degree of cheapness, but enough is done to put the buyer upon his guard. The officials do all In their power In order that the Government shall not become par ty to any fraud. The money derived is turned Into the Treasury of the United States through the finance division of the department. Money Found In Letters. In this connection it may be said that generally about one hundred dollars a day in actual money is found in the letters opened in the Dead Letter Office. A vastly larger amount is daily represented by drafts, money orders, and other conven tional paper. This actually amounts to nearly a million dollars a year. But the loss in these cases is comparatively small, for nearly all the drafts, money orders, etc., can be duplicated at little expense. Of all tho money received about 75 per cent is returned to the senders, and the balance goes into the United" States Treas ury. The work of the Dead Letter Office has greatly increased during the past year, but owing to the constant improvement of the mail service generally, and especial ly in the line of delivering matter, it is thought that the percentage of increase in dead letter business is smaller than the percentage of increase in the amount of matter passing through the mails. This department is constantly in receipt of letters containing money and stamps addressed to fradulent concerns no longer in business. A few examples will serve to Illustrate the ingenious variety of appeals made to the weaker side of human nature: Under tho stimulating headline, "5,000 razors given away," a "handsome imported Sheffield steel razor," of unparalleled ex cellence and "selling as high as ?I0," to gether with a cake of soap combining all the perfections, is offered for the sum of ten cents in silver or stamps, the avowed benevolent purpose being to Introduce the treasures above described Into every house hold. Another concern, for the alleged pur pose of advertising Its "family news and story paper," offered a "set ot table sil ver," twenty-four pieces, "of artistic de sign and heavily plated," for the munifi cent sum of ten cents In cash or fifteen cents in stamps. "Five thousand lovely decorated tea-sets" were to be given away to those who should send lists of subscrib ers to a certain publication, and "ten cents, silver or stamps, to help pay cost of ad vertising." Another Scheme. A consuming desire was manifested by another concern for miscellaneous names and addresses, which it was in the habit of furnishing to "publishers and dealers," and it offered J5 per hundred of such, a trifling preliminary on the part of the col lector being the forwarding of ten cents for blank book and instructions. A full sized box of "our wonderful pellets," with the usual versatility of curative properties, was offered to be sent for the considera tion of ten cents in silver or fifteen cents in stamps, this boon to be further accom panied by "a handsome set of furs, gen uine natural skin, beautifully lined with satin," to the energetic agent who should succeed In disseminating the largest quan tity of this invaluable remedy within a particular territory. Extravagant prizes were also offered to tho successful completion of skeleton names, with the usual attachment in the way of remittance for a subscription to a periodical of unequal merit. For a like consideration lithographic copies, procured "at immense expense," of Da Vinci's mas terpiece, "The Last Supper," were to be generously distributed. Mingled pleasure and instruction were to be carried to de serving firesides through the medium of a magazine, prepaid at thirty cents, and "twenty-five pieces of children's furni ture." Triicrl-Coinefly. I Bit a mute spectator In the pit, And watch the tragi-comedy of Life; The buffoon's laughttr, and the Hash of wit. The love That leavens, and the assassin's knife. And Just because an act is yet to come (The fifth that evens all, and dries our tears), My foolish thoughts are dark and troublesome, And over-sad the tangled plot appears. But if I still remain, as others do, Tnihtinjr the playwTJRht, sitting with my friends Mcthinks the storv will prove sweet and true, And I shall read the meaning as it ends. Iticbard Burton. NO WASTE BSr-THE COCOANUT. How the A'nrlous-PnrK of the Prod uct ArCj'-l'tiliKCil. (From the San Franc-two Chronicle.-) A Chinese proverb says that the cocoa nut tree has as many properties as there are days in the year. The fruit of the tree is the only part Imported into Cali fornia, and it Is now put to many and widely different uses, not one atom being thrown away. One local importer receives about 300.000 cocoanuts a month. Only a small portion of them Is kept for the "green trade," as it Is called when the nut is sold In its original state, the greater bulk passing to the factory, where the husk is removed and the inner nut is steamed to facilitate the removal of tho meat. About thirty-five boys and girls are employed there in peel ing off the thin brown skin. This is care fully preserved and sent to the oil an lead works, where a substance resembling lard and known as cocoanut