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The times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, October 29, 1899, Second Part, Image 18

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Their Hard Battle for Recognition
by the Government.
The IEmpIoj-Hicut of VcshhIch in tlie
PHbllc Service IICKnu During IViir
Tlmus Demonstrated Their Tnct,
Ability, ami ISMicluHcy Jlen Given
PrcfcreHcc in Certain Instance.
The Postoffice Department, it Is said, has
done more to encourage women to seek em
ployment fa Government service than all
of the other departments combined. Forty
yeus ago the number of women employed
by tbe Government was so insignificant and
their positions were so humble that they
were never taken into consideration. To
day there are many thousands of women
filling very responsible places in the
service, which it was formerly contended
coaM only be propeniy occupied by men.
To overcome tbe strong prejudice that
prevailed against bavins; women in office.
and the thoroughly rooted belief that a
woman oouid not do clerical and executive
work nearly as well as a man, the women
of the country had to struggle hard, but
they fought their battles bravely, persist
ently, and intelligently, until at last they
accomplished very nearly all that they
could bone for.
During the Civil War the Government
found that it required tbe services in the
field of many of its brave clerks and offi
cial heads of divisions. Tbe Government
also saw the necessity of providing, as far
as possible, for the widows and orphans
caused by the war. The opening for this
fatherly care came when the male clerks
went to the front, and the women were
given inferior places. Since then, by an
exhttttton of fidelity to their labors, ability
to perform them and an aptitude for pro
motion, the number of women employes
has been constantly increased.
August W. Matcben, superintendent of
the free delivery mail syfctem, has made
the employment of female clerks a subject
of careful and unbiased study, and the re
sult of his observations in tbe Postoffice
Department must be gratifying to the
women workers. Mr. Matcaen Lelieves ab
solutely in woman's worth, capacity, and
general fitness to perform the duties as
signed her in Government positions.
When, after the outbreak of the Civil
War, women were employed, they ere as
signed to the lowest grade of clerical
work, such as cutting coupons off bonds,
counting bills, and copying documents,
and their salaries ranged from $4S0 to ?5Q0
a yestr. Those who received this maxi
mum smoont were very few.
A Theory Afirniiiht Women.
The records in the appointment clerk's
office of the Ijetofflce Department show
that when female clerks were first em-
ployed the Third Assistant Postmaster
General acted upon the theory that one
mrfederkwis equal to two female clerks,
uibic j ch '
aad be therefore appointed two women at
tWB each to fill the vaeancv caused by the
! , Jr j;. h hj ,
rL.Tle b- ?.' !
r.I rrTL.7- . rT -. - .7 . rVr-i
Zeverlev believed the theory- a correct one
until his eyes were opened in the dead let'
ter office, Male clerks in taie division had
been accustomed to turn in 126 letters at
tended to as a good day's work. The fe
male clerks appointed to do this work
easily raised the standard to 360 letters
a day, and when General Zeverley recover,
ed from his astonishment, he issued an or
der to the effect that unless male clerks
could keep up to this standard they would
be doritnnt inefficient and he would remove
The Innovation of women clerks in the
departments met with much opposition
from the male clerks. So bitter did this
opposition become that Congress was fre
quently appealed to and it was not until
after a hitler fight that lasted for years
that Che -women emerged from the battle
victorious and that their right to receive
Government employment was firmly estab
lished. Prom the time that the debated
question was finally settled to the present,
the number of women and the efficiency ot
their work in the departments has con
stantly increased. Congress, during the
mis nxea tne maximum salary tor women
clerks at 80 a year, hot in 1870 this was .
abrogated and male and female clerks j
were placed on the same salary basis. One
of the most forceful advocates of this act
r-rott .r w n p hh , t I
As an illustration of the character of
work now being performed by female
clerks, attention is called to tbe Free De
livery Division of tbe Postoffice Depart
ment. Five years ago the highest position
In this department that a woman might as
pire to fill was that of stenographer. Today
the work has been distributed among the
clerks, regardless of sex, and the greater
portion of it requires judgment, execution,
ability, tact, and diplomacy. One woman
handles all matters pertaining to the pro
motion and removal of letter carriers, dic
tates all the correspondence relative there
to, makes rulinga and passes upon Impor
tant questions that continually arise. An
other has direct charge of the distribution
of the letter carrier force, prepares and t
considers all data relating to it, passes
upon applications for additional service,
scrutinises the schedules under which Car
riers IF. MnnlrfMTAjf mnA AimHittii & .M.....J, !
.. . f . .. I. 1
epondence bearing upon these subjects. The
books and accounts of the division, cover
ing the annual expenditure of about $13.
W.PW, are kept by an accomplished young
woman whose fine executive ability and
special qualifications have more than once
placed her in full charge as division super
intendent, acting in the absence of tbe su
perintendent and hie assistants.
lu Other Departments.
The sane degree of proficiency has been
attained by women in the Treasury and
the Interior Departments, and !n tbe other
branches of tbe Government service. It is
said, however, that, notwithstanding the
rapid advancement of women employes and
the excellent character of their work, dur
ing the teat two years.-there has been an
evident Intention on tbe part of officials
to fill all vacancies by male appointments,
and that even where the vacancy is made
by the retirement of a woman, it is filled
by a man. Politics is tbe only reason
alleged for this procedure.
"I think that as the civil service gets
older the greater will be tbe decrease of
the appointments of women to positions in
the departments." said Frank A. Vander
llp. Assistant Secretary of tbe Treasury,
to a reporter of The Times. Tbe remark
was the outcome of a question put to Mr.
Vanderllp as to whether there Is an un
derstanding or agreement, express or im
plied, among the heads of departments to
cubstftute men for women employes.
In replying to this interrogation. Mr.
