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The times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, February 24, 1901, Second Part, Image 16

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The History of the
AN ABORIGINAL HERMIT
rerforniniue of nil Indian 11 n Moil
em Hip laii U Inkle
An Indian hermit is a queer sort of an
Igj nimoD if one can be pardoned fpr
c eg such a comparison but occasional
ly sui h a curious specimen of the aborigi
nal American race has been discovered
A recent story from Utah as that there
Is ou the Ute reservation near Tort Du
chesne an Indian who lies naged and alone
except for the dIly visits of hlb brother
who brlDrfs him food
For more than twenty years he has lain
there silent and without covering
There a e two stories regarding lhe
strauge actions of the Indian One U
that tho man in his youth was crossed lu
b love affair
The other Is to the effect that In a mo
ment of uncontrollable anger he killed
both of his rarcnts
Out In Tort Duchesne this man Is looked
upon as the greatest attraction n the
amusement line for amusements In a
Western fort are exceedingly limltel
while the hotipltallty is generosity itself
Eo It Is that when jon arrive at the fort
take off your things and wash some of the
alkali dust out of not off jour face and
hands some of the officers or wives of the
cfSccrs having seated you In front of a
table loaded with some form of venison
and other good things will ask you If ou
have heard of tho strange Indian they
have there
Having never heard of this unusual
character ou will say so providing you
are truthful and then the bottcag will raise
her eyebrows and lay Really as If
this crazy tte were something the most
1aorant ourht to know
If reall worth a trip and you muit
fee oln she con Inuc aihnsh It in
-x Z
-
WARFARE
By SIR CHARLES D1LKE
Copyright 1S00 Die Sim Irinttng anil PuMtrlitna IwKialion
editor has asked me to write
upon the military progress of the
THE
century but It Is doubt Till how
far een If as Chilians we get
ocr our natu al dislike of talking
military change as progress there has
been an considerable advance In the
larger asjvects of science vvlthln
the century The genius of Bonaparte
working upon tin foundations laid b
Frederick the Great established a cen
tury ago principles nhiili are essentially
applicable to the military matters of the
present day and athnuf i i i scenllfic
developments of artil rv muskctr
have affected the ilisno f battle
fields the essential principles of the art
of preparation for war and of strategy
stand where the Ftood before
Scharnhorst vas the Prussian officer
who began to reduce the Napoleonic mlll
tarj system to rules applicable to the use
of German armies Under Bonaiiartc the
whole management of the army was too
often concentrated in the hands of the
man of genius ard the actual method of
Napoleon hod the defect that failing the
man of genius at the head of the army
it broke down The main change made by
the Germans who followed Scharnhorst
In the course of the century has been to
codify the Napoleonic sjstem so that it
was possible to more generally decentral
ize In practice without Impairing Its es
sence They have also established a di
vision of its supply department under a
Minister of War from the brain of the
arm as Sir Spenser Wilkinson has well
called it which manages the preparation
for tho strategy of war and the strategy
itself These so called Prussian prin
ciples of decentralization and Initiative
are however not new and not Prussian
and may be discoered In the conversa
tions of Napoleon Bonaparte The Trench
In 1S70 had forgotten his teaching and the
Germans had retained It It Is neverthe
less the case that the number of men
placed In the field b the military powers
having Increased the intelligent initiative
of corps commanders and even of gen
erals commanding divisions has become
the more essential It Is Impossible that
the great general taff can give orders in
advance which will cover the responsibil
ity of all the Inferior generals and brains
have to be added in all ranks to obedience
The commander-in-chief in the field can
not with advantage drown himself in de
tails and he can only provide in his or
tiers an outline sketch which his subordi
nates in various parts of the field of oper
ations have to fill in The Initiative of
subordinates is but the nitural division
of labor
If the editor has called on mc a civilian
student of military politics rather than on
a military expert it must be because he
desires to bring largely Into the account
the changes In military organization
which on the Continent of Europe have
made It permanently national and which
In the United States made it temporarily
national during the civil war and would
make It so again In the event of any fresh
struggle on a great scale In which the
North American continent might become
Involved
Although the armed nation has re
placed In France Germany Switzerland
Austria Hungary Italy Itoumanla and
Bulgaria the smaller professional armies
of the eighteenth sentury the popular be
lief that the numerical strength of field
armies has enormously Increased Is not
ro competcly wen founded as at first sight
might be supposed It is true that each
nation can put into the entire field of war
far larger numers than that nation could
put Into the field a century ago But it Is
Etill not bevond the bounds of possibility
tt t in certain cases small armies ma
