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The times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, January 01, 1901, Image 7

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Nineteen Centuries
of Human Progress
There was something singularly solemn
In the sound or the bells that last night
welcomed throughout Christendom the
presence not merely of a new year hut
of another century
The recorded life of the world Is reck
oned by centuries As a birthday In the
career of ar individual therefore so to
day Is In the oxlstcnco of the human race
As we enter the portals of this new era It
is natural that we pause a moment on Its
threshold to cast a glance backward on
our progress since the dawn of coniza
tion on tho battles siege3 fortunes of
mankind that wo may estimate tho ad
anccmcnt wo hae made and speculate
on the possibility of a still harpier future
A certain great writer perhaps the one
whose influence has been most generally
felt among English speaking peoples in
the ago that has just passed speaks of
witnessing a ballet under the title of
Prometheus In which sum hundred or
two of men and women represented our
mortal race before the refinements of the
arts and sciences and lores and graces
came on earth to soften them He de
scribes tho drooping monotony the
weary miserable listless moping life
thU3 depicted tho sordid passions of hu
man creatures destitute of those elect
ing influences to which we owo so much
and to whose promoters we render so lit
The evolution of the civilized man has
been gradual We find in the wilds of
New Zealand at the present day coun
terparts of the aboriginal human Icing
and one among the foremost of modern
historians has predicted that one of tbeso
savages may at some future day stand
upon a broken arch of London Bridge to
sketch the ruins of St Pauls
In this prophecy we have concretely
stated the law that governs nations and
individuals that applies and has applied
to all terrestrial things since the loca
tion of the world the law of change and
mutability In obedience to this princi
ple governments have risen to power aLd
eminence have flourished and cleave J
Where is now the knowledge that was
Egypt the luxury that was Bablon
the glory that was Greece and the gran
deur that was Rome Their cities have
fallen to decay their mighty conquerors
are but names their proudest achieve
ments but shadows Still let it be re
membered that our present age is indebt
ed to these extinct nations for much of
Its enlightenment and inspiration in all
that elevates and refines humanity
The arts and sciences first achieved de
velopment in Egypt and v ere from
thence introduced and improved among
the Phoenicians Assyrians Babylonians
and Persians The fine arts however
first attained their full perfection in
Greece anl the Institutions and accom
plishments of the Athenians became the
dominant Influences in pagan clvIlizalJn
These influences still survived even when
upen the decline of its political power
Greece was subjugated b Rome and tl e
tide of corruption which had engulfed the
state could not sully the grandeur and
beauty of the monuments of Hellenic ge
nius Greece had left to all posterity
the Immortal part of herself the noblest
expression of the human intellect the
loftiest aspirations of the human soul
Then arose one of the greatest nations
the world has ever known The suprem
acy of the Roman Empire maris the
apotheosis of pagan civilization The spirit
of Greece lived again in Roman art nd
literature Roman legions penetrated and
subdued nearly every quarter of the earth
until the surface of most of the I nown
globe resembled a vast camp The raptlvo
nations struggled fitfully sometimes bril
liantly and heroically for freedom and
the spirit of those rude reoples who were
destined to become eventually the domi
nant factors in modern civilization was
subdued rather than quelled
Strange that the great pagan colossus
was destined to transmit to the despised
barbarian hordes those inspiring and ele
vating influences which It had in turn
received from Athens stranger still that
It was destined to become the cradle of
Christianity In the dark and tortuous
mazes of the Catacombs lived the first
Christian communities In the arena of the
Coliseum died the first Christian martyrs
The Inll of Komr
At length Rome fell at the hands of the
Northmen who had furnished it in Its
palmy days with slaves and bondsmen
The removal of the seat of government to
Constantinople was the signal for the
downfall of the western branch of the Em
pire Franks Goths Vandals Visigoths
Ostrogoths Alans Huns Lombards Danes
and Normans successively swept like tor
rents over the beautiful provinces of
Rome They conquered but t2 destroy
They demolished almost everything for
more than two centuries they built up
The first of these ravages A D 476
marks the commencement of that period
of history known as the Middle Ages
whicn may be said to have terminated
with the fall of the Roman Empire In the
East In 1153 During this dark and tur
bulent time occurred the convulsions and
labors attendant upon tho evolution of our
modern society and as such It is natu
rally of supreme interest and Importance
lo the modern historian
The causes of the decline of letters dur
ing these centuries arc sufficiently ob
vious Tbcy arc almost Identical with the
agencies which gradually weakened and
flnall overthrew the Roman Empire In
the West for as the glory and vitality of
the state paled so the light of genius de
From the year 400 to the year 600 was a
sad period for Europe The first conquer
ors did not occupy the soil which they
had subdued they pushed on to new con