Vanderllp said posit v el y that so far as the
rreaaary Department was concerned, there
re no such understanding, and that the de
partment is not following the practice of
isbstltatlng male for female employes.
lie qualified this denial considerably, how
ever, by saying that the filling of vacan
cies very largely depends upon the chiefs
of divisions and bureaus, that they are the
people who have charge of the work and
who are responsible for It, and that thev
do demand generally that a man shall be
appointed to fill a vacancy. Because of
this reason, Mr. Vanderllp said, there was
likely to be more call for men than for
women, although in some ot tbe divisions,
sueh as those employing counters, where
deftness is a necessary qualification,
women are given tbe preference by the
In bureaus like that of the Auditor's of
fice the proportion of men appointed Is
greater than that of women, and Mr Van
derllp added that he thought it would con
tinue so, subject to the ciivl strvice rules.
In such divisions, Mr. Vanderllp said, the
belief of the chiefs is that men make more
efficient employes than women. The As
sistant Secretary denied that the depart
ment had any desire to substitute men for
women when the one was as efficient as
the other.
Men III the Pension Ofllee.
H. Clay Evans, Commissioner of Pen
sions, said in relation to this question that
he has now 450 women in his department,
and that the number will not be Increased.
"The duties of the employes in the Pen
sion Office," he said, "relate purely to legal
and medical questions, and it is difficult
to teach women, especially the older ones,
the technical knowledge required. There
fore, for the work here I want men when
I can obtain them. When 1 was First As
sistant Postmaster General I had many
-women under my direction who were very
efficient in performing their duties, but
the class of work in the Postoffice Depart
ment is different from that done in the
Pension Office.
"Whenever a vacancy has been made by
a female employe of late it has been the
practice to fill it by the reinstatement of a
Clarence G. Allen, acting chief of the
appointment division of the Interior De
partment, said that he knew that the Geo
logical Survey and Patent Office preferred
women to men for employes when practi
cable. He knew that no discriminations
were made against womenv and that as
typewriters and stenographers they were
given the preference. He said that the
Pension Office and Land Office had been
filling vacancies made by. women by the
reinstatement of old soldiers; that in the
Indian Office there had been no discrimina
tion. Views of Mr. Ilentli.
Perry Heath, First Assistant Postmaster
General, said that during the last six weeks
more women then men had been appointed,
but he attributed this to an unusual de
mand for stenographers. In the Postoffice
Department, he said, there were some
women more efficient than men, but he ad
ded that in the filling of a vacancy the re
quest of the chief of the division is usually
considered. If he asks for a man to fill
a vacancy be generally gets one.
The First Assistant Postmaster General
said that he knew of no desire on the
part of anyone to discriminate against the
appointment of women. Some reasons, al
leged by division chiefs, for not wanting
women to fill executive positions, are that
many men having business with the de
partment do not like to transact it with
a woman. Some men feel a restraint placed
on them when this is necessary, and others
may be uncouth and in an undesirable con
dition for women to meet. "All kinds of
people come here," he said, "and they must
be attended to." He frankly said that he
believed that in filling any vacancy, prefer
ence should be given a veteran over a
woman, but as an evidence that there Is
no discrimination against women he said
that the temporary roll, which does not re
quire the approval of the Civil Service
Commission, at present contains thirty-six
names, twenty-four of which are those of
"Reinstatement," said the Secretary of
the Civil Service Commission, "is the lea
son so many men of late have been ap-
i pointed to vacancies created by women."
"" . ,r T ,
Te. "cretary said that the number of
original appointments was small, except
, JLhnP ,.t nrtmjttwl that tho
Ior stenographers, but admitted that the
number of reinstatements of men had been
large. Of the stenographers that had been
appointed after civil service examination
there were 11 women in 1S97, and 14 in
189S, as against G2 men in 1897, and C2 in
189S. As to the appointment of clerks,
21 women were appointed in 1897 and 6
in 189S. as against 34 men in 1897 and 50
In 1S9S. All of the females were appointed
to clerkships out of Washington. Seventy
three men were also appointed to posi
tions out of this city, but eleven obtained
good places in the departments here, and
the women obtained none.
Death by Drowning mid Stnrvatlon
Dclihcrntvly Cliomcn.
(From the London News.)
The papers report that a dog committed
suicide the other day in the Lake of
Corno. He was determined to end his
life, for a man pulled him out when the
big dog was half drowned, and drove him
away from the water. The dog was very
handsome, and the man had been admir
ing him as the animal stood gazing into
the water. To see what further might
happen, the spectator returned to the lake's
brink, and soon the dog was back again
and. in the water, his head resolutely kept
beneath the surface. Again his admirer
Piea mm to snore anu maae nun run on
inland, the man -returning to his post of
observation, whence, later he heard a dis-
tant splash, and recognized the dog s back.
THirt nsiisw fnMrm vac cU'imn;nfr foot- oin.
i. tic JfW lev, ..no ofiiiiu.iu(3 .iu)i cti.tijr
from shore, his head, as before, held under
water. His rescuer jumped into a boat
and pulled hard for where the dog was
struggling, but was, to his sorrow, too late.
The lifeless body already floated on the
water. An autopsy proved that the fine
animal was healthy in every organ, and it
was consequently surmised that the "rash
act" must have had a "moral" cause.
Clearly, the dog must have been unhap
py and tired of life. Canine suicides have
long been chronicled. About thirty years
ago a wretched old dog was turned from
a thankless master's door. The poor brute
sought shelter in another house, and on
being driven away was seen to stand gaz
ing at the rapid waters of the Loire. He
lifted himself at last, slowly and evident-
lv P&nfu!ly, for a spring, and fell into the
river. The spectator held out a stick to
the dog. but he turned away and without
struggle was washed rapidly down
" The dellberatn suicide of a valuable ?Cew.
foundiand belonging to a solicitor at Holm
flrth i6 recorded in Jesse's "Anecdotes of
Dogs." This dog seemed causelessly mel
ancholy, and tried to drown himself sev
eral times, but was rescued. At last he.
too, kept his head under water till he died
of suffocation. A Mr. Nicol told Mr. Jesse
that he had seen a foxhound drown himself
of set purpose. "The informant said he
was ready to make oath of the fact."
George Jesse, in "Reseaiches," gives an ac
count of a small Havana dog who drowned
himself at Honlleur.