I njjuci results as remarkable as those
wh h attended British operations in the
Xc lb in the early part of the nine
ty nth century and on the other hand
aitltnigh there wIlL upuir the whole In
future Continental wars lie latger armies
In the field no one general is likely per
son ill to hande or to place upon a field
of b ittle a larger army than that with
which Napoleon traversed Europe before
h invaded Russia
The principles of pure military science
as set forth In books have not lieen great
1 changed during the nineteenth century
The Prussian lauscwitz only explained
fur us the doctrines of Bonaparte nd
latest w rlters such as the Frenchmen
Dirrec3galx and Eewal only continue
Clauscwilz The theorj of the armed na
tion has received extension but after all
the Prussian system in its essentials dates
from Jena and the steps b which It has
produced the admirable existing armies of
France Austria and Itoumanla have been
but slow
The United States stand apart Their
resources are so fabulously great that they
and the alone are able to wait for war
before making war preparations No
Power will attack the United Stales All
Powers will submit to man things and
leld man strong points rather than light
the United Stutes The onl territorial
neighbors of the Republic arc not only
not In a position to enter Into military
rlvalr with her on the American con
tinent but are not advancing their mill
tar establishments with the growth of
their or of he population The arc of
themselves not only unable to attack but
equally unable In the long run effectively
to resist her
The whole question then unfortunately
for us Europeans Is a European ques
tion and I need make but little reference
to happier lands across the greater seas
In Europe the United Kingdom stands
absolutely apart Tho existence of the
British Empire depends less upon our
armies than on our fleet India is gar
risoned b a small but costly army suffi
cient for present needs but Insufficient
to meet tbeir probable growth The home
army kept malnlj In England and Ireland
and In Ireland now only because life Is
cheap In Ireland and the country healthy
and well fitted for the drill and discipline
of troops has been chlcfl a nursery for
the white army In India and will be for
that In South Africa and in India The
expeditions which the country is obliged
to send from time to time across the seas
have but a domestic Interest and are un
important when viewed from a worldwide
military standpoint In the event of war
the attention of the country would le con
centrated upon her fleets with 1 view to
retain that command of the sea vUhout
which her old fashioned arm would be
useless
Belgium has an old fashioned armv of
another tpe A small force of conscripts
Is drawn and the men ore allowed to
find substitutes for mone But Belgium
and the other smaller Powers except
Switzerland Itoumanla and Bulgaria
may be neglected In our survey Switzer
land has developed an excellent arm of
a special local tpe a cheap but highly
efficient militia the most Interesting point
about which is that while field artillery
Is supposed to be difficult of creation and
only to be obtained upon a costly and
regular system Switzerland produces an
excellent field artillery upon a militia foot
ing The garrison artillery militia of Great
Britain have longer training than the field
artillery of the Swiss Federation but the
results of the training are very different
Similarly while cavalry Is supposed to be
in the same position as artillery In these
matters Hungary produces a good cavalr
upon a militia system It Is however to
the native army in India that we have to
turn If we want to see what long service
cavalry In past centuries used to be for
in these das of shorter service cavalry
at least has suffered a decline and no far
from cavalr on the whole presenting us
with a picture of military progress In the
century the cavalry of the present day Is
not to be compared with the cavalr of
the past Itoumanla and Bulgaria al
though small countries have remarkable
armies of the most modern type of great
strength when considered proportionately
to their populations but these need not
come under our examination because sub
stantially they are on the Prussian plan
Russia differs from Germany France
and Austria in having an Immense peace
army Her peace army Is Indeed as large
as that of the whole of the Triple Alli
ance and the enormous distances of Rus
sia and the difficulties of mobilization and
concentration force her into the retention
and development of a ptem which Is now
peculiar tn herself The armies of Russia
resemble more coely although on a far
larger scale the old armies of the time
before the changes which followed 1SW
than the French German and Austrian
armies of toda Ital Is decreasing her
arm and has len driven by her finan
cial straits to completely simll a system
which was never good except on paper
It Is doubtful whether now In a sudden
war the Italians could put Into the field
any thorough good troops except their
Alpine battalions which arc equal to
those of the Trench The Austrian sys
tem does not differ sufficiently from tnat
of Germany and of France to be worth
f pecinl note although It ma be sdii n
pacing that the Austrian arm Is now-
quite likely tint you are Interested In
many matters regarding the fort and tho
part it has in American history
The life the officers
lead even the monoto