butter is ex tracted. This is worked into all sorts of toilet articles. The white, meaty part of the nut, after being washed. Is thrown into different machines to be ground according to the quality required, some grinding It almost as fine as flour, others cutting it into strips half an Inch wide. The next Drocess is the cooking, which is done in immense brass kettles continuously re volving to insure an even result. Only the milk contained in the heart of the nut is used In the cooking. After the nut Is sufficiently cooked that is, when the moisture has wholly evaporated, the pulp is placed in shallow Iron pans and dried in drying closets, and the "desiccated co coanut" of commerce is the result, which enters into many different confections. That part of the cocoanut whose prop erties are not so well known In Cali fornia is the outer covering or husk. The inner woody shell of this makes excellent fuel. If you are initiated into the mys teriesor, rather, tricKs of the trade, you will also know that It does duty as "spice." How spicy it really is depends upon what is mixed with it. At any rate it is too good a fuel to be thrown away. But the fibrous outer shell of the cocoanut was, until very recently, thrown Into the bay, to float off and finally disfigure the sur rounding beaches. There is now a factory on the Berkeley shore of the bay which uses this despised husk In the manufac ture of another useful commercial com modity. It is the only factory of its kind in California, and It assumes a position of peculiar importance when it Is remem bered that It is converting what was pre viously considered waste matter, which wag hard to get rid of and which bid fair to become a nuisance, Into an article of great utility. Out ot this husk a very aromatic, perfectly sanitary, and springy material is being made to serve as a substitute in mat tress making for the unsanitary curled hair. Tho husk of the cocoanut shell con tains a fibrous material which really makes excellent furniture and mattress filling. It is infinitely superior to shoddy. This In dustry is only In Its infancy on this coast. Twenty-five per cent 'of the husk 13 hair or fibre, the rest is 'dust; but not even this dust is wasted, for nilraerymen have found that It makes an excellent covering for winter flower beds! he first process through which the husk is put is that ot crushing. This Is accomplished by a ma chine resembling a rock crusher, and sounding very' much like, one when a work, driven by a fortyi" horso power engine. This is called the pBiker.' The husk comes out of It as dust and coarse hairlike fibre, with here and there" alremnant of shell. This Is picked over by"' boys and thrown again into the picker. , '. When it comes ou a second time a por tion of it Ib twisted Into a rope by a ma chine called the twister. When about a hundred feet of thlsj rope 13 made It is tied up into a bundle ana hung In a steam box. After being thoroughly steamed, these bundles are dried In a room heated to 120 degrees. Whilejao treated' the fibre is still kept in tho shape of rope. It Is by this process that the fibre is curled and gets its springy quality. The twisted fibre is then put through the picker a third time, and when it la thrown out It looks as light as down, and settles' into the sweetest, most aromatic heap imaginable, for it re tains its pleasant Woody and spicy odor, which alone ought to make it an ideal ma terial for mattress filling independent of its more important sanitary properties. The price of this cocoanut fibre ranges from 2 1-2 cents to 10 cents a pound. It has lately been listed as an articie of com merce, so that It is now one of the es tablished industries of this coast. THROUGH LAVA ON STILTS. Tlirllliiifr Experience of nn Enell.sli Traveler In Hawaii. (From the London Mail.) Mr. A. R. Watson has just had one of the most thrilling experiences that ever befell a mountaineer. He ascended the Mauna Loa volcano. In tho Hawaiian Isl ands, while it was in a state of furious eruption. The party numbered five, with guides, pack mules, and a week's supply of provisions. By evening of the first day about a third of the hazardous climb had been achieved and the men camped In a grove of palms and ferns. At Doon on the succeeding day all tho members of the party, with the exception of Mr. Watson, concluded to examlno the north cone of the crater, while Mr. Wat son, filled with the idea that the southern cone was the most interesting, separated from his companions and guides and moved in that direction. After a weary and dan gerous climb he arrived at a promontory of rock and earth. Close upon the far side of this point a great river of lava was bounding in a straight line down the mountain, while about S00 feet above, on the slope of the hill, the crater, like the mouth of some Infernal monster, was pouring forth melted stone. Mr. Watson sat for a considerable time, probably a couple of hours, gazing upon tho vast estuary of rolling, flowing, burst ing fire rushing down the side of the mountain. Some thousand or more feet below this stream entered a thicket