F. P. Cobbc tells the following story,
vouched for by a friend: "A very old New
foundland, tbe constant companion of the
cbildren, and of invariably good temper,
was one day sleeping, when a lltle girl,
to arouse him, gave ham a child's kick.
The dog started from his sleep and seized
the small leg with his teeth, but not
sharply enough to do any harm.
"Tbe nurse, however, ran up and beat
him with her handkerchief, scolding him
and telling him he should not go with
them for their walk, and when he tried
to follow she shut the gate against him.
Not long after a groom saw the dog try
ing to drown himself in a ditch, and pull
ed him out. shutting him up afterward in
a vard. That day and the next he" refused
all food, but escaped to the same ditch,
where he was eventually found drowned."
Nearly all records of canine BUlcldes have
to do with drowning, but the last history
and some others where dogs have been
in deep grief for a master's death show a
deliberate intention to die by starvation.
The author of that more than delightful
volume, "False Beasts and Truo," com
ments thus on some of the cases above
cited: "It Is hard to resist the conclusion
thai if these tales be true the creatures
who thus acted both knew what death Is,
and also were able deliberately to decide
that the short pain of death was better
than the prolonged one of a miserable life.
Even supposing the dog, however, to pos
sess the very high mental faculties needed
for such an argument, the further mani
festation of deliberate will, powerful
enough to conquer the natural clinging to
life of all creatures, and to make the ani
mal resolutely keep his head under water
when a few strokes of his paws would save
him, is most amazing." Elsewhere this
true dog lover says: "As thought is still
thought, in whatsoever brain it Is carried
on, and love Is love In every breast which
beats with emotion, wo are justified in as
suming that there is a real correspond
ence between the mental p.-ocesses and
; feelings of animals and our own."
Its More Commodious Quarters iu
the New Building.
Kifrlit Divisions IIuhj- Hjimllliipr Struy
I')n(iiI Mutter The Museum Xow
Incorporated "WItli the Depart
ment's Uencrnl K-vhililt The An
mial Sale of Unclaimed Mutter.
The Dead Letter Office is now located
in its quarters on the third floor ot the
new Postoffice Building. In the old build
ing on Seventh Street, this department
was scattered about on various floors and
in sundry corners and its work was neces
sarily hampered. Now the working force
is in close association. In order that all
the room necessary should be provided,
the general corridor was closed and there
is now no public passage around the build
ing on this floor. This permits the accom
modation of the full force of about lib
persons. A five-foot passageway, how
ever, for the department's use, is open.
The Dead Letter Office is organized in
eight divisions for the handling of Its dif
ferent classes of matter. These are separ
ated by iron wire fencing, so that while
detached from each other so far as the
transaction of business is concerned, they
have in common the advantages of air and
In the old building, this department
conducted a museum in which was dis
played a variety of objects from a lock of
hair to bottles of poison. Knives, pistols,
watches, articles of clothing, infernal ma
chines, petrified snakes, soldier buttons,
and, in fact, almost anything that could be
enclosed in a mailable package, were in
cluded in the exhibit.
Many Article Conftacntcil.
Many articles prohibited by law from
being mailed are at once confiscated and
sent to the Dead Letter Office. As there
is no room for this museum on the third
floor of the building, it has been Incor
porated with that of the General Postoffice
and Is located on the second floor, on the
Twelfth Street side. Besides, a large por
tion of the curiosities in the General Pos
tal Museum were derived from the Dead
Letter Office and It was deemed Inadvisable
to keep up two exhibits of substantially
the same general character. i
Each year in December, generally a week j
preceding Christmas, the department has i
an auction sale ot property and matter for I
which it has been Impossible to find an j
Matter received without address, however,
is held only six months prior to the sale.
These auctions are conducted by the auc
tioneer firm of the city making the low
est bid of percentage for conducting the
sale. But for these annual cleanings out
the collections would soon become so im- 1
mense that it would be simply impossible
to preserve them. - -j
The aggregate receipts frqm each, ,saje ,
amount to approximately three thousand '
dollars. Before the sales a cataldgue 'is1,
prepared, In which everything to bo soldji
is entered. But a package submitted for ,
sale is not necessarily in the same form' I
as it was when received. Numerous artl- i
cles of the same general eharacter are often
Included In one package, and the catalogue
gives a description, necessarily a very gen
eral one, of its contents. This is intended
to prevent, so far as possible, any imposi
tion upon the purchaser. For example, a
parcel may be offered containing "cheap
jewelry." Of course It Is impossible to de
fine the degree of cheapness, but enough
is done to put the buyer upon his guard.
The officials do all In their power In order
that the Government shall not become par
ty to any fraud. The money derived is
turned Into the Treasury of the United
States through the finance division of the
Money Found In Letters.
In this connection it may be said that
generally about one hundred dollars a day
in actual money is found in the letters
opened in the Dead Letter Office. A vastly
larger amount is daily represented by
drafts, money orders, and other conven
tional paper. This actually amounts to
nearly a million dollars a year. But the
loss in these cases is comparatively small,
for nearly all the drafts, money orders,
etc., can be duplicated at little expense.
Of all tho money received about 75 per
cent is returned to the senders, and the
balance goes into the United" States Treas
ury. The work of the Dead Letter Office has
greatly increased during the past year,
but owing to the constant improvement
of the mail service generally, and especial
ly in the line of delivering matter, it is
thought that the percentage of increase in
dead letter business is smaller than the
percentage of increase in the amount of
matter passing through the mails.
This department is constantly in receipt
of letters containing money and stamps
addressed to fradulent concerns no longer
in business. A few examples will serve to
Illustrate the ingenious variety of appeals
made to the weaker side of human nature:
Under tho stimulating headline, "5,000
razors given away," a "handsome imported
Sheffield steel razor," of unparalleled ex
cellence and "selling as high as ?I0," to
gether with a cake of soap combining all
the perfections, is offered for the sum of
ten cents in silver or stamps, the avowed
benevolent purpose being to Introduce the
treasures above described Into every house
hold. Another concern, for the alleged pur
pose of advertising Its "family news and
story paper," offered a "set ot table sil
ver," twenty-four pieces, "of artistic de
sign and heavily plated," for the munifi
cent sum of ten cents In cash or fifteen
cents in stamps. "Five thousand lovely
decorated tea-sets" were to be given away
to those who should send lists of subscrib
ers to a certain publication, and "ten cents,
silver or stamps, to help pay cost of ad
vertising." Another Scheme.
