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The times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, May 06, 1900, Second Part, Image 16

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Methods of Teaching flic Unfortu
nates at Kendall Green
Coluiuhin Iimtltule the Only One of
It Kind That ainintnlnn n Collc
Kinle Ijcpnrliiient IleNiiltH Olitnln
nl In MIClliiK the Condition of n
Once AeKlcctcd Clnis of Children
Columbia Institute for the Deaf ana
Dumb located In tbls District Is the only
one of Its kind which maintains a colle
giate department and confers degrees Be
sides the college there is a well equipped
school similar to those supplied by vari
ous States of the Union The growth of
Columbia is closely associated with tho
progress of deaf mute education in the
United States and a brief summary of its
history is well worth recording in connec
tion with a description of results achieved
through the labors of Its founders
At a not very remote period as near In
tact as the eighteenth century the deaf
Childs condition was truly a sad onev Ha
ias not mercifully as some regarded if
put to death like the physically defective
Spartans but abandoned to a hopeless soli
tude capable of reducing mental faculties
almost to imbecility and leaving the un
fortunate with no more resources than are
the possession of the ecble mlnded Only
recently has it come to be fully realized
that deaf ears do cot rrean deaf minds
and we are taught to see in each life part
of a perfect plan the possibility so mat
ter how insignificant the Instrument of a
glorious contribution to tho carrying out
of a divine purpose Hence the efforts of
great men are being more and more con
centrated in the effort to secure for the
thus nhvslcallv handicapped among us tho
best possible devices and opportunities for
opening up to them the world of thought
and action This Is not only for the sake
of Justice that they be given a fair chance
in the race for life but that the good they
might do should not be lost None can es
timate the value of each mans message to
the world The blind ma- teach of visions
they alone can see and who knows how
strongly ring out in the ears of the deal
those hidden hamonles underlying Gods
Convictions like these were early sown
In the mind of Dr Thomas Hopkins Gal
laudet and bore fruit In his work as
founder of deaf and dumb education in the
United States
In the year 1816 this eminent man then
a young theological student Just starting
out on -his career paid a visit to the family
of a friend whose little daughter had been
deaf from birth Alice Cogswell was he
childs name and her isolated life chang
ed the current of the vlsKors thoughts to
a line of endeavor different from the ono
he had planned It seemed sad to Mm
that the truths of rcjlglon should be a
sealid book to ono precious soul and ho
longed for the power to reveal them to her
That more than the merest elementary
knowledge could become the possession of
the deaf never occurred to him but It
would be an achievement worthy his lifes
devotion if this child could be made to
feel even feebly the rays of light flooling
the pathway of the oft careless hearing
Individuals At the conclusion of his stay
in the Cogswell family Dr Gallaudet vis
ited England to learn something of the
methods of deaf mute Instruction employ
ed by Thomas- Braidwood author of the
system bearing his name The narrow
spirit prevailing in the school kept Dr
Gallaudet from -accomplishing his design
so he crossed over to France where he
was given the opportunities he sought in
the schools established by the Abbe de
1Epee and Abbe SIcard In 1817 he found
ed the first American school for the deaf
and dumb in Hartford Conn placing in
charge Laurent Clerc whom he brought
orer with him from France From that
small beginning eighty nine schools have
grown up In the United States
Dr Galluadet married Miss Sophia Fow
ler a member of his first class in the
Hartford school and their first daughter
was called Alice Cogswell for the sake
of the child who had inspired the great
work Several other children were born
to the couple among them being Thomas
D rector of St Anns Church which
holds service for the deaf and Edward
Miner Gallaudet
The ltixe t Cnlnmhln IimlKutr
And now comes the connection of the
Gatlaudets with the Columbia Institute In
IK some deaf and dumb children were
brought to Washington with a traveling
show and put on exhibition The man who
managed these entertainments was ar
raigned in court by Amos Kendall Presi
dent of the Society for Prevention of Cru
elty to Children Mr Kendall came out
lctorIous in the contest and much to his
surprise the children were given over to
him They proved to be a white elephant
on his hands so he set apart a small house
and one acre and a half of his land to es
tablish a home for them The widow of Dr
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and her son
Edward were summoned from Hartford to
assume charge and the home gradually de
veloped Into an institution for deaf chil
dren Later it was incorporated under the
laws of Congress and assumed a national
character The Kendall estate of 100 acres
has been purchased a piece at a time and
th scope of the sthool widened until It has
attained Its present sphere of usefulness
Children- of the District and Territories are
admitted to its privileges free of charge
but it is no more s charity than the public
schools which however excellent are of
no service to taxpayers with deaf children
The establishment of educational facilities
for such children is merely an act of Jus
tice The children provide their own
clothes and books and return to their
homes during vacation In the early days
of the school the blind were also admitted
there being no Institution for them In the