of trees which, Mr. Watson observed through his glasses, seemed to have wonderful power of resisting the attack of the flames. Toward night he arose from his seat j below the rocks to go over the summit j down the hill and walk out between the j lava on the side which he was to crosb. i He thought that his eyes had been rest- j lng too long on running lava and that he could see puch a stredin in whichever quar ter he might lookiiso hj went forward. But he had notsbeen mistaken. While he had been sitting with his back to the direction from which he had come and in which ho must go, with his eyes on tho flowing stream, enrhhtied with its mar vels, there had broken from the lower edge of the cratergand) some feet to the ncrth of the one he 'was watching, a sec ond How. He storied on down and had proceeded several hundred feet, when, to his horror and amazement he discovered that the new stream tofj lava, ran directly Into the earlier strenm. The streams joined, and his retreat had! beefi cut off. He was hemmed in by runnlng'rivers of fire. As he meditated on tho best means ot escape his eye fell upon the singular forest ut the bottom of the incline, and he thought of the heat-defying properties ot that wood. If he could only turn the bunch which grew above him into service. Ah! he hnd it stilts! Ho had been nn ex pert on stilts when a boy, and felt certain his skill had not forsaken him. Drawing a btout bladed knife from his pocket, he began hewing at the base of one of the smallest trees. The wood was of the spe cies known as iron wood. When the blade grew dull he whetted it on the rocks. All through the night he worked, while the terrible furnace belched above him. By daylight he had the stl'ts made, and, mounting them, started olf to the edge of the flow. The wood smouldered, but did not blaze, as he waded through the lava. The heat was frightful, blistering his face and hands. As he arrived at the oppojite edge of the river of fire one charred stilt broke off, but eager hands grasped him an 1 lifted the swooning man on to one of the mules, in which manner he was taken to a rancher's house. Mr Watson Is at present receiving medical attention, but Is making rapid progress. An Inventor Disposes of Some Mis taken Theories. Dr. Stephen II. Emmons Offer n Ton ultir Explanation of the Xew Power Derived From ConstltuteiitH of the AtmoHiihere Its Production Like ly to llceomu a Great Industry. Within the past year, since the possi bilities of liquid air have come to be a topic of general interest, much has been written concerning its so-called miraculous powers. A few months ago it was be lieved that in the new agent perpetual mo tion had been discovered, which would en tirely revolutionize present methods ot power production. Whilo it is generally admitted by scientific men who have made a careful study of the new fluid, that Its application will eventually displace steam and electricity to a large extent, it is not believed that the revolution will be as great as was first anticipated. It Is, how ever, admitted that liquid air is destined to play in the immediate future as conspic uous a part commercially as steam and electricity do In the present day. There is no question in the minds of men who have carefully studied the prop erties of the powerful liquid that It can be produced In quantities at a sufficiently low cost to make its application eminently practicable. Machinery for producing it has been perfected and tests of its efficiency have been made which plainly Indicate the opening of a new Industry. It.s t,'ne Alinind, In France and England liquid air Is al ready employed commercially to advan tage, and its use is growing rapidly. In the eastern cities of the United States, notably in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, companies have been formed and capital in large amounts invested for pro moting the commercial use of liquid air. The movement has been undertaken with in the past few months, and preparations have not yet been completed for placing the liquid on the market for general use, ' but there Is every Indication that at no distant time a new industry will be de veloped which will rival in magnitude the telegraph, telephone, and electric light In terests of the country. Dr. Stephen H. Emmens, of New York, who is probably the leading authority on liquid air In the United States, and who is the inventor of an apparatus for pro ducing the fluid, in an interview' with a Times reporter, gave an interesting and instructive talk upon liquid air and its probable value as a commercial agent. He said: "Very few attempts have yet been made to give the public very accurate Informa tion as to liquefied air and its probable utilization as an industrial agent. Some well-illustrated articles in popular maga zines have been published, and some enter taining lectures have been delivered; but the general tone of the statements thus disseminated has been one of sensational ism, based, for the most part, upon that 'little knowledge' which Pope long ago pointed out was 'a dangerous thing. Oc the other hand, the strictly