quests or rather to new devastations The
territory they had left was Immediately
Invaded by another tribe more rapacious
than themselves and thus pushing each
other on as wave driving wave they cov
ered the face of Europe as with the water
of a deluge of barbarism for centuries It
was only after ho apparently inexhausti
ble population of the North had been al
most drained that the different tribes be
gan to nettle down permanently on the
noil which they had hitherto only occa
sionally occupied
These repeated invasions resulted In the
arresting not only of agriculture and oth
er peaceful pursuits but in the destruc
tion of many Ine work3 of literature and
Thus affairs continued with but little
intermission until toward the end of the
tenth century or during a period of nearly
COO years In the midst of this continual
agitation of revolution men could not find
time to apply to the cultivation of letters
From the continual devastation of nan
hooks which could then bo multiplied on
ly by tho copyist became extremely
scarce The Inavluable Alexandrian libra
ry was destroyed by the Saracens In 641
and Its fate was shared by tnanv other
collections of books
Bui throughout all this apparently Ir
rational turmoil and strife was proceed
ing the construction of modern peoples
governments laws and above all i
glon the latter being at that time the
guiding spirit in the regeneration of so
ciety For as the religious were tho only
iren of learning and culture during tl at
period it was mainly through their rare
that the worts of pagan literature have
been preserved as It was on their teach
ing that depended the growth of Christian
faith involviug its sublime morality and
civilizing influences The whole great
tide of barbarian enthusiasm was thus at
length turned in the direction of reli
gious zeal lranlfostcd itself In oil
Its vigor in the subsequent history o
Chivalry and the Crusades
Letters had continued to decline for
nearly five huudred years until tley
reached their lowest ebb In the tenth eeh
turj Soon after this period in Italy at
least occurred the first davvnlngs of the
Renaissance or general revival of in
dent literature and art The lamp of
learning however continued to burn dur
ing the darkest night of the Middle Ages
In thet period too woman was elevated
sociall from the virtual condition of serf
dom she occupied during pagan antiquity
Universities were established and these
centres of learning were attended by stu
dents who came as pilgrims from all over
the world The Justinian code of laws
upon which is founded all modern Juris
prudence was formulated Modern lan
guages were constructed paper was first
made tho art of printing was discovered
musical notation was reduced to its pres
ent system modern principles of com
mercial Intercourse were instituted the
first banks and postofilces were establish
ed gunpowder glass spectacles the mar
iners compass were Invented algebra
was Introduced from the East clocks
were first made painting revived and
Gothic architecture marked the triumph
of a distinct and noble art Last not
least America was discovered by Colum
Thus during an apparently perilous pe
riod the modern nations arose from the
chaos of barbarism and when at the
period of the Renaissance they turned
again toward Rome it was not to destroy
but to piece together what was left that
they might render homage at length to
the genius of the grand old nation
The Affe of Prince
The sixteenth seventeenth and eight
eenth centuries may be described as con
stituting the age of princes as the past
100 j ears has inaugurated that of the peo
ple During tho former period the glory
that was ltalj and the grandeur that was
Spain flourished and decajed yielding to
the later development and perhaps great
er vitallt of the Northern peoples
But here let us pauEe a moment to ren
der due tribute tq greatness passed away
never forgetting that every age and na
tion has left to posterity the fruits of Its
labors in the cause of human progress
It was an Italian who discovered the
shores of America and this he was enabled
to do through the munificence of a Spanish
sovereign The splendor of Italy is attest
ed in those wonderful creations of art and
literature which springing from the ru
ins of antiquity blossomed with a beauty
all their own Trom the earliest dawn of
the Renaissance the Italian genius rcute
lively and penetrating was not only em
bodied in the works of the artist but was
exercised In the field of natural science
that hitherto unexplored realm at which
the ancients had gazed but distantly
The Influence of southern Europe faded
only when Its light had spread among the
Northern peoples France because near
est to Italy first profited by the universal
ly refining tendencies cf the latter nation
But German and other European monarchs
had contended with France in inviting the
Italian artists and philosophers to their
kingdoms and thus was disseminated tho
inspiration of the Renaissance Tho hardy
nations of the north drank eagerly the
rich draughts of knowledge thus carried
to them Sturdy England brilliant
France patient Germany rapidly became
the dominant Influences In the civilized
world The original genius of each of
th3c nations produced the most splendid
and abundant fruit
The Elizabethan age In England saw a
most notable assemblage of great men
Shakespeare the myriad minded Bacon
the most exquisitely constructed Intellect
that has ever been bestowed on any of the
children of men Raleigh tho embodi
ment of English pluck and daring Drake
the bold navigator who enriched litera
ture and science and extended British
Spain Portugal and Holland yielded