District of Columbia In 1661 an agree
ment was made with the State of Maryland
which admits the District blind to tho
School for the Blind near Baltimore and
the West Mar land deaf to Columbia
The old Kendall estate Is situated in
the northeast suburbs of Washington ex
tending lengthwise seven or eight blocks
and across open fields to the country The
various structures for the use of the
schools and the roomy cottages of the pro
fessors form a beautiful little commu
nism completely cut off from the unsightly
railroad environment rough streets and
narrow cramped houses which come up
to the southern border of the grounds
Away to the north Is the farm of the
school now being plowed for the summer
garden and west of this stands the his
toric cottage where Morse spent a year
with bis friend Kendall and Improved
his time in perfecting the telegraph Old
wires extend around the trees near the
house and there are traditions to the ef
fect that the first message oPthe inven
tor was sent over these cow fallen from
their high estate and doing practical duty
as a clothesline
A Journey through these grounds is one
of more thnn ordinary interest The first
place likely to attract attention is tho
gymnasium building equipped with bowl
ing alley trapeze Indian clubs and other
devices for- physical development The
lower floor Is almost given up to the
swimming pool where a man properly at
tired for a sudden plunge stands on guard
to prevent accidents The girl have a
basketball team When a student comes
to the school be Is carefully examined to
determine the kind of exercise which will
be most beneficial to him In nine cases
out of ten the greatest lack of develop
ment is found to bo In the chest and ev
ery exercise for developing the latter is
tscouraged The pupils are even sent out
Into the woods to expand their lungs In
lusty yells and screams Because of the
fact that the lungs of the deaf are not
sufficiently exercised they are more sus
ceptible to pulmonary troubles than any
other class of people
Passing down thf avenue from the gym
nasium the cuapel and college building
loom up In all the plcturesqucness of dark
stone walls and Ivy covered turrote The
spires are tall enough to be seen from any
elevated pcitlcn of the city and the wliolo
exterior reminds one of a cedleval castle
Inside the floors of he corridors are fled
and the walls isbcd in hardnod Theic
is a stir and bustle about tho place which
is decidedly modern though the reigning
quiet Js broken only by the tramp of feot
from one class to another and an occa
sional outcry from seme student Tlio
dormitories of the young men are located
In the college Tho guide of a party re
cently visiting the college grounds stopped
before the door of jne of these and pulled
the knocker a rumple arrangement in-
I best known being his International Law
used in colleges throughout the country
kills life has been devoted to building up
the institution over which he presides
and he is ever on the alert toudtn the
-opportunities of those who dwell In eter
nal silence No Improvement In methods
1 of teaching however small escapes his
i vigilance and he has opened up illimitable
possibilities for the further advance
of the deaf in this country He advocates
the combined oral and manual systems
but believes the latter better adapted to
educate the pupil to pive him the opm
door to the world of letters and scien e
Teaching history rkeoric logic and
tal philosophy by the oral method alone
would be extremely slow- work while
geometry without the sign pre
sents Insurmountable obstacles
I Tho college will grauuate this year seven
tiijj gaiualiit statli
rented by Prof John B Hotchklss To
thi knob of the knocker Is attached a rope
at the end of which is a heavy weight As
one pulls the knob and then lets It go the
weight is lifted and falls to the floor Tho
vibration is felt by the occupant of the
room and he comes to the door The
room visited was the best in the college
It was handsomely furnished In green
and had a finely carved mantel decorated
with Shakespercan scenes The young
man who admitted the visitor blushed mod
estly when the professor said that the
best room is always given as a reward of
Instruction in class room Is siven in
the manual language Each class consists
of not mere than ten students The col
lege was added to the institute in ISft
during the tumultuous period cf the civil
war Congress appropriated money for the
erection of a building and now provides
about 130000 annually for Its mainten
The students are not advanced quits as
far as students of the larger universities
for the hearing but they have conferred
upon them the degrees B A -B S M A
and M S With one or two excepticcs
these are the highest degrees which the
college has conferred A few years pst
it conferred an LLD upon Dr Graham
Bell The course covcrsa period cf five
years the first jear being devoted to
preparatory work A3 this is tho only
college for deaf mutes a number of
scholarships are givm out each 3 ear to
scholars In various State schools v ho
could cot otherwise afford to take up the
more advanced studies The first ca3s of
the college graduated in 18G9 and con
sisted of Mr Melville Ballard who U stiil
connected with Columbia in the capacity
of a teacher Ten jears ago It was de
cided by way of experiment to open the
college to women for two jears This fea
ture of the expansion policy proved
now one third of the students
are women On one or two occasions they
have captured the valedtcry The col
lege publishes a magazine The Buff ard
Blue which pajs for itself and leaes
a margin of profit
Higher education of deaf mutes has be
come such an established fact that It
seems queer to rea4 In the catalogues of
1S66 that many people believed them inca