ny of it appeals to your interest anl vou
would llko to hear all about It but iijey
fall to appreciate this fact and back again
they bring ou to the Ute Indian the only
evening and every day matinee plaing at
Fort Dachesne nhen ou hear the stories
toM of him vouched for tco by officers
of the United States and their wives
The v omen cling tenaciously to the
love story of the old Indian that more
than twenty ears ayo when the Utea
were a powerful nation he wob a Oung
brave who had won some reputation He
started out afterward to tho eastward on
a trip across the Wind River range
While there he met a joung woman of the
Banrock tribe Of course It was love
at first sight on the part of the yojng
Ute brave but tho oung Bannock wom
an did not feel tho same way about it
So the Ute Indian went to the mediilnc
man and received a love powder and
with this hung about his neck he wooed
anfl won the maiden that la he thought
he had won her Strors in his belief
he returned to tho wigwams of tip o n
tribe and told of his beautiful bride
Afterward he Kct out apaln promising
to bring his brldo Some time afterward
he came back but he was alone Then it
was learned that lie had gone to tho Ban
nocks only to find his promised bride in
the wigwam of another Upon his return
to his village he made a great oath that
ho vrould not cover himself or speak a
word for mere than tvtnty summers
Salng this he left the village nnd going
to the outskirts lay down on the bare
ground Before llng down he stripped off
all his rlnlhlng Slnco thai time he Ins
continued to lie there through the rains
considered by competent observers to be
excellent We may take as our tpe of
the armies of today those of German and
of- France These armies are also normal
as regards their cot Great Britain hav
ing no conscription and being In the habit
of paying dearly for all services Is ex
travagant in her mllltar expenditure for
the results obtained Switzerland and
Russia with their different systems and
for different reasons obtain their armies
vtry cheapls and if we wish to know the
rost of the modern military system It is
to Germany and tn France that we should
turn
Those who would study the French or
German arm for themselves will find a
large literature on the subject The prin
ciples which govern the establishment of
an armed nation upon tho modern Prus
sian scale Improved after the experiences
of lGfi and again after those of 1S70 are
explained In the work of Von dcr Goltz
The Nation In Arms Those who would
follow thej principles Into thilr detailed
application ami see how the armies are
divided Between and nourished and sup
plied from the military districts of one of
the great countries will find the facts set
forth In such publications as the Illus
trated Annul of the French Arm
published each ear b Plon Nourrlt et
Cle or In the official Inndbooks published
b the LIbralrie Mllltairc 3audoIn
In the time of Bonaparte and even in th
tjine of the Second Empire in France
army corps were of varlng strength and
there was no certain knowledge on the
part of administrators less admirable than
the first Napoleon himself of the exact
numbers of men who could be placed In
the field In 1S70 Louis Napoleon was
wholl misinformed as to his own strength
and as to that of his opponents which
were however accurately known to Von
Moltke In these das such confusions
and difficulties are Impossible The arm
corps of the great mllltar powers are of
equal strength and would bo equall re
enforced in the extraordinarily rapid mo
bilization which would Immediate pre
cede and immedlatel follow a declaration
of war The chief changes In the centurv
have ccn a greater exactitude in these
respects a general increase of number
esfiecially a great increase in tho
strength of field artlller and In these
last cars a grouping of the army corps
Into armies which exist In Germany
Trance and Russia even in time of peace
with all their generals and staffs mmed
ready for war In each of the great mlll
tar countries the army Is guided b the
counsel of a general staff Around the
chief of the staff and the Minister of War
are the generals of armies and In
France a potential generalissimo who on
the outbreak of war would often lie super
seded by another general in the actual
command In the case of Germany the
command wouU now be exercised b the
young Emperor In the case of France It
would be exercised by the generalissimo
with the chief of the staff as his ber
thier or major general Enormously Im
portant duties In the case of armies so
unwieldy as the entire forces of the first
line and of the second line in Germany or
France and of the first line In Russia
would lie exercised by the generals of
armies These generals In time of peace
are called Inspectors of armies In
France German and Austria and they
inspect groups of army corps which would
be united In war to form the armies which
these generrls would actually command
These generals also form the council of
war or principal promotion board and
committee of advice for the generalls dmo
and chief of the staff In German and
In Austria Hungary the German Enperor
and the Emperor King respectively are
virtual general of the
whole army but In France and In Russia
there Is less unity of command The Min
ister of War In Russia In Germany and
In France Is Intended to be at the head
of the supplies of the army In time of war
directing the administration from the
capltalandnot taking his place in tho field