technical jour nals and sundry learned professors have in dulged in criticisms and denunciations every whit as one-sided and in many cases as incorrect as the very exaggerations and errors which they sought to overthrow. "The truth, as usual, lies between the extremes. Liquid air is not the miracle it has been Alleged to be by the peripatetic lecturers, the magazine scribes, and the flamboyant advertisers. Nor is it a mere scientific toy, and an Impracticable natural vehicle of power, as maintained by engi neering editors and so-called leaders of sci ence. It represents an important step for ward In the march of industrial progress, and it as surely destined to minister to our material wants and add to the fortunes of mankind as was the case with steam, electricity, or any other great advance in the art of controlling natural forces. An Expert's Expluiiatlon. "In order to understand what liquid air really is, wo must begin by remembering what we know as to the condition of mat ter In general. The metal, lead, for ex ample, is a heavy solid body. But if we heat It to a temperature of a little above two degrees, Fahrenheit, it becomes li quid; and, if we urge the heat to a higher point, the liquid becomes converted into an invisible gas. The same thing is true of gold, silver, iron, copper, and all other solid metals, which, without any excep tion, can be liquefied and gasified by heat ing to various temperatures. It is also true of mercury, a substance that is pecu liar to us in its liquid form. If we heat It, we obtain a gas; if we cool it we ob tain a solid. Water and oil display simi lar changes; they can bo frozen by cold and vaporized by heat. Carbonic acid forms part of the atmosphere that sur rounds us and is generally in the form of an invisible gas. But if we require it in the form of a liquid we can buy it as such In the market; and we can also obtain it as a 3olld mass; the change of state from gas to liquid and from liquid to solid be ing a mere matter of cooling. It is there fore quite in accordance with our general experience that air also should be capable of existing as a gas or as a liquid, or as a solid, according to its degree of heat or cold. Clinnst-s in Matter. "There is something else that we know by common experience with regard to the changes of state experienced by matter. Wo see that gases are bodies that are self expansive and that therefore exert more or less pressure upon the sides of the vessels In which they are confined. And we find their pressure to increase with their tem perature. Steam, for example, at 212 de grees Fahrenheit has the same pressure as the surrounding atmosphere, viz, be tween fourteen and fifteen pounds per square inch. But .if its temperature bt raised to 300 degrees Fahrenheit, its press ure becomes sixty-seven pounds per square inch, and at 400 degrees Fahrenheit, it ex erts a pressure of about 250 pounds per square inch. "These phenomena afford a key to the whole problem of liquefying gaseous bodies. If we can contrive to keep up a pressure of 400 pounds per square Inch, we need only cool the steam down to a temperature a little below 400 degrees, Fahrenheit, in order to convert it into water. If tho pressure be but sixty-seven pounds, we must cool the steam down to below 300 degrees Fahrenheit if we wish to liquefy it. And If the operation be conducted In an open vessel under ordinary atmospheric pressure we must go down to a little be low 212 degrees Fahrenheit. Similar fea tures characterize all other gases. The degrees of cold and pressure vary accord ing to the particular gas operated upon, and the greater the pressure we employ, the higher will be the temperature at which the gas is capable of assuming a liquid condition. There appears to be, however, a limit of temperature In each case beyond which liquefaction cannot ex ist, no matter how high may be the press ure. Xot lteally I.ldtild Air. "It results from that that the so-called liquid air is not, in reality, liquid air. Our atmosphere is a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbonic acid, water vapor, ar gon, metrogen. krypton, u on, and probably many other gases as yet unknown, together with many metallic elements. Each of these constituents has Us own limit ?nd progressive stages of liquefaction. Hence, a liq lefnctlon proceeds. thi resulting liquid cannot contain the same constituents lc the same proportion as atmospheric air. In point of fact, liquid air is a ftuld com posed almost entirely of nitrogen and oxy gen and containing a considerably terser percentage of the latter element thn la the case of free air. And If the liquid be kept for a time In an open vessel the nitro gen will revert to a gaseous condition (that Is, will evaporate or boil off) more rapidly than the oxygen; so thai the per centage ot oxygen continually increases. Hence the liquefaction of air affords a rap id and economical method of obtaining ox ygen for use in chemical and metallurgical operations and for producing intense local combustion with a corresponding accentua tion of temperature. "Already Dr. Borchers