pable of recellng or if capable of receiv
ing incapable of profiting by an advanced
course of Instruction It seems queerer
still that no other nation has attempted In
a practical way to disprove this ancient
belief In 1837 the President of Columbia
Dr Edward Miner Gallaudet visited Eng
land and In an address before a London
association attempted to awaken the peo
ple to the need of a ccllege for the deaf
and dumb of their country Ills efforts
have not yet borne fruit but the foreign
deaf who want higher cduoatlon must still
come to us
Passing through one of the college corri
dors attention Is attracted to a memorial
stone set in the wall It records the name
of Edward Stretch a young deaf mute who
gave promise of brilliant achievement
along Intellectual Jiacs but who died while
pursuing his ktudes lu te college His
last word i are carted ou the stone and
are given here because fhi v voice the sen
timents of a class was so long de
prived of mental development These are
It will tfcVe awty iuilf the bitterness ot
death to have been all--vied to learn some
Nearly 600 young men and women have
gone out from the Columbia College to
lives of happy usefulness Some statistics
are given by Dr Gallaudet in regard to
their careers He says that Pfty sevcn of
the cumber have beciuie teachers four
have entered the Christen ministry on
Is an eminent patent lawyer of Chicago
another a well known botanist They have
entered the departmental service and are
well represented in the scientific bureaus
of the Government A few are edltcrs and
publishers and several hold otfices of trust
in their respective Statu
Several years ago Dr Ual udet was con
vinced of the need of eauatlng hearing
people to teach the de f and established
the fellowships for graduates of other col
leges These are given one years instruc
tion In the work of teaching the deaf They
receive the degree M A at the end of that
period Several teachers now In the col
lege entered In this way Prof Perelval
Hall Prof H E graduate of Brown
University and Prof Charles Ely of Yale
were all fellowship students
Edward Miner GallaudM came here
In 1857 an Inexperienced boy of twenty
years has developed into the worthy suc
cessor of his father Dr Gallaudet Is una
of the most eminent educators cf the daf
and It was chiefly due to his efforts that
their college was established H Is th
author of several valuable text books the
bright young men and women Mr J W
Sow ell of Alabama a fluent writer who
is editor-in-chief of the Buff and Blue
Mr C Carroll Iowa Mr L A Long Ken
tucky Mr Albertus Wornstaff Ohio Miss
Cloa G Lamson Ohio Miss E M Prager
Pennsylvania Miss Ethel Z Taylor Colo
rado all of whom will receive the degree
of B A
Other PontiirPK of the College
The college Is provided with physical
laboratory reading room at d library
which has besides its works on the edu
cation of the deaf some historical works
and a large number of standard novels
The pupils are encouragecUn good reading
as this gies them conversational forms
of language A deaf man may be educated
in a high degree and yet not know how
to express his thoughts in the simplest
dialogue On the wall of the library hangs
the portrait In oil ot Prof Porter who
taught nearly half a century in Columbia
and Is now one of Its emeritus professors
The college chapel contains portraits of
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Amos Ken
dall and busts of Laurent Clerc Abbe de
lEpce and Abbe Sicanl The handsomest
piece of marble however is the bust of
James A Garfield who was an enthusiastic
advocate of the higher education ot the
deaf It was said that ho and Samuel
Handall who were personal friends found
in this Institution the one subject over
which they could reconcile their political
differences sufficiently to work together
The chairs in the chapel face the pulpit
but by reversing them the congregation
becomes an audience and gazes on a stage
with drop curtain picturing a street scene
In the city ot Nice The pupils give theat
ricals In pantomime and fheso are said to
be excellent exhibitions of their kind
The Keiiilnll School
From the college to the school is a
short step literally but a long one In ref
erence to methods of management The
two arc entirely separated even to the
extent of separate chapel exercises and
tho discipline of the school is necessarily
more rlEld Here in the academic and
primary departments the most difficult
work Is done the task of opening up com
munication with the mind and laying the
foundation for a career It a teacher at
the end of the second year of a pupils
school life finds that the latter knows as
much as a child Just entering the first
grade of the public school he feels that
the battle is two thirds won The primary
department Is in charge of Mr Melville
Ballard who has been In the school many
years Unlike tho children in most pri
mary grades the little ones at Kendall
Green are guided Q their first groping
after Knowledge by a sure and steady
hand and not by Inexperienced teachers
Just out of school themselves Mr Bal
lards task involves wonderful patience
He has a large collection of toys and oth
er objects at hand for use In the work
One bright little boy about seven years
of age was recently sent to the black
board to Illustrate to a number of visitors
the methods of teaching Mr Ballard
held up a rubber sheep and the child
wrote the word sheep The sheep was
stood on the table and the child wrote
The sheep stood Various animals and
dolls were put through different antics
which in many cases the visitors were
unable to Interpret but which the child
readily understood and recorded bis ob
servations on the blackboard In this
way the child leans b write the names
of familiar things his t ocabulary is grad
ually enlarged and the construction of