The Prussian si stem as far as the men
are concerned 103 adopted after the dis
asters of Prussia early In the centur In
order to piss great numbers of men
through the ranks without attracting at
tention by keeping up a large peace army
The system Is now maintained by Ger
many Austria and France for a different
reason Such Powers desire to have an
enormous force for war but fur budget
ary reasons to keep the flag In time
of eaco the smallest force which Is con
sistent with training the men sufficiently
to enable them upon mobilization to be
brought back to their regiments as real
soldiers It is these considerations which
have Induced the nunger and rrirc
thoughtful of the Prussian generals to
force on German a reduction of the pe
rlad of Infantr service to two cars The
army In time of peace becomes a mere
training school for war and the service
is made as short as possible given the
necessitv of turning out u man who for
some ears will continue to have the
traditions of a soldier It Is a question
whether something lias not been sacri
ficed In France at all events to uniform
It A longer period of training is uji
doubtedl ncccsar to make an efficient
cavalrv soldier than Is necessary to make
an efficient Infantry private and a man
who has served about two and a half
eais only In a cavalry regiment cannot
in the majority of cases be brought back
Into the cavalry after he has returned to
civil life Cavalry In the modern armies
of summer and tho snows of winter and
this for a space of more than twenty
years
Of course these are only bare facts anJ
not told at all as the women ofthe fort
will relate the sad romance They add
rosy sunsets and bring tho Ute Indian
m iHywr
THE TIMES WASHINGTON SUNDAY FEBRUARY 21 1901
ls likely In lie a diminishing force as -war
goes on The armies will enter upon war
with a number of Infantry which can lie
kept up the losses of war being supplied
b reserve men as good as the men of the
first but each army will enter upon
war with a force of cavajry which will
be rapidly destroed If It Is much used
and which will not be replaced In the
same marner The reserve cavalry of
which the French pres boasts Is a paper
force and the pretended mobilization of
two of its regiments a farce Tho French
would take the field with the cavalry of
the first line only seventy nine regiments
of Dfx horses all over six ears old or
less than halt the SI000 cavalry with
which Napoleon marched In 1SI2 The
same thing might possibly be said of ar
tillery as Is said of cavalr but for the
fact that Switzerland tells a different
story as to the possibility of rapidly train
ing artlller men with a considerable meas
ure of success The French improvised
artillery of the latter part of the war of
1S70 were also 1 creditable force while It
was discovered to be Impossible to crcato
a cavalry
The efficiency of the reserves in France
German ami Austria Is tested b tho
calling out of large portions of them every
car for training and they are found as
far as the Infantry go thoroughly com
petent for the work of war The diffi
culties as regards cavalry are so obvious
that it Is becoming more and more recog
nized by Germany and by France that
the cavalry will have to take the field as
they stand In peace and that their re
serve men will have to be kept back with
a view to the selection among them of
those who are tit to serve as cavalry and
the relegation of the greater number to
the train and other services where ability
to ride and manage horses Is more neces
sary than the smartness of n good cav
alr man France and German nominal
ly look forward to the creation of two
kinds of armlet In time of war one of the
fir it line to take the field at once and
thi other to guard the communications
and garrison and support the fortresses
but In fact It Is the Intention of these
Powers to divide their armies Into three
a field army of the first line a field army
army corps will at once be created on the
outbreak of war and thirdly a terri
torial army for communications and for
fortress purposes and is a last resei ve
It Is a portion of the French and German
system that each army corps of the firs
line and the ame vould be the case In
war with the second line corps has Its
separate organization of ammunition train
and baggage train and draws as largely as
possible Its supplies from Its own terri
torial district
The peace strength of the great modern
armies Is for France and German about
Z6VX men each and the war strength
between i 009000 and 3000000 men each
The peace strength of Russia Is now over
S000 men Ot the war armies the train
ing Is not uniformly complete but thfe
are in German France Austria and
Roumania sufficient reserves of clothlni
and rifles to equip the war armies of tho sc
Powers for the field
The cost of the Sstem of a modern
arm Is very much less than that of the
old fashioned armies The United King
dom soent till lately including loan
money about jC1Sooi0OO upon her army
India rarely less than 14000000 and an
average of 13Cj 00O and the British
Empire outside the United Kingdom and
India 20GOOnn or an average nf 31
In nil upon land forces The ex
penditure of the United Kingdom upon
land forces has been permanently in
creased to an enormous extent by the
South African war and cannot now ixs
estimated The expenditure of France
and Gerrtany upon land forces is greatly
less and cf Russia large as is her peace