A consuming desire was manifested by
another concern for miscellaneous names
and addresses, which it was in the habit
of furnishing to "publishers and dealers,"
and it offered J5 per hundred of such, a
trifling preliminary on the part of the col
lector being the forwarding of ten cents
for blank book and instructions. A full
sized box of "our wonderful pellets," with
the usual versatility of curative properties,
was offered to be sent for the considera
tion of ten cents in silver or fifteen cents
in stamps, this boon to be further accom
panied by "a handsome set of furs, gen
uine natural skin, beautifully lined with
satin," to the energetic agent who should
succeed In disseminating the largest quan
tity of this invaluable remedy within a
particular territory.
Extravagant prizes were also offered to
tho successful completion of skeleton
names, with the usual attachment in the
way of remittance for a subscription to a
periodical of unequal merit. For a like
consideration lithographic copies, procured
"at immense expense," of Da Vinci's mas
terpiece, "The Last Supper," were to be
generously distributed. Mingled pleasure
and instruction were to be carried to de
serving firesides through the medium of a
magazine, prepaid at thirty cents, and
"twenty-five pieces of children's furni
ture." Triicrl-Coinefly.
I Bit a mute spectator In the pit,
And watch the tragi-comedy of Life;
The buffoon's laughttr, and the Hash of wit.
The love That leavens, and the assassin's knife.
And Just because an act is yet to come
(The fifth that evens all, and dries our tears),
My foolish thoughts are dark and troublesome,
And over-sad the tangled plot appears.
But if I still remain, as others do,
Tnihtinjr the playwTJRht, sitting with my
Mcthinks the storv will prove sweet and true,
And I shall read the meaning as it ends.
Iticbard Burton.
How the A'nrlous-PnrK of the Prod
uct ArCj'-l'tiliKCil.
(From the San Franc-two Chronicle.-)
A Chinese proverb says that the cocoa
nut tree has as many properties as there
are days in the year. The fruit of the
tree is the only part Imported into Cali
fornia, and it Is now put to many and
widely different uses, not one atom being
thrown away. One local importer receives
about 300.000 cocoanuts a month. Only a
small portion of them Is kept for the
"green trade," as it Is called when the
nut is sold In its original state, the greater
bulk passing to the factory, where the husk
is removed and the inner nut is steamed
to facilitate the removal of tho
meat. About thirty-five boys and
girls are employed there in peel
ing off the thin brown skin. This is care
fully preserved and sent to the oil an
lead works, where a substance resembling
lard and known as cocoanut butter is ex
tracted. This is worked into all sorts of
toilet articles. The white, meaty part of
the nut, after being washed. Is thrown into
different machines to be ground according
to the quality required, some grinding It
almost as fine as flour, others cutting it
into strips half an Inch wide. The next
Drocess is the cooking, which is done in
immense brass kettles continuously re
volving to insure an even result. Only
the milk contained in the heart of the nut
is used In the cooking. After the nut Is
sufficiently cooked that is, when the
moisture has wholly evaporated, the pulp
is placed in shallow Iron pans and dried
in drying closets, and the "desiccated co
coanut" of commerce is the result, which
enters into many different confections.
That part of the cocoanut whose prop
erties are not so well known In Cali
fornia is the outer covering or husk. The
inner woody shell of this makes excellent
fuel. If you are initiated into the mys
teriesor, rather, tricKs of the trade, you
will also know that It does duty as "spice."
How spicy it really is depends upon what
is mixed with it. At any rate it is too
good a fuel to be thrown away. But the
fibrous outer shell of the cocoanut was,
until very recently, thrown Into the bay,
to float off and finally disfigure the sur
rounding beaches. There is now a factory
on the Berkeley shore of the bay which
uses this despised husk In the manufac
ture of another useful commercial com
modity. It is the only factory of its kind
in California, and It assumes a position
of peculiar importance when it Is remem
bered that It is converting what was pre
viously considered waste matter, which wag
hard to get rid of and which bid fair to
become a nuisance, Into an article of great
utility. Out ot this husk a very aromatic,
perfectly sanitary, and springy material is
being made to serve as a substitute in mat
tress making for the unsanitary curled
hair. Tho husk of the cocoanut shell con
tains a fibrous material which really makes
excellent furniture and mattress filling. It
is infinitely superior to shoddy. This In
dustry is only In Its infancy on this coast.
Twenty-five per cent 'of the husk 13 hair
or fibre, the rest is 'dust; but not even this
dust is wasted, for nilraerymen have found
that It makes an excellent covering for
winter flower beds! he first process
through which the husk is put is that ot
crushing. This Is accomplished by a ma
chine resembling a rock crusher, and
sounding very' much like, one when a work,
driven by a fortyi" horso power engine.
This is called the pBiker.' The husk comes
out of It as dust and coarse hairlike fibre,
with here and there" alremnant of shell.
This Is picked over by"' boys and thrown
again into the picker. , '.
When it comes ou a second time a por
tion of it Ib twisted Into a rope by a ma
chine called the twister. When about a
hundred feet of thlsj rope 13 made It is tied
up into a bundle ana hung In a steam box.
After being thoroughly steamed, these
bundles are dried In a room heated to 120
degrees. Whilejao treated' the fibre is still
kept in tho shape of rope. It Is by this
process that the fibre is curled and gets
its springy quality. The twisted fibre is
then put through the picker a third time,
and when it la thrown out It looks as light
as down, and settles' into the sweetest,
most aromatic heap imaginable, for it re
tains its pleasant Woody and spicy odor,
which alone ought to make it an ideal ma
terial for mattress filling independent of
its more important sanitary properties.
The price of this cocoanut fibre ranges
from 2 1-2 cents to 10 cents a pound. It
has lately been listed as an articie of com
merce, so that It is now one of the es
tablished industries of this coast.