gradually one by one the supremacy of
the seas to Britain and the wave girt
Isle first building about Itself Its mighty
oaken armor and then sending to every
quarter of the world Its colonist adventu
rers gradually became the Colossus of
Europe France however ranking close
beside England as a political power be
came the leading social Influence
Decn of Feuilnllxm
The society of the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries was formed upon the
ruins of the older feudalism which ex
emplified in Its decline in France was
first undermined by that marvel of craft
and cunning Louis XI and overthrown
completely by his successor Louis XIV
But those great monarchs who had clip
ped the power of the feudal lord and ex
alted commercialism did not see the influ
ence bak of the latter the people
Circumscribing their view within the
limits of their courts they did not per
ceive the unification of Interest they had
given to the many outside that golden
circle With the fall of feudalism the
people united and became a menace to the
crown The divine right of kings became
questioned by certain daring spirits Men
talked with each other through the me
dium of the printing press Philosophers
arose who held up to ridicule the contra
dictions in fact involved In certain old and
revered tenets The wrongs Inflicted by
many old Institutions were glaringly re
vealed A Voltaire and a Swift scoffed
while a Rouseau wept Madame DuBarry
said to Louis XV After us the deluge
She was right As long as the King could
maintain his ancient prerogatives with
dignity and control the actions of his
ministers with wisdom and Judgment he
was safe But it took giants to do this
With the advent of a Gcoio III and a
Louis XVI the storm that had been gath
ering over the Inane heads of their im
mediate predecessors burst In all its fury
The Illrtli of Mhert
The American colonies groaning under
the tyranny of tho British Government
were first to proclaim the universal rights
of man and to enforce them at th point
of the sword Europe looked on amazed
at that wonderful struggle the princi
ples enunciated In the Declaration of In
dependence shone with dazzling radlanc
before the peoples of the Old World They
knew not at first whether these new
doctrines were Inviolable truths or only
the emanations from the brains of mad
men The first shot at Lexington was
heard around the world The tidings
of the victories of the Revolution follow
ed the capturo of Trenton by Washing
ton the surrender of Burgoyne at Sara
toga the final capitulation of Cornwall
at Yorktovn Then came tho new repub
lic established upon those principles for
which Its founders had fought
Tho seeds of liberty however were not
destined to remain In one country or rne
quarter of the world They were earned
among the old nations and their growth
marked a new order of things in the civ
ilized world France was the first to ic
alize to tho full the regenerating Influ
ences which had dawned upon mankind
The lrench Revolution though charaeter
ized during Its latter part by intemper
ance and depravity tame Ikc a thunder
bolt upon Europe
It was Indeed a terrible storm but it Is
sometimes only by such convulsions that
the social atmosphere can be cleared The
mutterings which had been so long sup
pressed or only faintly heaid burst forth
unrestrained When from the thrones of
the surrounding countries came the news
to the National Assembly of Franco that
the outraged Kings demanded a cessation
of the Revolution and were marshaling
their armies for the purpose of Invasion
Danton exclaimed The kings demand
gage of battle well Let us throw them
tho head of a king
Reconstruction however followed the
ravages which revolution bad inevitably
wrought Napoleon the magnificent nd
vcntircr was the Influence mainly instru
mental in the restoration of law and order
In Trance In the universal war which he
waged with other countries he unwittingly
instilled tho spirit of patriotism which is
the soul of nations even though they have
been conquered That patriotic unit
which led all peoples to unite in the over
throw of Napoleon was instrumental In
uniting men not only of tho same but of
different nitionalites with one grcrt pur
pose and the spirit thus awakened was
undoubtedly a most potent one for the
furtherance of human progress
A lVrioiI of Traiifiiilllly
After the eventful period of the battles
of New Orleans and Waterloo most of the
clvllzed nations of the world remained
for a considerable time in a state of com
parative tranquillity Fortunately for the
rising generation neither sovereigns nor
their sutjects seemed inclined to Indulge
any longer that fatal ardor for mllitar
glcry which characterized the preceding
epoch Both rested satisfied with their
positions the king rejoicing
thu um was no worse the subject that
his was so much better The leading Eu
ropean powers as well as the United
Sttcs appealed generally desirous to en
Joy In repose the laurels they had for
merly won in the field and to contend for
tho palm of national pre eminence only by
the arts of peaceful and prosperous In
To Great Britain above all belonged the
honor of arresting tho course of tho
lrench revolutionary armies and of Na
poleons ambitious career This result
was largely brought about by the navy un
der the command of Nelson who at the
battle of Trafalgar sunk tho French fleet
preventing Napoleons poetic and preten
tious design of a great empire in Egypt
The last scene In the life of the greatest
actor upon the stage of the modern world
presents that element of pathos which
ever attends the failure of great men
Surrendering himself unacountably to his