sentences mastered ODjects are first
Identified in the Ueaf childs mind by their
written equivalents ani hence the deaf
never misspell
A deficiency In one faculty often pro
duces a correspon ilng Inc case of activity
In the remaining jnes which seem to do
double duty In ilj schools of hearing
children there arc seldom seen- such eager
eyes as those which fcllovred Mr Ballards
every move faces which indicate such
high tension ot tho faculty of perception
or greater power ot mind concentration
Their countenances express so much nnd
they seem to talk with every feature the
wrinkling of the forehead and even the
different ways of tip tilting the nose mean
something One can readily understand
why this teachers task should not be te
dious and feel at the same time a pang
of rcrgret that in days gone by children
as bright as these were abandoned to
dullness and stagnation The next grades
broaden the scope of the work and after
a few years the pupils are found pursuing
the studies of graded schools In an in
telligent comprehensive manner The
school work is carried on through the me
dium of the sign language which by the
way seems to be the language of nature
This was aptly illustrated In the visit of
some Indians to the school several years
ago The Indians engaged In connected
conversation with the pupils without aid
from intcrp etcrs A boy was asked by
the chief of a tribe to come out to tho
reservation Ife replied You might scalp
No no safd the Indian Indian white
mans friend
More was said oa fboth sides yet it is
quite certain that the Indian nad never
been instructed in deaf mute language The
chief was so pleased with the school that
on his return home he admittance
for two red ladies wbc imained at Ken
dall Green until their klcptomaniacal ten
dencies and avowed hostility to the lavato
ry compelled the authorities to return thorn
to tho more congenial atmosphere of their
native abiding place
Dr Gallaudets preference for the man
ual system in teaching Js by no means an
indication that the art of reading the lips
is neglected This department Is In charge
of Miss Mary T Cordon who has been at
Kendall Green more than a quarter of a
century and is considered one of the best
teachers of articulation In this country
She teaches the normal school pupils lip
reading by the most scientific and progres
sive methods The diagram of the throat
is carefully studied and the exact position
noted of the vocal organs in their utter
ance of every sound Miss Gordon also
supervises the work of the younger pupils
studies their individual defects in articu
lation nnd prepares exercises for correct
ing them Time passed in the articulation
class room Is a most interesting feature to
visitors A party recently visitng the
room found four little tots undergoing a
lesson In conversation They were given
handfuls of paper slips each containing
some simple sentence The Instructor was
provided with slips correrpondlng to these
He read one slowly an I distinctly nd
there ensued a scramble L see who hal
the ono Just lllte It The fortunate aid
proud possessor rose in his scat and in
imperfect but intelligible accents repeated
the sentence This process was continued
until the slips were exhausted No books
aro used for fear that the children would
learn the sentences In regular order and
not depend upon the reading of the lips
The process is slower than the manual
method but the children do remarkably
well and get a great deal of enjoyment
out of their work they areNquIck to grasp
the humor of a situation and smile and
chaff one another in a good natured way
over all blunders Some very bright chil
dren find it Impossible to master lip read
ing Others cannot articulate clearly
enough to make themselves understood by
hearing people Failure to perceive these
two points has caused many parents who
insisted on their deaf children being taught
by oral methods alone to mistak disabili
ties for dullness
Tho teaching of articulation has re
vealed the fact that few so called deaf
irutc3 are really mutes Deaf people used
to be dumb not because of inability to
learn speech but because hey could not
hear words spoken and no other way bad
been discovered to teach them to make ar
ticulate sounds A class of older pupils
came down later to the classroom and en
gaged in conversation with the instructor
He afterward tookup a poem which they
had never seen the word Is used literally
read before They repeated each line with
scarcely a mistake The pupils are given
half an hours exerciso each day in lip
In the school building are located the
chapel girls reading room and dormi
tories The boys dormitory Is In a sepa
rate building designed by a former pupil
Tin coiirGi iiiiiiims
Olaf Hanson He was the son of a poor
Norwegian farmer and has been in Amer
ica about twenty five ears On board
ship coming over the explosion of a gun
deprived him of his hearing He obtained
admlttacco to Columbia and learned the
manual system in his own language He
Is now a skilled architect and was se
lected from a large list of competitors to
design a handsome State building in Min
On the south front of the chapel one is
confronted with the bronze statue of
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet He Is repre
sented as seated In an armchiir resting ou
a high pedestal By his side stands the
sweet child figure of Alice Cogswell re
ceiving Instruction The sympathetic
solicitude of one face and the earnest at
tention depicted in the other are the
triumph of the sculptors art The hearts
of the deaf in every State and Territory ot
the Union Including Alaska gave voice to
their gratitude in the shape of liberal con
tributions for the erection of this me
morial In honor of their benefactor They
celebrated the 100th anniversary of his