Tlirllliiifr Experience of nn Enell.sli
Traveler In Hawaii.
(From the London Mail.)
Mr. A. R. Watson has just had one of
the most thrilling experiences that ever
befell a mountaineer. He ascended the
Mauna Loa volcano. In tho Hawaiian Isl
ands, while it was in a state of furious
eruption. The party numbered five, with
guides, pack mules, and a week's supply
of provisions. By evening of the first day
about a third of the hazardous climb had
been achieved and the men camped In a
grove of palms and ferns.
At Doon on the succeeding day all tho
members of the party, with the exception
of Mr. Watson, concluded to examlno the
north cone of the crater, while Mr. Wat
son, filled with the idea that the southern
cone was the most interesting, separated
from his companions and guides and moved
in that direction. After a weary and dan
gerous climb he arrived at a promontory
of rock and earth. Close upon the far
side of this point a great river of lava was
bounding in a straight line down the
mountain, while about S00 feet above, on
the slope of the hill, the crater, like the
mouth of some Infernal monster, was
pouring forth melted stone.
Mr. Watson sat for a considerable time,
probably a couple of hours, gazing upon
tho vast estuary of rolling, flowing, burst
ing fire rushing down the side of the
mountain. Some thousand or more feet
below this stream entered a thicket of
trees which, Mr. Watson observed through
his glasses, seemed to have wonderful
power of resisting the attack of the flames.
Toward night he arose from his seat j
below the rocks to go over the summit j
down the hill and walk out between the j
lava on the side which he was to crosb. i
He thought that his eyes had been rest- j
lng too long on running lava and that he
could see puch a stredin in whichever quar
ter he might lookiiso hj went forward.
But he had notsbeen mistaken. While
he had been sitting with his back to the
direction from which he had come and in
which ho must go, with his eyes on tho
flowing stream, enrhhtied with its mar
vels, there had broken from the lower
edge of the cratergand) some feet to the
ncrth of the one he 'was watching, a sec
ond How. He storied on down and had
proceeded several hundred feet, when, to
his horror and amazement he discovered
that the new stream tofj lava, ran directly
Into the earlier strenm. The streams joined,
and his retreat had! beefi cut off. He was
hemmed in by runnlng'rivers of fire.
As he meditated on tho best means ot
escape his eye fell upon the singular forest
ut the bottom of the incline, and he
thought of the heat-defying properties ot
that wood. If he could only turn the
bunch which grew above him into service.
Ah! he hnd it stilts! Ho had been nn ex
pert on stilts when a boy, and felt certain
his skill had not forsaken him. Drawing
a btout bladed knife from his pocket, he
began hewing at the base of one of the
smallest trees. The wood was of the spe
cies known as iron wood. When the blade
grew dull he whetted it on the rocks. All
through the night he worked, while the
terrible furnace belched above him.
By daylight he had the stl'ts made, and,
mounting them, started olf to the edge of
the flow. The wood smouldered, but did
not blaze, as he waded through the lava.
The heat was frightful, blistering his face
and hands. As he arrived at the oppojite
edge of the river of fire one charred stilt
broke off, but eager hands grasped him an 1
lifted the swooning man on to one of the
mules, in which manner he was taken to a
rancher's house. Mr Watson Is at present
receiving medical attention, but Is making
rapid progress.
An Inventor Disposes of Some Mis
taken Theories.
Dr. Stephen II. Emmons Offer n Ton
ultir Explanation of the Xew Power
Derived From ConstltuteiitH of the
AtmoHiihere Its Production Like
ly to llceomu a Great Industry.
Within the past year, since the possi
bilities of liquid air have come to be a
topic of general interest, much has been
written concerning its so-called miraculous
powers. A few months ago it was be
lieved that in the new agent perpetual mo
tion had been discovered, which would en
tirely revolutionize present methods ot
power production. Whilo it is generally
admitted by scientific men who have made
a careful study of the new fluid, that Its
application will eventually displace steam
and electricity to a large extent, it is not
believed that the revolution will be as
great as was first anticipated. It Is, how
ever, admitted that liquid air is destined
to play in the immediate future as conspic
uous a part commercially as steam and
electricity do In the present day.
There is no question in the minds of
men who have carefully studied the prop
erties of the powerful liquid that It can
be produced In quantities at a sufficiently
low cost to make its application eminently
practicable. Machinery for producing it has
been perfected and tests of its efficiency
have been made which plainly Indicate the
opening of a new Industry.
It.s t,'ne Alinind,
In France and England liquid air Is al
ready employed commercially to advan
tage, and its use is growing rapidly. In
the eastern cities of the United States,
notably in New York, Philadelphia, and
Boston, companies have been formed and
capital in large amounts invested for pro
moting the commercial use of liquid air.
The movement has been undertaken with
in the past few months, and preparations
have not yet been completed for placing
the liquid on the market for general use, '
but there Is every Indication that at no
distant time a new industry will be de
veloped which will rival in magnitude the
telegraph, telephone, and electric light In
terests of the country.
Dr. Stephen H. Emmens, of New York,
who is probably the leading authority on
liquid air In the United States, and who
is the inventor of an apparatus for pro
ducing the fluid, in an interview' with a
Times reporter, gave an interesting and
instructive talk upon liquid air and its
probable value as a commercial agent. He
"Very few attempts have yet been made
to give the public very accurate Informa
tion as to liquefied air and its probable
utilization as an industrial agent. Some
well-illustrated articles in popular maga
zines have been published, and some enter
taining lectures have been delivered; but
the general tone of the statements thus
disseminated has been one of sensational
ism, based, for the most part, upon that
'little knowledge' which Pope long ago
pointed out was 'a dangerous thing. Oc
the other hand, the strictly technical jour
nals and sundry learned professors have in
dulged in criticisms and denunciations
every whit as one-sided and in many cases
as incorrect as the very exaggerations and
errors which they sought to overthrow.