implacable enemy England he died upon
a lonely island having witnessed the am
bitious plans he had formed for the es
tablishment of his house fall like a house
The ftrowth f Ilerormn
In 1S27 the world bheld the successful
exertions of Britain in protecting the In
dependence of Greece against the Turks
and afterward the Turks themselves
agrlnst the encroachments of the new
Egyptian dynasty defending her Immense
possessions In East and West chastising
the pirates of the Mediterranean attack
ing the Chinese and compelling them to
grant treaty right1 In 1S29 the act of
Cahtollc emancipation was passed and In
1833 slavery was abolished in the British
The revolution wrought in British Gov
ernment during the past century though
accomplislert without bloodshed is none
the less remarkable When Victoria came
to the throne in 1S37 it was apparent that
a great change had already taken place
In the middle of the eighteenth century
England like her thirteen colonies on the
othtr side of the Atlantic was essentially
a rural country divided Into small farms
Manufactures were in a primitive condi
tion The law retained n any relics of me
diaeval restrictions unon Industry and
trade With machinery came manufac
tures and manufacturing towns where
men used their biains with the end of
simplifying human labor
As the population moved Into cltls ard
towns they became aware that they pos
sessed municipal and national rights A
succession of measures according with
the neF spirit and fulfilling the compro
hense party pledges was put through
the Imperial Parliament Including the
disestablishment of the Anglican Church
in Ireland the reforms in public educa
tion the adoption of the secret ballot
and the labor legislation
The British Government has Urn at
length become a most liberal one grant
ing at the present day equal rights to
all Its citizens and a most efficient guar
dianship to life and property by a ju3t
and equable enforcement of the laws
By reason of Its pre eminence as a
world power Britain has necessarily tak
en a prominent place in the active affairs
of the world Russia In 1S53 proud of
Its colossal power and 111 concealing its
ambition under the plea of protecting the
Greek subjects of the Ottoman Empire
declared war against the Turks snd op
ened the contest by Invading the Danu
bian provinces of the Turkish territory
The great Powers of Europe Immediately
took alarm on seeing endangered the in
tegrity of Turkey the maintenance of
which seemed necessary for the preser
vation of the European equilibrium En
gland and France Russia and Austria
offered their mediation but their efforts
did not obtain the desired effect Accord
ingly in the spring of 1854 England un
der Queen Victoria and France under
Napoleon III espoused the cause of the
The allies having compelled the Rus
sians to withdraw from the Danubian
Provinces began In their turn a war of
aggression They resolved to take posses
sion of Sebastopol which was the scat
of the Russian power In the Crimean
Peninsula In September commenced the
memorable siege of Sebastopol lasting
amid almost dally encounters a whole
year The fall of the mighty Russian
fortress was the occasion first of an
armistice then of the Treaty of Paris
which was signed on the 30th of March
1S56 By this treaty the Sultan confirmed
the ancient privileges of his Christian
subjects Russia renounced all protecto
rate over the Danubian provinces the
navigation of the Danube was dcelired
free through Its whole extent the Black
Sea of which Russia had been sole mis
tress since the destruction of the Turk
ish Navy at Navarlno became neutral
and was henceforth Interdicted to any
vessel of war nor could any arsenal Le
In future erected on its borders
Such were the conditions to which Al
exander II who had succeeded his fatehr
Nicholas was forced to submit condi
tions which took from Russia her most
powerful means of action against Turkey
and made her lose all the adv vantages
which It had taken her half a century to
acquire Thus was prevented that momen
tous revolution among European powers
hinted at by Napoleon I when he said
Russia at Constantinople would become
mistress of the world
llip Growth of America
The growth of the United States during
the past century from thirteen small and
comparatively insignificant colonies to a
great power Is unparalleled In the his
tory of the world The treaty with Great
Britain September 3 1783 following the
establishment of independence fixed the
boundaries of the United States as The
Atlantic Ocean the Gulf of Mexico the
Mississippi River and the Great Lakes
The Thirteen Colonies occupied a narrow
strip along the Atlantic seaboard Penn
sylvania was a frontier State with Pitts
burg as an advanced military post In
brief the area of the young Republic wa3
about 800000 square miles Today it is
3846595 square miles The second war
with England 1S12 1S15 gave to America
that splendid prestige upon the sea which
the vletorles of Paul Jones and other na
val heroes had inaugurated during the
Revolution The United States had at the
time of Its second contest greatly In
creased In population wealth and power
both from the industry of its inhabitants
tho tide of emigration and the accession
of many new States I oulslana Kentueky
Ohio etc to its confederacy Continual
causes of provocation continuing to take
place between the ships of the two na
tions and the majorty of tho American
people being desirous for war for the re
dress of their grievances Congress openly
declared It on tho 18th of June A D 1812
In 1813 the whole British fleet was cap
tured on Lako Erie by Terry and In tho
same year Harrison gained the victory of