birth in 1SS7 and dedicated the statue
It la Sudden Ioe Thnt I en troy the
Mornle of Troop
From the International Monthlj
In battle it Is not the number ot men
who are disabled in a days fighting that
tells upon the morale ot tioops but It is
the losses which may be Incurred within
a comparatively short time that tend to
demoralize and unnerve them Fr ex
ample a corpsj 20000 men may lose In
a days fight 18000 one half Its number
without being dcmdrallzed but should they
lose one fifth ot their number say three
or four thousand men In the course of
half an hour their moralo would surely
be destroyed
The British military operations espec
ially their batfe tndtlcs have been freely
and even virulently criticised by the mili
tary oxperts of other European cations
especially the Germans It is not how
ever at all assured that they would not
have suffered a fust from the indulgence
In the same fauHy shock tactics by
delivering frontgl atiacks upon entrenched
The Littlo Parks That Dot the Area
of the Capital
Objections to CUInc Over Trlnnmi
lnr Spucea for lluildlnc lnrpuw
Vlcvrn of General Wnnhlnjrton
Upon the Subject Incrcntliic Let
ter From the Ilrst President
The parks of a city have been well desig
nated as Its lungs and as the breathing
apparatus of the individual Is comrorcd of
numerous littlo cells each one of which
contributes to his health and comfort so
those little green spaces In thlstowns area
termed triangular reservations unite in
sending forth a breath of relief from the
parched expanse of houses and streets in
the hot summer weather Moreover they
drink In the gifts of the heavens in rain
and sunshine and the magic touch of the
gardener causes them to respond by pour
ing forth their rich treasures of dainty
flowers to gladden the eyes of the weary
pedestrian and noble shade trees to guard
him from the intense heat of the tun They
voice the coming ot spring and all sum
mer long they babble of greenflelds tell
ing even though It bo in tiny accents of
the cool refreshing rest of the country
after the hot days work in town is over
Sometimes a fountain bubbles and
plashes In their midst and the hottest and
most perspiring wayfarer fctis cooled and
refreshed as ho stops to rest upon a seat
and look and listen to the rippling water
It is no wonder that the people ot Wash
ington should want to preserve the lungs
of their city intact that they should Jeal
ously guard each tiny cell from the danger
ot congestion nor that they should desire
to increase the breathing power of the
parched summer streets by adding new
plots of cool grass and trees and flower
Tieds wherever possible
And so It happens that In man hand
some residential portions of the city where
ground that might be converted Into tri
angular reservations Is left to run to waste
to be eventually built upon by its owners
the people living In some of these quarters
have formed a suggestion which they In
tend presenting before the proper authori
ties It Is that the Government compen
sate the owners of such property and con
vert It into public use for the reservations
KndorHcd hy Colonel Illnchnm
The suggestion has already met with
notable encouragement from official quar
ters Colonel Bingham Superintendent of
Public Buildings and Grounds having ex
pressed himself warmly in its favor
Colonel Bingham says While my posi
tion is purely an executive one and the
plan proposed would first have to meet
with iie approval of the proper authori
ties 1 believe I concur with every citizen
in Washington in saying that i would
tend very greatly to enhance the beauty
of the city The building upon ground
which is adaptable to public reservations
has become more and moie prevalent and
while the owners have an undoubted
right to utilize their property in this
manner I believe It would be to the ad
vantage of all concerned if tho Govern
ment would buy such land for the purpose
described and compensate the owners for
its use
In view ot this plan for the extension
of these triangular reservations it is In
teresting to note their origin and the
importance In which they were held by
the founders of the Capital These tri
angles appear as open spaces upon the
original engraved plan of the city which
was published by the Presidents author
ity in November 1792
The following extracts from the corre
spondence between President Washington
and the Commissioners of tho Federal
City sufficiently explain the views which
were entertained at the dates mentioned
with reference to the triangular spaces
Philadelphia 2Gth Deer IVX
With -respect to the claim of individ
ual proprietors to be compensated for the
spaces occasioned by the intersection ot
Streets and avenues I should conceive
that they might with equal propriety ask
payment for the streets themselves but
the terms of the original contract or ces
sion if a dispute on this point should
arise must be recurred to for I presume
the opinion of the President In such a
case would avail nothing But it angles
are taken off at these places the case is
materially altered and without designing
it you make a square where none was
contemplated and thereby not only lay
the foundation of claim for these angles
but for the space also which Is made a
square by that act
I have never yet met with 1 single in
stance where it has been proposed to de
part from the published plan of the city
that an inconvenience or dispute of some
sort has not sooner or later occurred
for which reason I am persuaded there
should be no departure from It but In
cases of necessity or very obvious util
With very great esteem and regard
I am gentlemen
Your most obedt servt
The Commissioners of the City of Wash
The following was written to General
Washington by Commissioner Thornton
when the former had retired from the