"The truth, as usual, lies between the
extremes. Liquid air is not the miracle it
has been Alleged to be by the peripatetic
lecturers, the magazine scribes, and the
flamboyant advertisers. Nor is it a mere
scientific toy, and an Impracticable natural
vehicle of power, as maintained by engi
neering editors and so-called leaders of sci
ence. It represents an important step for
ward In the march of industrial progress,
and it as surely destined to minister to
our material wants and add to the fortunes
of mankind as was the case with steam,
electricity, or any other great advance in
the art of controlling natural forces.
An Expert's Expluiiatlon.
"In order to understand what liquid air
really is, wo must begin by remembering
what we know as to the condition of mat
ter In general. The metal, lead, for ex
ample, is a heavy solid body. But if we
heat It to a temperature of a little above
two degrees, Fahrenheit, it becomes li
quid; and, if we urge the heat to a higher
point, the liquid becomes converted into
an invisible gas. The same thing is true
of gold, silver, iron, copper, and all other
solid metals, which, without any excep
tion, can be liquefied and gasified by heat
ing to various temperatures. It is also
true of mercury, a substance that is pecu
liar to us in its liquid form. If we heat
It, we obtain a gas; if we cool it we ob
tain a solid. Water and oil display simi
lar changes; they can bo frozen by cold
and vaporized by heat. Carbonic acid
forms part of the atmosphere that sur
rounds us and is generally in the form of
an invisible gas. But if we require it in
the form of a liquid we can buy it as such
In the market; and we can also obtain it
as a 3olld mass; the change of state from
gas to liquid and from liquid to solid be
ing a mere matter of cooling. It is there
fore quite in accordance with our general
experience that air also should be capable
of existing as a gas or as a liquid, or as
a solid, according to its degree of heat or
Clinnst-s in Matter.
"There is something else that we know
by common experience with regard to the
changes of state experienced by matter.
Wo see that gases are bodies that are self
expansive and that therefore exert more or
less pressure upon the sides of the vessels
In which they are confined. And we find
their pressure to increase with their tem
perature. Steam, for example, at 212 de
grees Fahrenheit has the same pressure
as the surrounding atmosphere, viz, be
tween fourteen and fifteen pounds per
square inch. But .if its temperature bt
raised to 300 degrees Fahrenheit, its press
ure becomes sixty-seven pounds per square
inch, and at 400 degrees Fahrenheit, it ex
erts a pressure of about 250 pounds per
square inch.
"These phenomena afford a key to the
whole problem of liquefying gaseous bodies.
If we can contrive to keep up a pressure
of 400 pounds per square Inch, we need
only cool the steam down to a temperature
a little below 400 degrees, Fahrenheit, in
order to convert it into water. If tho
pressure be but sixty-seven pounds, we
must cool the steam down to below 300
degrees Fahrenheit if we wish to liquefy
it. And If the operation be conducted In
an open vessel under ordinary atmospheric
pressure we must go down to a little be
low 212 degrees Fahrenheit. Similar fea
tures characterize all other gases. The
degrees of cold and pressure vary accord
ing to the particular gas operated upon,
and the greater the pressure we employ,
the higher will be the temperature at
which the gas is capable of assuming a
liquid condition. There appears to be,
however, a limit of temperature In each
case beyond which liquefaction cannot ex
ist, no matter how high may be the press
ure. Xot lteally I.ldtild Air.
"It results from that that the so-called
liquid air is not, in reality, liquid air.
Our atmosphere is a mixture of oxygen,
nitrogen, carbonic acid, water vapor, ar
gon, metrogen. krypton, u on, and probably
many other gases as yet unknown, together
with many metallic elements. Each of
these constituents has Us own limit ?nd
progressive stages of liquefaction. Hence,
a liq lefnctlon proceeds. thi resulting
liquid cannot contain the same constituents
lc the same proportion as atmospheric air.
In point of fact, liquid air is a ftuld com
posed almost entirely of nitrogen and oxy
gen and containing a considerably terser
percentage of the latter element thn la
the case of free air. And If the liquid be
kept for a time In an open vessel the nitro
gen will revert to a gaseous condition
(that Is, will evaporate or boil off) more
rapidly than the oxygen; so thai the per
centage ot oxygen continually increases.
Hence the liquefaction of air affords a rap
id and economical method of obtaining ox
ygen for use in chemical and metallurgical
operations and for producing intense local
combustion with a corresponding accentua
tion of temperature.
"Already Dr. Borchers in Germany has
applied this super-oxygenated mixture to
the production of calcium carbide for tbe
manufacture of acetylene. I am using it
in the cremation of dead bodies and the
destruction of garbage by a method which
allows ot such operations being conducted
without evolving any offensive or deleteri
ous vapor.
A Matter of Chemical Composition.
"If we disregard the question ot chemi
cal composition and regard liquid air in
a purely physical aspect, we are at once
struck by a very singular fact ot great
Importance from the point ot view of me
chanical power. A liquid is a non-expansive
body; that is to say, its molecules are
in such close proximity to each other that
their inter-attraction suffices to keep them
from separating, until, indeed, some heat
from tbe outside is introduced to break
these internal bonds. Now, we all know
that If air be compressed it requires to be
confined in some strong receptacle, in the
same way that steam is confined in the
boiler of a steam engine. We also know
that in the street cars now operated by
compressed air in New York and in the
auto-trucks which will ere long do so much
to relieve the congested condition of city
thoroughfares, the motive power consists
of very heavy and cumbrous stael reser
voirs or flasks containing air compressed
to an Initial pressure of 2,000 or 2,500
pounds per square inch. This means that
the air in question has been reduced to
about the one hundred and sixtieth part of
its original bulk. Now, liquid air is re
duced to one eight-hundredth part of its
volume when free; or, in other words, it
has a capacity of expansion five times as
great as that possessed by the highest
grade of compressed air hitherto employed
in mechanical practice. Yet this enormous
potentiality of power, equivalent to 10.000
or 12,000 pounds per square inch, can be
kept in an ordlaary tin can. It is in itself
harmless and inert, and if used as a source
of power it requires no massive and
weighty reservoirs. Molecular attraction
has been substituted for steel walla.
The Compressed Article.