in Germany has applied this super-oxygenated mixture to the production of calcium carbide for tbe manufacture of acetylene. I am using it in the cremation of dead bodies and the destruction of garbage by a method which allows ot such operations being conducted without evolving any offensive or deleteri ous vapor. A Matter of Chemical Composition. "If we disregard the question ot chemi cal composition and regard liquid air in a purely physical aspect, we are at once struck by a very singular fact ot great Importance from the point ot view of me chanical power. A liquid is a non-expansive body; that is to say, its molecules are in such close proximity to each other that their inter-attraction suffices to keep them from separating, until, indeed, some heat from tbe outside is introduced to break these internal bonds. Now, we all know that If air be compressed it requires to be confined in some strong receptacle, in the same way that steam is confined in the boiler of a steam engine. We also know that in the street cars now operated by compressed air in New York and in the auto-trucks which will ere long do so much to relieve the congested condition of city thoroughfares, the motive power consists of very heavy and cumbrous stael reser voirs or flasks containing air compressed to an Initial pressure of 2,000 or 2,500 pounds per square inch. This means that the air in question has been reduced to about the one hundred and sixtieth part of its original bulk. Now, liquid air is re duced to one eight-hundredth part of its volume when free; or, in other words, it has a capacity of expansion five times as great as that possessed by the highest grade of compressed air hitherto employed in mechanical practice. Yet this enormous potentiality of power, equivalent to 10.000 or 12,000 pounds per square inch, can be kept in an ordlaary tin can. It is in itself harmless and inert, and if used as a source of power it requires no massive and weighty reservoirs. Molecular attraction has been substituted for steel walla. The Compressed Article. "Here, then, we see the tremendous ad vantages which liquid air -enjoys over com pressed air. It gives us five times as much powor, volume for volume; and the appli ances for storage and transport are ten times less costly and cumbrous. But com pressed air is a power that has of late years come into continually extending use. In the Howard Lectures delivered by Prof. W. C. Unwin, F. A. S., in 1S93. on the 'Development and Transmission of Power' from central stations, said, among o.her things: 'Compressed air transmiss on is a perfectly general method of distributing power for all purposes. Whether in any glven case it Is the most advantageous, the least wasteful of power, or the cheap est in working cost, depends on various circumstances. M. Hanarte believes that it is and will continue to be the most economical method of transmission to con siderable distance. The loss in the air mains Is very small. The motors worked expansively are efficient. The mains can be carried by any path, and differenc.s of elevation between the compressing and working points do not sensibly affrct the result. In hydraulic transmission, the wa ter must be collected, stored, and in some cases filtered, and, having actuated a mo tor, means must be found for removing It. But air is everywhere available, and can be discharged anywhere without causing trouble.' Introducing Air Power. "It Is no wonder then that enginee-s are Introducing air power to a greater and greater extent from year to year. Even the conservative British Government has recently decided to employ air power in its navy yards, and is giving orders to American houses for the necessary air compressors and pneumatic tools. Inas much, therefore, as liquid air is a vastly superior form of compressed air its field of activity is of correspondingly large ex tent. It will not replace steam and elec tricity in their special spheres. It will have its own work to do. "While, however, It is true that liquid air gives us the means of employing huge air, it must not be supposed that the air itself contains the power. This is where , the magazine scribes and popular lecturers have blundered. They have confused ! mechanism with power. But there is no power inherent in the piston and cylinder ! and driving wheels of a locomotive. They ! merely transmit the force imparted to them by thesteam. Even the steam itself has no inherent power. It is merely a mechanism for collecting heat from the boiler fire and delivering it for conversion into molar motion in the cylinder. In like mannor there is no inherent power in liquid air. Keep It at its own temperature and it remains inert. But it is a body that has a vast capacity for heat, and its particles are packed together in a way most advantageous for converting that heat into mechanical power. It may be regarded as a superior kind of water, and when, by heating, It regains a gaseous form, the resulting air may be regarded as a superior kind of steam. It does not fol low that, weight for weight, liquid air can be made to perform a greater