Presidency and indicates that the ques
tion of the triangular reservations had not
been settled up to the date mentioned as
indeed it never has been since
City of Washington May 31 1799
Sir Finding that the Board of Com
missioners wore exceedingly urged by Mr
George Walker to lay off nnd divide cer
tain small portions of ground within the
lines of his property between the inter
section of various avenues and streets
which do not appear in the general plan of
the city to have ever been designed for
private occupancy and perceiving the
Board were disposed to adopt the proposal
I declared the measure expressly contrary
to the Intention ot the late President ot
the United States and accordingly wrote a
formal protest setting forth the Injury
that the city would sustain by admitting a
priniiplo which would Induce every pro
prietor to make similar claims and re
quested that the Board would not sanction
the divisions by signature until the opin
ion of the late President should be fully
known if any hesitation remained on the
minds of my colleagues after the perial
of your letters of the 26th of December
179G and the 27th of February 1797 Those
letters explain clearly In my opinion the
sentiments I have repeatedly heard you
express but lest your meaning may be
misconstrued in a point so essential to the
future benefit of the city I request you
will pardon me for making so free as to
solicit a further declaration of your former
opinions if they can be more explicit
There Is perhaps one point that may
be considered as omitted I mean the dec
larations of those portions as appropria
tions for althcugh many of them are very
small not containing a standard lot and
If occupied by private individuals might
Justly be considered nuisances yet If ap
propriated to public use they would not
only be highly useful but also ornamental
as they would serve for churches temples
Infirmaries public academies dispensaries
markets public walks fountains statues
obelisks etc and If the whole were to be
paid for as appropriations they amount to
only 3S1683 square feet or elbt acres at
2S making 200 The only doubt re
maining in the minds of the
crs relative to thesa rorllons of ground
was the power of non insertion but it ap
pears to me that their not having been
Inserted leaves them exactly In the same
predicament as the other portions of the
city Intended for appropriations but
neither yet expressly designated as appro
priations cor oven as reservations They
may be considered as reservations because
the points of squares have been cut off
and these latter therefore arc rendered by
your declaration of 26th of December 1796
subject to pajment and consequently to
public appropriation
It no objection can be made to this
which indeed is warranted by the deeds of
trust surely less validity must be given to
objections against the adoption of areas
heretofore considered only as streets
which by adoption will be paid for and
rendered highly useful and ornamental If
any objection can arise It has been justly
observed a your letter last quoted that
they might with equal propriety ask pay
ment for streets for these spaces differ In
nothing from tho avenues but In extent
and every avenue might by parity of claim
be reduced to a street or be charged to
the public No individual has ever eon
tended for the Insertion of these irregular
portions except Mr George Walker but
tho principle being admitted the right
will be- universally claimed Many have
sold lots fronting on these open spaces
the map ot the city has been published
without them and complaints of injustice
will certainly be made by persons who
have already purchased if these spaces be
filled up by private lots besides these In
sertions not accompanying the maps now
dispersed strangrs might be liable to
continual impositions by purchasing lots
apparently on open areas on tho map but
In reality only fronting stables or greater
nuisances for these lots are too small to
admit 0 houses all around and conveni
ences within so that It appears not only
against the plan of the city to Insert them
unless for public appropriations which I
should advocate but it would be highly
unjust to individuals as well those who
may purchase as those who become pro
prietors and It would materially injure the
convenience of the city by occupying for
private purposes those places so easy of
access and so necessary for the public
I have the honor to be slrj with sincere
regard your very respectful friend etc
General Washington
General WiinliliiKtoiiM ltenly
The following Is Washingtons reply to
the above
Federal City June 1 1799
Sir In replying to your- favor of yes
terdays date I must beg leave to premise
that w4en I left the chair of government It
was with a determination not to inter
meddle In any public matter which did not
immediately concern me and that I have
felt no disposition since to alter this de
termination But as you have requested
that I would give you my Ideas on a cer
tain point which seems to have occupied
the attention of the Board of Commission
ers and on vhleh I presume my letters to
that body whilst I had the honor to ad
minister the Government have not been
so clear and explicit as It was my intention
to be I have no hesitation in declaring
unless I have entirely forgotten all recol
lection of the fact that it has always been
my invariable opinion and remains still to
be so that no departure from the engraved
plan of the city ought to be allowed un
less imperious necessity should require it
or some great public good is to be pro
moted thereby Minor considerations con
tribute to thi3 opinion but the primary
and to my mind unanswerable one is that
after the original plan with some altera
tions had been adopted ordered to be en
graved and publlshedrand was transmit