"Here, then, we see the tremendous ad
vantages which liquid air -enjoys over com
pressed air. It gives us five times as much
powor, volume for volume; and the appli
ances for storage and transport are ten
times less costly and cumbrous. But com
pressed air is a power that has of late
years come into continually extending use.
In the Howard Lectures delivered by Prof.
W. C. Unwin, F. A. S., in 1S93. on the
'Development and Transmission of Power'
from central stations, said, among o.her
things: 'Compressed air transmiss on is
a perfectly general method of distributing
power for all purposes. Whether in any
glven case it Is the most advantageous,
the least wasteful of power, or the cheap
est in working cost, depends on various
circumstances. M. Hanarte believes that
it is and will continue to be the most
economical method of transmission to con
siderable distance. The loss in the air
mains Is very small. The motors worked
expansively are efficient. The mains can
be carried by any path, and differenc.s of
elevation between the compressing and
working points do not sensibly affrct the
result. In hydraulic transmission, the wa
ter must be collected, stored, and in some
cases filtered, and, having actuated a mo
tor, means must be found for removing It.
But air is everywhere available, and can
be discharged anywhere without causing
Introducing Air Power.
"It Is no wonder then that enginee-s are
Introducing air power to a greater and
greater extent from year to year. Even
the conservative British Government has
recently decided to employ air power in
its navy yards, and is giving orders to
American houses for the necessary air
compressors and pneumatic tools. Inas
much, therefore, as liquid air is a vastly
superior form of compressed air its field
of activity is of correspondingly large ex
tent. It will not replace steam and elec
tricity in their special spheres. It will
have its own work to do.
"While, however, It is true that liquid
air gives us the means of employing huge
air, it must not be supposed that the air
itself contains the power. This is where
, the magazine scribes and popular lecturers
have blundered. They have confused
! mechanism with power. But there is no
power inherent in the piston and cylinder
! and driving wheels of a locomotive. They
! merely transmit the force imparted to
them by thesteam. Even the steam itself
has no inherent power. It is merely a
mechanism for collecting heat from the
boiler fire and delivering it for conversion
into molar motion in the cylinder. In like
mannor there is no inherent power in
liquid air. Keep It at its own temperature
and it remains inert. But it is a body
that has a vast capacity for heat, and its
particles are packed together in a way
most advantageous for converting that
heat into mechanical power. It may be
regarded as a superior kind of water, and
when, by heating, It regains a gaseous
form, the resulting air may be regarded as
a superior kind of steam. It does not fol
low that, weight for weight, liquid air
can be made to perform a greater total of
work than steam, but in many cases it
will be found more adaptable and general
ly efficient."
Dr. Emmens has been investigating the
subject ot liquid air for years, and is well
qualified to speak upon the matter. He is
identified with a metropolitan company for
tho production of liquid air, as well as the
inventor of devices to be used In the new
Industry. He has been conspicuous as a
writer upon scientific subjects, and espe
cially upon liquid air.
Interest!!!;? Euciueering Feat
Performed by Americans.
CFroin the Xew York Journal.)
The Interesting process of laying a six
inch water main across the bottom of Ha
vana Harbor is described In the current
number of "Engineer News," by Howard
Bgleston, C. E. During the blockade of
Havana the water supply for the large
number of Spanish troops In Morro Castle
and Cabanas proved inadequate, and the
Spanish engineer who proposed to carry a
pipe across the bay was lpoked upon as a
saviour of the army. A two-inch line of.
wrought iron pipes was laid by the Span
lard and is now in use. But this supply
was only for the troops and took no ac
count of the large number of people living
in a village along the water front known
as Casa Blanca.
The American engineers believed these
people needed water as well as the soldiers
stationed in Cabanas and Morro and decid
ed to lay a main across the bay of suffi
cient capacity to give water, not only to
the occupants of the fortifications, but also
to the town of Casa Blanca,
Mr. Egleston, as chief engineer of the
work, tells about It as follows: "The plan
determined upon provided for the joining ot
the pipes on a barge which was drawn
across the bay, the water pipes being paid
out by means of a skid, reaching to the
bottom of the bay. An old scow belonging
tc the engineer department was selected
and rigged with an inclined platform and
boom. The skid was made in two sections
of sixty feet and one of thirty feet, making
in all one hundred and fifty feet. The tnds
of each of these sections were so fashioned
as to make rule joints when they were put
together. An extra skid ninety-eight feet
long was built and fastened on the inclin
ed platform to act as a continuation of
the portion cf the skid that ai suipt-ndfl
in the water."
A Vault in the Trcusnry Tiimtft
cites Great Intei'ost.
One Hnnilrcil TliuHnnnil I'oraeni
Have VInlted the 1'laec Dtirlnjc Chqj
Int Yeur-Sonion-hnt OItf-Wfth-loned.
Hut Guarded AVIth tho Ut
most Care Improvement. Xtdad.
Daring the past year a least lOOtMQ
strangers have visited the Tieesurj Deya
menc In other words that somber of par
sons have been taken throng the vaate!
and had captained to them the varies
workings ot the dtvteiona connected with
the Otoee of the Treasurer. The one piaee
that excites wonder aad comment from tha
average atrangar above all others la thii
bond vault ot the Treasury, located on theV
ftm finer, north hall, at the extreme west
of the corridor.
In tkte vault are to be found )467.00.wel
in bonde, $7,t0,000 of which, however, ee
unregistered. These bonds belong to ha
national banks of the county. They are de
posited with the Treausry to secure the cir
culation of the national bank notes. Kfceej
visitor is shown a little package ot hea4r
and sometimes permitted to behf for a Tltn
ute $5,600,600 of them.
The vault containing the H07,iW.Ha
worth of bonds is not quite an huge aa
one would expect in a building the sine et
the Treasury. Bat, then, it was oofft MRS
thirty years age, and at that time a
wered all requirements. Every inch Of
available space in tbe vault is now occu
pied. It is claimed the vault is bargbc
proof and fireproof. There is such netwseV
of electric wires connected with the dae3
leading into the vault that any attempt hi
! dwill a bole into the doer would set a
burglar alarms, not only at the Trenswry
; proper, but in Police Headquarter. r
the wires are connected with tbe DtstritJ
1 burglar alarm system.