total of work than steam, but in many cases it will be found more adaptable and general ly efficient." Dr. Emmens has been investigating the subject ot liquid air for years, and is well qualified to speak upon the matter. He is identified with a metropolitan company for tho production of liquid air, as well as the inventor of devices to be used In the new Industry. He has been conspicuous as a writer upon scientific subjects, and espe cially upon liquid air. HAVANA'S WATER MAHT. An Interest!!!;? Euciueering Feat Performed by Americans. CFroin the Xew York Journal.) The Interesting process of laying a six inch water main across the bottom of Ha vana Harbor is described In the current number of "Engineer News," by Howard Bgleston, C. E. During the blockade of Havana the water supply for the large number of Spanish troops In Morro Castle and Cabanas proved inadequate, and the Spanish engineer who proposed to carry a pipe across the bay was lpoked upon as a saviour of the army. A two-inch line of. wrought iron pipes was laid by the Span lard and is now in use. But this supply was only for the troops and took no ac count of the large number of people living in a village along the water front known as Casa Blanca. The American engineers believed these people needed water as well as the soldiers stationed in Cabanas and Morro and decid ed to lay a main across the bay of suffi cient capacity to give water, not only to the occupants of the fortifications, but also to the town of Casa Blanca, Mr. Egleston, as chief engineer of the work, tells about It as follows: "The plan determined upon provided for the joining ot the pipes on a barge which was drawn across the bay, the water pipes being paid out by means of a skid, reaching to the bottom of the bay. An old scow belonging tc the engineer department was selected and rigged with an inclined platform and boom. The skid was made in two sections of sixty feet and one of thirty feet, making in all one hundred and fifty feet. The tnds of each of these sections were so fashioned as to make rule joints when they were put together. An extra skid ninety-eight feet long was built and fastened on the inclin ed platform to act as a continuation of the portion cf the skid that ai suipt-ndfl in the water." WHEIEBOiuARESTORII A Vault in the Trcusnry Tiimtft cites Great Intei'ost. One Hnnilrcil TliuHnnnil I'oraeni Have VInlted the 1'laec Dtirlnjc Chqj Int Yeur-Sonion-hnt OItf-Wfth-loned. Hut Guarded AVIth tho Ut most Care Improvement. Xtdad. Daring the past year a least lOOtMQ strangers have visited the Tieesurj Deya menc In other words that somber of par sons have been taken throng the vaate! and had captained to them the varies workings ot the dtvteiona connected with the Otoee of the Treasurer. The one piaee that excites wonder aad comment from tha average atrangar above all others la thii bond vault ot the Treasury, located on theV ftm finer, north hall, at the extreme west of the corridor. In tkte vault are to be found )467.00.wel in bonde, $7,t0,000 of which, however, ee unregistered. These bonds belong to ha national banks of the county. They are de posited with the Treausry to secure the cir culation of the national bank notes. Kfceej visitor is shown a little package ot hea4r and sometimes permitted to behf for a Tltn ute $5,600,600 of them. The vault containing the H07,iW.Ha worth of bonds is not quite an huge aa one would expect in a building the sine et the Treasury. Bat, then, it was oofft MRS thirty years age, and at that time a wered all requirements. Every inch Of available space in tbe vault is now occu pied. It is claimed the vault is bargbc proof and fireproof. There is such netwseV of electric wires connected with the dae3 leading into the vault that any attempt hi ! dwill a bole into the doer would set a burglar alarms, not only at the Trenswry ; proper, but in Police Headquarter. r the wires are connected with tbe DtstritJ 1 burglar alarm system. 1 The bonds of the several national banks ' of the country are enclosed In file boxes j made of thick paper, such as is used fcx the construction of paper boxes, but tha file boxes are placed alongside or tha others, properly numbered. The shelves j on which they rest are of wood. The vault I is illuminated by electric lights, the wizen of which are specially protected, so that ; there is but little danger of Are front fhfe j source. i An official, speaking of this vault, said to a Times reporter: "Twenty-five or tals- i ty years ago this vault was all right. It j was fully up to the times, and it was SaasJa j to meet ail demands; bat daring that ss- ' riod the country has grown, and today, I 1 believe there is not a bank anywhere with. a capital of $50,000 that cannot beast Of a vault far superior to this. It was but ia- cently that modern doors were put on tho I vault. Tbe shelving inside should be con.