ted to several It not to all our public
agents abroad for the purpose of invit
ing purchasers it would for reasons too
obvious and cogent to require illustration
be deceptions to lay off lots for private
purposes where none appeared in a plan
which was intended to inform aid and di
rect the judgment of foreigners and others
who could not on the premises make a
It is tfot difficult to form an opinion of
the way of thinking and views ot others by
ones own under similar circumstances I
declare then without reserve that If I
had made choice of a site for a house on
an open area in the published map oc
casioned by the intersection of avenues
and an angle thereof should afterward be
filled up in a manner I might not approve
I should not scruple to complain of both
the deception and injury
But I am straying from my purpose
which was no more than simply to say If
I am not as before mentioned greatly for
getful that I have never had but one
opinion on this subject and that is that
nothing ought to Justify a departure from
the engraved plan bub the probability of
come great public benefit or unavoidable
With great esteem and regard I am
sir your most obedient servant
William Thornton Esq
Ttie danger anticipated by Washington
that the portions of triangular lots which
were necessarily public parking might be
used for different purposes after a house
had been erected upon the other portion
is no longer felt and In fact in some cases
buildings have been carried to the extreme
point of such lots At all events it is to
be inferred from the extracts quoted that
Washingtons wishes in regard to one of
the most important esthetic features of the
city have not been fulfilled and it is the
Intention of those proposing the plan de
scribed t meet even though it be at a
late date the views of the great man after
whom the Capital City Is named
Leeturct Guillen nnd LinKulNtie Spe
elnliNtH Offered
From the Pall Mall Gazette
A prospectus informs me that a school
has been founded for the purpose of teach
ing the tourist to derive a maximum ot
educational profit from his visits to the
exposition The prospectus points out
that the exposition in the opinion of M
Alfred Picard and he ought to know since
it is his work should be regarded as the
philosophy and synthesis of the century
This being the case It can scarcely be con
sidered an Insult to tho intelligence of the
average visitor if 4t be surmised that there
is no slight risk of bis misapprehending
the scope of the monster show and taking
it to be something far less transcendental
It was perhaps desirable therefore that
a school should be opened in which per
sons eager for self improvement may ob
tain satisfaction and the impenitent pleas
ure seeker learn the error of his ways
It Is Impossible to read the prospectus
without a little subdued hilarity it shows
so touching a confidence in the craving for
instruction of the coming crowds But the
school would seem to be a quite serious
Institution M Leon Bourgeois a former
and a future Prime Minister has con
sented to be its president A hint that
the work of the school Is supported to some
extent by voluntary subscriptions is fol
lowed by the very natural Intimation that
the instruction afforded is not gratuitous
As to its nature the object of the founders
of the school Is to Inculcate the Interest
of material objects or of the thought ot
which they are the reflection This end
Is to be attained by lectures a few of them
of a discreetly general oratorical and
solemn order but as a rule familiar and
The lectures will be supplemented by
promenades through the exposition under
the conduct of guides of unquestionej
competence and often indeed of high re
nown These peripatetic luminaries will
expatiate on every variety cf material ob
ject in presence of the corpus delicti It
will occur at once to a host of intending
students to enquire with anxiety whether
a knowledge of French will be necessary to
profit by these lecons guldesj The fear
may be dispelled with a word A repre
sentative assortment ot specialists talking
all reasonable tongues has been engaged
In short the programme of the school u
most complete and so attractive that the
tourist will cease to have the least excuse
for being decoyed Into the frivolous spec
tacles of the Rue de Paris or the Champs
de Mars
Some of tho Treasnres of Local
Fields and Forests
Tho onitpon Vnrletlr of Ilia
Dnlnty Violet Iliac Iurple Cold
nnd White The Azalea Klnmlng
In the VooilVn -Apple line
wood Tulip Tree nnd Other
While the increase In the lempcraturo
may not drive the average citizen to writ
ing poetry on the season and marriaga
relations and other serious business may
prevent tis mind from turning lightly to
thoughts of love It is more than prob
able that he will not prove so phlegmatic
as to remain untouched by the loveliness
quickly unfolding about him on the lawn
in the park and best ot all in the meadow
and woodland If no more he will at least
exhibit gratitude that the trees lining ths
sidewalks have put out foliage to serva
as his canopy from an over ardent sun
It he cares to go beyond this In his In
vestigations he will note many a curious
thing In nature
With the advance of the season the
flowers of May surpabS In form and dress
their sitters who followed too closely tba
Eastertide aud donned their spring gowns
In April The early flowers as a class
are bold In drawing and broad in design
the later ones have a longer time in which
to mature and the result U more finished
Perhaps this holds true with the bloom ot
still later months but to the popular lnnd
none aro so dear as the blossoms ot May
Best of all the new treasures Is the vio
let of course It is the very symbol of tha
season in which It blooms To ths Initi
ated however the name violet does not