the Thames which recovered the posts
previously surrendered to tbo enemy The
British under General Ross succeeded In
carturlng Washington but did not occupy
It more than one day Elated with suc
cess they resolved also to undertake the
capture of Baltimore Their landing at
North Point September 11 1814 met with
lltle or no opposition but Ross being
killed on the 12th In his advance toward
the city and all attempts on Tort Mc
Hcnry being bravely repulsed they were
compelled to abandon the enterprise The
urmsn next turned their attention to New
Orleans The decisive battle was com
menced In December 114 the Americans
under Jackson and the British under Pack
enham The final attack was reserved for
the 8th of January following The British
were at length obliged to retire with a
loss of 2 W0 men wounded captured or
slain Including their general Packenham
and their chief officers while the Ameri
cans hid not lost more than six killed and
seven wounded This ended the war The
Treaty of Ghent concluded between the
merlcan and English commissioners vas
ratified by the President and Senate of the
United States February 1815
A Period of ProKreajs
The period between the years 1815 and
and 1848 was marked by the annexation
of Texas and the war with Mexico A
vast territory of some six hundred and
thirty thousand square miles including
upper California and New Mexico accrued
to the United States as a result of the
latter conflict Soon after came the news
of the discovery of gold In these new re
gions Multitudes of emigrants hurried
towards tho shores of the Pacific settle
ments were made and population com
merce and industry increased at- a truly
wonderful rate
With all Its mighty Internal develop
ment of natural resources the nation be
came threatened with a terrible crisis
The great question which had primarily
created the two chief political parties of
the country the subject of States rights
had become in connection with slavery
the cause of bitter division between the
North and South The civil war had
been averted for many years by the con
summate abilities of such men as Clay
Webster and Calhoun but it was bound
to come Throughout the long years be
tween 16C1 and 1865 this terrible conflict
waged The battle of Gettysburg marked
its decisive event General Lee the com
mander of the Southern forces with the
view of carrying tho war Into Northern
territory marched Into Pennsylvania and
concentrated his army at Gettysburg a
country town of the latter State There
he was met by General Meade and on tho
1st 2d and 3d of July 1863 tho two
forces engaged In tho fatal and terrible
battle The result was a defeat for the
South which afterwards fought upon nn
ever weakening system of defence Grant
In supreme charge of the Union forces
gradually closed In his enormous army ct
six hundred thousand men upon his gal
lant adversaries who wero compelled to
surrender on the Cth of April 1S65
The successful termination of the war
procured tho emancipation of four mil
lions of human beings augmented the re
spect of foreign nations for America and
displayed to the world her Immense and
inexhaustible resources
The Inhabitants throughout the area of
the country are becoming every year more
closely bound together by the lies of com
mercial Interest Northern capital Is now
being directed to the development of the
agricultural Industries of the South and
the outlook for the future prosperity of
American manufactures in every section
of the country Is phenomenal As It is
he United States Is now supplying the
lrarkets of the world with nearly every
species of merchandise and manufacture
At the late Paris Exposition the great
est number of awards was accorded Amer
ica u products
The movement of expansion lately adopt
ed by the Tovernment which implies tho
Institution of colonial dependencies has
awakened m ich discussion regarding its
accord with the principles of the Consti
tution The events of the Spanish-American
war which resulted In the possession
of the Philippines Porto Rico and Guam
together with the extraordinary crime
which precipitated hostilities are still
fresh In the minds of nil
The polley of the Government regarding
the Chinese question has been outlined by
the President and while he unites with
the demands of tho European Powers for
Justice he disclaims all participation In
European politics in ths East
ixpniiMlon of the Country
It is Interesting to note a few signifi
cant facts as showing the growth of the
United States as a nation The Revolu
tionary war was fought by men clad main
ly in homespun and using a flint lock
hunting rifle Manufactures had Keen
steadily repressed by England and agri
culture was the only resource of the coun
try The mechanical arts with tho ex
ception of shipbuilding in New England
had made little or no progress The farm
house was a manufactory of all tae arti
cles of dally use Clothes hats shoes
and harness wero made at home Even
nails were hammered out in the winter
time The land was turned by plows the
moldboards of which were faced with
strips of Iron made by straightening out
old horseshoes The grass was cut by a
scythe the grain by a sickle Grain was
threshed out on the barn floor with a flail
or else trodden out by cattle The raw
flax and wool were carded spun and wov
en Into cloth by the women of the house
With the coming of freedom the me
chanical arts and manufactures sprang
Into vigorous existence with as much ce
lerity as the armed patriots of the Revo
lution had come forth from the dragons
teeth sown by British tyranny
Cotton had been grown only In the flow
er garden When eight bags of His staple
arrived at Liverpool In 1784 theeustom