1 The bonds of the several national banks
' of the country are enclosed In file boxes
j made of thick paper, such as is used fcx
the construction of paper boxes, but tha
file boxes are placed alongside or tha
others, properly numbered. The shelves
j on which they rest are of wood. The vault
I is illuminated by electric lights, the wizen
of which are specially protected, so that
; there is but little danger of Are front fhfe
j source.
i An official, speaking of this vault, said
to a Times reporter: "Twenty-five or tals-
i ty years ago this vault was all right. It
j was fully up to the times, and it was SaasJa
j to meet ail demands; bat daring that ss-
' riod the country has grown, and today, I
1 believe there is not a bank anywhere with.
a capital of $50,000 that cannot beast Of a
vault far superior to this. It was but ia-
cently that modern doors were put on tho
I vault. Tbe shelving inside should be con.-'
; s true ted of metal and the file boxes cen-
I taining the bonds of national banks rheofcl
I be made of aluminum. There should be as -
little woodwork on the inside of the vasit
as possible. Just think of the weight
$407,000,000 of bonds aad the eombusidWo
I character of the Ink used in printing thesal
' Friction is one great source of fires that
break out where least expected.
' "Congress has been asked several times to
appropriate money for an extension aad
improvement of the vault, nut no asses
priatkm has yet been made. Really tha
vault is too small; It is way seMn4 She
j In the opinion of Treasury officials Cea-
; gress will again be asked at its coming sea-
' sion to make tbe vault more modem hy,
, providing money to purchase the metaMfc
I fixtures mentioned and providing against
any loss of valuable securities through fire.
Of course, the probability ot the destme
' tion of tbe bonds by combustion is very re
mote, but there is always danger, one St
, the officials says, and It is advisable to- nto
every device for the protection ot the enasw
mously valuable papers stored la thfa
Cable Iloiiten tn South Afriea. and.
War Xew.
(Ftohi tbe Xew York Tribune.)
Last Tuesday it was obvious that "If one
touch of nature makes the whole world
kin," one touch of science makes the whole
world next door neighbors. Durban not
door to Xew York. The Anglo-American.
Telegraph Company posted in its oUces the
notice, fresh off the wires from London.
"All communication between Natal aad.
Orange Free State and Transvaal suspend
ed. All telegrams for South Africa, subtest
to censorship at Aden." That short bolls
tin seemed to bring the South African- wac
very close to the business and newspaper,
offices of Xew York.
The Anglo-American company Is one
principal agent of communication between
this country and the seat of war, charging
$1.23 per word for despatches to either
Durban or Cape Town. Its wires end at
London, it is true, but it receives sad
transmits despatches through the Eastern
company to the Cape. Tbe Eastern com
pany controls two cable routes; one by way,
of Lisbon, Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, and the
east coast of Africa to Durban; the other
by tbe west coast, to Cape Town.
The former route is by far tbe mora
used, and as telegrams in enormous num
bers go by the same cables to points lying
between London and Aden a great deal si
unnecessary labor ia spared the Govern
ment censors, as well as- a great deal e
unnecessary delay to business, by estab
lishing the censorship at Aden rather than.
further west. No announcement of cen
sorship has been made in reference to ana
point on the west coast route, hat It la
pretty certain that, since the route is hi
connection with both Lisbon and Cadis.
the authorities at Cape Town will take
good care of all messages to South Africa
which come that way.
How the details of the censorship are to
he managed at Aden there is no means et
ascertaining here. In the Spaniah-Ameriean.
war all despatches for Cuba handed in at
.the offices bad to be vised by the military
staff ofiBcer in charge. At Aden the eaftr.
effective way will be to nave the circuit.
interrupted, so that every telegram moat
be there taken off the wires and pot on
again after due consideration by a staff.
officer, who will, no doubt, be represeaieu
in the operator's office by a non-commissioned
A Xu-Rro Hayman's Diamonds.
(From the Xew Orleans Ttmee-DrmocrM.)
"I spent my vacation this year tabtng on tha
East Florida coast," said a Xew Orleans lawyer,
"and among other place I viaited waa a priaritiva
little settlement north ot Cedar Keys. On et.'
tbe characters of the place is a big asolaeto known
as 'Diamond Bill,' and I engaevd biaa aeeaial
times to take me out in bis huwter. I aaw at.
once that he had derived bis sobriquet mm the
gaudy jewelry he wore, but when we wete est
together on the boat I was anrpriaed to note teas
the gewgaws were all genuine and worth a geed
deal ot money.
"When I questioned him on the subject he sat
down by me on the thwarts and told me an in
teresting orv. It emed that some yeaia aen
be had uvtd the life ot a child that fell eveiboanl
from a pleasure yacht, and the mother gave Ma
a mall diamond ring. Later o 3L timii
jeweler came to tbe settlement to atn ana tent
Bill that tne rtna wan wojio ?aa. im m
was astonished, and waa proportionately ia
,i with i he advantage of diamonds a res)
in larre taima in small compass. It bawaatfcr
occurred to him that it would be a good idea io
invest his surplus cash in that way sad always
hava It on bis person secure from fire or tttnwH.
The jeweler agreed to act as buyer for Mas, aad
since then he had gradually acquired ht pteaewt
collection, which consists ot three studs, fear
rings, a large solitaire collar button, and a chaffer
pin. worth altogether at least ?.5O0l
BiK is thrifty darky, and between fehiat;
and tourists does well, but diamond tmying has
become a nanU with htm, and he savee every
cent he inafci for that purpose. I asked him it
he wasn't afraid of bthqc drowned with all hfe
tresaure on bun, winch would h unjust to hfe
prettv mulatto wife. Ts thoucht 'bout that,
m. mini k'i.itsiU, "bnt Lira's tro e -J toohin' ter
stjv t- wili.r , r; !urp in' 1 !..u t want no
othtr i. ,ir iuaa 3i.1tt.tt' ruuttd with ay

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