-' ; s true ted of metal and the file boxes cen- I taining the bonds of national banks rheofcl I be made of aluminum. There should be as - little woodwork on the inside of the vasit as possible. Just think of the weight $407,000,000 of bonds aad the eombusidWo I character of the Ink used in printing thesal ' Friction is one great source of fires that break out where least expected. ' "Congress has been asked several times to appropriate money for an extension aad improvement of the vault, nut no asses priatkm has yet been made. Really tha vault is too small; It is way seMn4 She times." j In the opinion of Treasury officials Cea- ; gress will again be asked at its coming sea- ' sion to make tbe vault more modem hy, , providing money to purchase the metaMfc I fixtures mentioned and providing against any loss of valuable securities through fire. Of course, the probability ot the destme ' tion of tbe bonds by combustion is very re mote, but there is always danger, one St , the officials says, and It is advisable to- nto every device for the protection ot the enasw mously valuable papers stored la thfa vault. BRITISH PRESS CBKSORSHTBi Cable Iloiiten tn South Afriea. and. War Xew. (Ftohi tbe Xew York Tribune.) Last Tuesday it was obvious that "If one touch of nature makes the whole world kin," one touch of science makes the whole world next door neighbors. Durban not door to Xew York. The Anglo-American. Telegraph Company posted in its oUces the notice, fresh off the wires from London. "All communication between Natal aad. Orange Free State and Transvaal suspend ed. All telegrams for South Africa, subtest to censorship at Aden." That short bolls tin seemed to bring the South African- wac very close to the business and newspaper, offices of Xew York. The Anglo-American company Is one principal agent of communication between this country and the seat of war, charging $1.23 per word for despatches to either Durban or Cape Town. Its wires end at London, it is true, but it receives sad transmits despatches through the Eastern company to the Cape. Tbe Eastern com pany controls two cable routes; one by way, of Lisbon, Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, and the east coast of Africa to Durban; the other by tbe west coast, to Cape Town. The former route is by far tbe mora used, and as telegrams in enormous num bers go by the same cables to points lying between London and Aden a great deal si unnecessary labor ia spared the Govern ment censors, as well as- a great deal e unnecessary delay to business, by estab lishing the censorship at Aden rather than. further west. No announcement of cen sorship has been made in reference to ana point on the west coast route, hat It la pretty certain that, since the route is hi connection with both Lisbon and Cadis. the authorities at Cape Town will take good care of all messages to South Africa which come that way. How the details of the censorship are to he managed at Aden there is no means et ascertaining here. In the Spaniah-Ameriean. war all despatches for Cuba handed in at .the offices bad to be vised by the military staff ofiBcer in charge. At Aden the eaftr. effective way will be to nave the circuit. interrupted, so that every telegram moat be there taken off the wires and pot on again after due consideration by a staff. officer, who will, no doubt, be represeaieu in the operator's office by a non-commissioned officer. A Xu-Rro Hayman's Diamonds. (From the Xew Orleans Ttmee-DrmocrM.) "I spent my vacation this year tabtng on tha East Florida coast," said a Xew Orleans lawyer, "and among other place I viaited waa a priaritiva little settlement north ot Cedar Keys. On et.' tbe characters of the place is a big asolaeto known as 'Diamond Bill,' and I engaevd biaa aeeaial times to take me out in bis huwter. I aaw at. once that he had derived bis sobriquet mm the gaudy jewelry he wore, but when we wete est together on the boat I was anrpriaed to note teas the gewgaws were all genuine and worth a geed deal ot money. "When I questioned him on the subject he sat down by me on the thwarts and told me an in teresting orv. It emed that some yeaia aen be had uvtd the life ot a child that fell eveiboanl from a pleasure yacht, and the mother gave Ma a mall diamond ring. Later o 3L timii jeweler came to tbe settlement to atn ana tent Bill that tne rtna wan wojio ?aa. im m was astonished, and waa proportionately ia ,i with i he advantage of diamonds a res) in larre taima in small compass. It bawaatfcr occurred to him that it would be a good idea io invest his surplus cash in that way sad always hava It on bis person secure from fire or tttnwH. The jeweler agreed to act as buyer for Mas, aad since then he had gradually acquired ht pteaewt collection, which consists ot three studs, fear rings, a large solitaire collar button, and a chaffer pin. worth altogether at least ?.5O0l BiK is thrifty darky, and between fehiat; and tourists does well, but diamond tmying has become a nanU with htm, and he savee every cent he inafci for that purpose. I asked him it he wasn't afraid of bthqc drowned with all hfe tresaure on bun, winch would h unjust to hfe prettv mulatto wife. Ts thoucht 'bout that, m. mini k'i.itsiU, "bnt Lira's tro e -J toohin' ter stjv t- wili.r , r; !urp in' 1 !..u t want no othtr i. ,ir iuaa 3i.1tt.tt' ruuttd with ay