house officers seized it on the plea that
so much could not have been raised in
America Only four years after the last
British soldier left our shores the first
cotton mill was set In motion at Beverly
Mass In 1793 Whitney invented the cot
ton gin for separating the seed from the
fibre The present output of eotton from
this country is numbered by tho mlllloja
of balcj and Is constantly upon the in
When the Declaration of Independence
was signed there were only two steam
cngnes In the thirteen colonies one at
PaBsaic and the other In Philadelphia
Yet within five years after the evacuation
of New York Fitch placed a trial steam
boat on the Delaware In 1S03 1 Evans
built a steam dredge at Philadelphia in
1807 Fulton solved the problem of steam
navigation In 1819 a steamer crossed the
Altantle and In 1830 Peter Cooper made
the first locomotive built in America for
railroad purposes and it drew a car of
passengers upon the Baltimore and Ohio
PlrM TclCKrnph Mrsnj e
The first message sent by a recording
telegraph was forwarded May 1814 be
tween Washington and Baltimore in the
sublime words What hath God
The printing pro3s of a century ago
would at a great expense of labor print
on one side about 250 sheets per hour A
new steam power press will in the same
time print fold and count ninety -six
thousand eight page newspapers
Later developments of electricity a
force discovered by Voltn an Italian phi
losopher toward the end of the eight
eenth century have demonstrated its still
greater possibilities In the hands of such
men as Alexander Graham Bell and Thom
as Edison both still living it has produc
ed results little less than miraculous The
lorg dlstance telephone the electric light
the so called Roentgen rays first discov
ered by Prof Roentgen in Germany the
phonograph and other marvelous aa use
ful devices attest the greatness of the hu
man intellect at the comraen mert of the
Twentieth Century
Llternrjr Aehlev eiiieiitt
The literature of the past 100 years well
attests thr spirit of the age The great
novels of Dickens Thackeray and Victor
Hugo accomplished wonders in the way of
social reform surely the nobhsl en 1 to
which such efforts can be directed It 13
true there is in successor to these Ilt
eray g ants but a truch lirger output of
printed matter is yearly the case Ameri
ca may boast among men of letei such
names as Irving Longfellow Poe Emer
son Cooper and n host of others
In tie development of all the natural
sclenn the past -en i rv ius pre
cminfLt The first day of he century
marked the discovery of the first plmetoid
Ceres Photography and the spectro
scope have rendered greatlv Increased fa
rilltes for tho investigation of Burrourd
Ing worlds and planetary systems and the
last great telescope constructed has
brrueht the moon within a distance of
sixty miles Chemistry has been devoted
chiefly to the improvement of manufac
tures while geology has thrown light upon
prehistoric ones
I he Work of Kxploreris
Great h roism and perseverance have
been displayed by explorers in Betklng to
make known tho undiscovered portions of
the globe In tho search for the Pole are
to bo noted- The exploration of Sir John
Franklin 1845 DeLongs 1S79 Grccly
1881 Peary 1892 Nansen 1S94 Duke of
Abruzzl furthest north 1900 In tho
Artarctlc Ocean BIscoe 1831 Balleny
1S38 D Urvllle 1840 Ross 1841 Wilkes
1S42 and Borchgrevlnk 1S93 have endeav
ored to reach the South Pole
Africa was explored by Livlngstono In
1S10 73 Stanley 1875 S7 and other dar
ing spirits
Among the great social and humanita
rian movements of the century may be
Instanced The abolition of slavery in the
British dominions 1S33 emancipation of
23000000 serfs in Russia In 1S61 Lin
colns Emancipation Proclamation In this
country In 1S62 first settlement of an In
ternational quarrel by arbitration instead
of by war Alabama claims against Eng
land 1871 organization of the Red Ctobs
society at Geneva 1S64 and tha Interna
tional Peace Congress summoned by Rus
sia at The Hague 1899
Thus have the past ages left the world
advanced In science enriched In knowl
edge and endowed by art It Is therefore
In Joyful thanksgiving that all hearts to
day give praise to the great minds of the
past and look forward to achievements
that will make this epoch a ruling Influ
ence for the progress and development of
the future
Ailmlrnl Cnnej Mn Become Com
mander of the Ill el lie hlntlon
A change in the commaning officer of
the Pacific station is to be made during
the coming month by reason of the re
tirement of Rear Admiral Albert Kautz
on January 29 He Is at present with the
fleet off the Mexican coast Following In
the line of promotion it is expected that
he will b succeeded by Rear Admiral
Silas Casey now In command of the Phil
adelphia Navy Yard and that Rear Ad
miral J J Read will be detailed to Phila
Admiral Kautz 13 a native of Ohio and
graduated from the Naval Academy In
1858 He served during the civil war and
was captured off Capo Hatteras by tho
privateer Winslow and imprisoned in
Richmond After being released on pa
role he was exchanged for Rear Admiral
Warden He was aboard the Hartford
during the bombardment of Vlcksburg
and later served on the West Indies sta
A rlt ntmil Hvtiit in the IOMtofllcc
The usual annual reception to the Au
ditor for the rostoflico was tendered to
Captain Castle yesterday afternoon The
Auditors Office in the Postoffice building
was decorated with flags and bunting and
rare plants from the Philippines and Cuba
The largest palm leaf In the city brought
from the Antilles formed part of the dec
oration and a large plant a species of
palm peculiar to the Philippines added to
the scheme