mean a single species for there aro many
kinds The most abundant blue one viola
palmata has heart shaped leaves vhich
are arrow shaped In a less common sort
viola sagittata while yet a third viola
pedata the bird foot violet has leaves
cut up Into segments so that they some
what resemble the spread toes of a birds
foot as the name Implies The blossoms
of this lastjire large light blue with yel
a faint delicious
low e and they possess
cious odor that makes the species mora
precious than Its brothers since an- t
our wild species are unlike those ot tha
English entlreless scentless
Of white violets we have several kinds
the small viola blanda that brightens
swampy places with its dwarfed frasrant
white flowers and round heart shaped
leaves a fellow species with lanceolate
leaves v lanceolata Inhabiting approxi
mately the same neighborhoods and a
large and prettier variety of viola blanda
that has its home on cool mossy banks
In all these blue and white kinds just
mentioned blossoms and leaves are soli
tary on separate stems but In the rarer
dog violet wheh has faint blue flowers
both are arranged together on the soma
erect stalk The one yellow violet that
this section possesses also has this method
ot growth Its modest golden blossoms
are usually borne just beneath the downy
spreading leaves and are so completely
hidden that the blooming is often over
locked But the most splendid citizen of
violetdom Is the velvet head as it Is
called It much resembles the bird foot
violet of which it is a variety save that
the two upper petals are colored a most
glorious deep velvety shade of purple
Surely no prettier native flower grows than
this and it would be hard to And a mora
charming sight than a colony of the spe
cies In full regalia all the violet faces
turned in the same direction and each a
perfect symphony ot light blue and pur
ple and gold
Far more conspicuous is the wild aza
lea In those woods where the shrub
abounds the whole undergrowth is lighted
up with its brilliant pink flower clusters
-The large honeysuckle like blossoms aro
rendered the more graceful by delicate
stamens that project from the throat of
each one nnd thev re more showy than
because as yet the branches bear very lit
tle foliage Another pink flowered plant
of the time the catch fly Sllena Penn
sylvania has its inflorescence arranged
in heads very much like those of cur gar
den verbena and its stems also spread
recumbent on th ground in a similar man
ner The term catch fly is due to tha
viscid stickiness of the buds In which
small Insects may possibly be caught
The common cinque foil a little herb
with creeping shoots whose smiling yel
low flowers and live fingered leaves every
one Is acquainted with 13 ordinarily known
as wild strawberry not that It really
ever bears such fruit but possibly because
of the resemblance In form cf its flowers to
those of the true berry plant The genulna
strawberry blossoms are white with gold
en centres and the leaves are three parted
like those of clover only much larger o
softer texture and toothed at the edges
It flourishes In rather moist open places
and tha scarlet berries mature in June
The May apple or mandrake also has
its habitat in wet soil and a luxuriant and
closely growing bed of It Is a familiar sight
at this season of the year The species is
called umbrella plant by the children- be
cause of the broad terminal leaves that
spread like green umbrellas over the white
waxy curiously scented bloom that dwells
beneath The seeds that come later in
cased in a fleshy pod form the May appla
proper which is supposed to have ail sorts
ot medicinal qualities and which little boys
sometimes eat for the perfumed sickening
sweet taste that makes more fastidious
people reject It Another childrens fav
orite is the wild geranium or cranes bill
hardly a May banquet that does not bsar Its
quota of this herbs pinky blossoms IS
Is the most abundant of the few native ger
aniums and it fully upholds the familys
reputation for beauty
Not behind In charming prettlness Is tha
blue eyed grass that ptps shyly out from
every moist meadow Tho delicate
wide spread dark blue cowers bear a cer
tain look of innocence and timidity that
well becomes them
Of larger growth the most conspicuously
In bloom are the dorwood and tulip treo
The dogwood Is ever oodys friend its low
spread branches holi the flower prize la
easy reach the tulip tree however is mora
proud it holds Its blossoms so high in air
that were it not for the scattered orange-and-yellow
petals that lie strewn on the
ground beneath one might pass by time
aguin all unaware of the splendor over
The fringe tree which gets Us name from
the long creamy petals that drape tha
twigs into a striking resemblance to tha
border ot a ladys shawl and the papaw
with dull brown purple sinister looking
flowers these both deserve mention But
there are so many to be named large and
small the exquisite
showy orchis the lady slipper tall and
fair with lemon yellow slipper and twist
ed brown side strings to tie withal tha
moccasin flower whose quaint crimson
shape and wild fragrince enchant Its find
er the lupine blue skull cap golden club
forget-me-not Dutchmans breeches puc
toan blue flag all are worthy of refer
These may not be so handsome as oup
magnificent hothouse exotics but they hava
a certain shy loveliness that Is far mors
Ceding nt the Fncts
From the CWcajo News
Wif Alter the Iionei moon Why did you d-
ci ive me about jour incoae
llusujnd I uiua t my dear
Wile Tcs you did- You told mo you ro
Etttini ftt 1 week when aitd me to Jtury
Husband You evidently misunderstood me 14
said my position was worth V and o Ut Iit
for some reason bttt Vnown to the bes he
me only flO

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