Captain Castle was assisted by Acting
Deputy Auditor Chew In receiving guests
Among those who paid their respects were
the Second Assistant Postmaster General
W S Shallenberger Chief Clerk Taylor
Superintendent White Assistant Superin
tendent Grant and Mr Holiday of the
Railway Mall Service and the officials of
tho department About 500 clerks shook
hands with the Audtor
It is learned that Acting Deputy Auditor
Chew THI receivo the appointment as
Deputy Auditor made vacant by the pro
motion of A L Lav she as Auditor of the
Tho Scorpion to Take the Ilnce of
the Hartford
On account of the necessity of having
the training ship Hartford continue her
practice cruise the Navy Department has
ordered her to leave La Guayra Vene
zuela where she has been stationed to
protect American Interests A substitute
for the Hartfoid has been found in the
gunboat Scorpion which while not as
largo as the training vessel is capable of
doing the duty assigned The Scorpion is
now In the West Indies and has been or
dered to La Guayra No details of the na
ture of the reported disturbances In Vene
zuela have reached the Washington Gov
IlexlRit Illxcnnx it at n
The last day of the century was a dull
ono at Inaugural headquarters The mail
was unusually light and there were few
letters to be answered
Chairman Charles J Bell of the Fl
nanco Comralttco announced subscriptions
to the inaugural guarantee fund making n
total of J57125 From the McKinley and
Roescvelt Club of St Paul a letter was
received signifying the purpose of tho or
ganization to participate in the Inaugural
parade The club numbers 400 members
A dlegation of about 250 members will
visit the Capital during the Inaugural
A meeting of the Sub Committee on
Medals of the Committee on Badges and
Medals was held beginning at 430 oclock
In the afternoon Suggestions for the de
sign of tho commemorative medal wero
entertained The sub committee Is charged
with the task of preparing a design for
the medal which win on approval of tho
general committee and the Inaugural
Committee be submitted to the artist se
lected to make tho design Many medals
commemorative of various events were on
exhibition at the meeting
Tho committee generally favored tho
proposition that the profiles of President
McKinley and of the Capitol should adorn
the medal It was suggested that tho Capi
tol should be represented with the throng
of inauguration visitors In front of It An
other suggestion which met with general
approval was that fifteen stars and forty
five stars representing the number of
Slate3 forming the Union today and 100
years ago should be included la tee design
Tho name of the President the fact of this
being bis second Inauguration and the date
March 4 1901 were features also deemed
desirable Another meeting of the Sub
Committee on MedaU will be held Wed
nesday afternoon
The following letter from Chairman Wel
ter of the Committee on Public Comfort
was sent yesterday to tho various hotels
lodging houses and boarding houses of
the city
Dear Sir The Committee on Public Comfort
organized by authority of the Inaugural Commit
tee with hradquartcn at the Evening Star Hull I
injr desires to knotr or the better accommodation
and protection of our citys visitors during the
approaching inaugural period what your rates
will be for this time per day with or without
board numter to be placed In a room and any
other information of service to guests
We shall register all quarters on our books
without expense to you or to your guests and
will promptly discharge any employe of this com
mittee detected in the acceptance of any gratuity
Our object is to secure proper accommodations
at reasonable rates for our vUitors without in
curring any financial responsibility
On the part of this committee we shall be
pleased to refer applicants to you for any fur
ther definite arrangements
The personnel of the Committee on Civ
ic Organizations was announced yesterday
as follows
Committee on Civic Organizations B H
Warner chairman William Frye White
Mycr Cohen and William P Van Wickle
vice chairmen George C Lewis Secreta
ry T II Alexander T H Anderson Park
Agnew- II H Adams XL B Buckley Dr
J II Bryan John Bowles Joseph A Blun
don H H Bergmann F L Browne Aaron
II Bell P J Brennan DrZeno B Bab
bitt William L Bramhall Walter H
Brooks J T Bradford H L Biscoe R
M Burrows Ceorge C BIcknell Charles
L Bovee E A Beekman F W Black
ford Harry A Cobaugh W A Copenha
ver W II Chase Albert Cottle William
McKay Clayton Howard L Christman
Richard E Cochran Henry A Castle
Charles A Conant Dr Waterman E Corey
Robert W Cox T H Carter F B
Crosthwalte H S Chamoerlain A Drury
H Bradley Davidson Thomas F Davvson
W R Deeble W J Dyer J W Douglass
R T Donaldson E H Daniel E F Droop
Florence Donohue H D Emmons L S
Emery Henry R Elliott A F Hlllyer Dr
C A Hamilton William H H Hart W
H H Hoover M M HIgglns N C Har
ppr George W Hall John A H Hnrgett
T D Harbaugh C B Jones Victor Kauff
mann C B Kefersteln Henry King Jr
Joseph I Keefer Carey Kingdom Simon
Kann M H Kearney Ralph W Lee Gus
tavo Lansburgh Joseph W LuckettT C
Long H II Lewis Arthur R Mattlngly
George C Maynard Gulon Miller Whit
field McKinlay A F McMlllen Thomas R
Martin Harry B Major Herbert Macom
ber L W Maxon Clayton Marshall Al
bert F Marsh Joseph Moss Le
andcr P Mltchel Wallace D Mc
Lean O T Metzerott W A Noel Jr
William Nicholson Robert Nourse Par
ker A Nevln Charles B Pearson A K
Philips Robert Potts Robert Portner J
J Purman William W W Parker George
Peter Charles A Prouty Ezra D Parker
W F Roberts E E Ramey A B Ruff R
E Redway W A Rogers Jefferson Ray
nolds A II G Richardson W II E
Reinecke John Rouzer C G Simons
George W F Swartzell J F Smith J B
Sleman jr John Sherman Lawrence
Sands Armat Stoddard William F Staley
William Small Dr John Stoutenberg
William P Sackett T Arthur Smith
Charles P Sweet James B Scully Will
lam Severe E M Truell John B Thomp
son William M Terrell J W Townsend
Charles S Thorne Fred A Wallace B
H Warner jr J A Wetmore Downs L
Wilson George E Waggaman John J
Wood John T West Davis Warner
James E White E W Whlttaker Will
iam Wilson Thomas J Wilson C T Yo
der L M Zimmerman and E A Zelgler
The following hare been added to tbo
personnel of several of the committees
Street Decorations O G Staples S
Clifford Cox Hugh Riley Charles H Page
George A Barnes Robert C Gntta Isaac
C Slater Mycr Loeb Aaron Russell My
cr Strasburg and Adolphus Gudc
Fireworks Charles E Kern William P
Spurgcon Allen D Albert Jr J Harry
Shannon W II E Reinecke and W W
Illumination James A ODonnell Al
bert S Riddle L E Sinclair E S Mar
low Harry B Parker and John McElroy
The tallowing additional subscriptions
were announced by C J Bell yesterday
Previously reported 53 41 Washington
Mirror J2000 E S Johnson J1000 W
C Hill J1C0 J R Edson J1C0 M O and
Arthur Copeland 100 Conrad Becker
130 Hugo Zleman J1C0 J V N Huyck
o George W Harvey 100 O A and
W B King 100 total to date 157125
Remitrkatile Cnlnelilenee In the De
mise of n linn nnil Woman
By a strange vagary of fate double mis
fortune was last week visited upon tho
family of W F Keese a plumber who
lives at 4S2 N Street southwest At ex
actly the same time 525 oclock Satur
day morning Kcesos mother-in-law Mrs
Jane M Taylor Hitchcock eighty years of
age and his brother Samuel Keese fifty
two years of age passed away Both had
been seriously HI and death was not un
expected but the fact that they died at
exactly the same moment makes the case
unique cc Mrs Taylor Hitchcock died
at her son-in-laws residence 482 N Street
southwest Samuel Keese died at his own
home but a few doors away at 496 N
Street southwest
About 530 oclock Saturday morning
George W Keese another brother ot the
dead man arrived at the house where Mrs
Taylor Hitchcock has been residing His
announcement of the fatal termination ot
his brother Samuels Illness was met with
the news that 31rs Taylor Hitchcock was
also dead A comparison of the exact time
of each death made later revealed the
fact that life had fled from each body at
exactly twenty five mlnntes past 5 oclock
Both funerals will be held today that
of Samuel Keese at his lato residence at
11 oclock while services over tho body ot
Mrs Taylor Hltchsock will be held in
Christ Church on G Street southwest at
230 oclock this afternoon
Mrs Taylor Hitchcock was born in St
Marys County Md eighty years ago
Her maiden name was Jane M Jcncs
She first married William Taylor ot
Charles County Md and the union was
blessed by three children William H
Taylor Mrs W r Keese and Mrs E V
Chllds all of whom live in Washington
Mrs Taylor after the death of her first
husband married Robert J Hitchcock ot
Washington and forty six years ago she
removed from her Maryland home to this
city where she resided until her death
For the past twenty five years she lived
with her daughter and son-in-law W F
Keese on N Street southwest where aha
died In December her usually good
health was shattered by a paralytic
stroke During the time she was con
fined to her room prior to death al
though suffering Intensely from the pain
of her affliction she daily sent messages
of cheer and encouragement to Samuel
Keese who battling with consumption
lay In his bed scarcely a stones throw
Samael Kecso was a clerk for his
brother W F Keese who Is a plumber
and prior to a year ago enjoyed splendid
health He contracted consumption which
made such lnroad3 upon his constitution
that he had to seek his bed five weeks ago
Last Fridav night he became worse and
sank rapidly until the end came Mr
Keese had all his lite been a resident ot
the District of Columbia and for a number
of years had occupied the house at 495
N Street southwest He Is survived by
a widow
Resolutions of War Department Em
ploye on Vtitltor 3Iorrs Death
At a meeting of the employes of the of
fice of the Auditor for the War Depart
ment called yesterday to take action on
the death of the late Auditor Frank H
Morris resolutions were adopted declar
ing That In the death of our late friend
and associate Frank II Morris Auditor
of the Treasury for the War Department
we his late associates in official life
deeply deplore that there ha3 been taken
from us a chief who had well earned our
respect and esteem and an officer of the
Government who was ever earnest and un
remitting In the performance ot the duties
devolving upon him in his highly responsi
ble office
That we tender to the widow and chil
dren of our late friend our profound sym
pathy in their great bereavement and
pray that the hand of the loving Father
of us all may lighten tho burden of their
sorrow and give them consolation in the
anticipation of a happy reunion in that
land where sorrow and death can never
It was ordered that a copy of tho reso
lutions be engrossed and presented to the
family of Mr Morris
Twelve specially copyrighted
photogravure masterpieces
from life subjects by the famous TONNESEN SISTERS
uTiiiTiifii fit
The Sunday Times Art Series
Beginning next Sunday January 6 there will
be given with each copy of
The Sunday Times
one of a series of
These are prepared in photo tints and are mounted on mats
12 by 14 inches ready for framing
The series is well worth a place in the art room or portfolio
Your order for The Sunday limes should be given early to
your newsdealer
i i

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