army less again But Trance and Ger
many in the went of war can Immedi
ately each nf them place millions of
armed men In the field in proper armv
formation and with adequate command
whereas the United Kingdom can place a
doubtful three corps In the field In Indlu
with great difficulty and in the true sense
of the word no organized force at alt at
home without an incredible amount of re
organization and wato of time after the
declaration ot war It Is contended b the
authorities responlbe for the British
army that two army corps could be placed
in the field at home and elaborate paper
arrangements exist for this purpose but
the facts are as I state them and not as
they arc professed to be It Is pretended
that three corns of regular were de
spatched to South Africa But the cav
alr and artillery were In fact created by
lavish expenditure a long time after the
wur had begun and after disasters caused
b their non existence
Centralized as Is the administrative
sstem of France and Germai In every
thing except war the necessities of mod
ern warfare have forced upon the G01
of those countries a largo
amount of decentralization as concerns
military matters and the Ies efficient
military machines of the Unltec1 Kingdom
and of Russia are far more centralized
than are the moro elllrlent machines of
Germany and of France The arm corps
districts have In the latter countries so
much autonomy as to recall to the political
student the federal organization of the
Fnltcd States rather than the government
of a highly centralized modern Power As
soon however as war breaks out the
saddened and weary across the mounlainiil Indians themselves they are very rcti
on his homeward trill They are given
to raaklim little philosophical interpola
tions as well which are mostly to the
As for his silence there Is no question but
that the man Is insane Tho men of the
post are almost to a man of the opinion
that the Indian killed his parents nnd In
stantly went Insane and took his present
method of torture to try and appease the
anger of the Great Spirit As for the Ute
cent and refuse to be Interviewed as to
details
At any rate the lone naked silent In
feet that the Ute Indians tell only one itin continues to be the gnat at-
slde of the story uiil that there Is mora
than likely a Bannock side Perhaps the
poor girl heard something suggested one
of the story tellers
That would explain any tragedy re
narltcd one of the officers sarcastically
Dont mind him replied one ot fhe
officers wives hes so dlslnterestlngly
good that no woman could make any event
of his life entertaining enough to ell
which proves that ou can find repartee
and plenty of the best of It In a Western
arm post
Just outside a stockade this remarkable
Indian lies on the bare ground without
any covering Captain Gullfoyle and many
of the officers Including tho post surgeon
nre quite at a loss to make any possible
explanations of the way this man has liv
ed for so many years without exerclie cr
protection In appearance he Is most dis
pleasing His long hair and beard are
matted with dirt and he lias actually worn
a small trench in the ground from simply
llng there
Tlmo and again at cl times of the day
and night attempts have been mado to find
that he has wandered from his little shack
or covered his body with clothing but
these attempts have all been futile
Medical experts have carefully examined
the Indian and are entirely unable to ac
cot t for the way In which lie b lived
fraction at Fort Duchesne
The A ondern of Pent
Krom the London LcKure Hour
Herr Zschorncr of Vienna has been
experimenting with peat fur twelve ears
and has shown very conclusively that It
has many astonishing qualities In Ire
land in particular this Intelligence
should be welcomed A building has been
exhibited in which everything from the
carpets on the floor to the curtains on the
windows and the paper on the walls was
made from peat The fibres of the re
mains of the reeds and grafses of which
peat is composed have of course their
original physical and chemical characters
ehaneed but the fibrous structure remains
intact and the fibres- therciielvcs are very
durable elastic and non condui tors of
heat Fabrics woven from them are found
to have the toughness of linen with the
warmth of wool There is no textile
fabric that cannot be woven frum these
fibres Blankets and other coverings used
for horses and cattle have been found In
use to excel In warmth and cleanliness
Paper of several qualities has been made
and the uses to which peat fibre has al
ready been applied indicate possibilities
that may reudwr the peat bogs of Ireland
a valuable addition to the resources of
that country
rir
Ir in Hi
Hir if nun l
enail
Iui ill t n au
t wtf 1
11 4iieetiiii
In iro
r j id ti
rt Irltti llic pi
military Stntes of time of peace would be
grouped and the four or fivo groups
known as armies also of course the
oretically brought together under the di
recting ee of tho generalissimo In the
case at all events of Germany unity of
direction Is perfectly combined with de
centralization and Individual Initiative
The mode In which a modern army on
the anticipation of war prepares Itself for
the field Is extraordinarily rapid In point
of time as compared with the mode found
necessary In the time of Napoleon Bona
parte and It is this rapidity of mobiliza
tion nnd concentration which strikes the
observer as the greatest change or prog
ress of the century In connection with
armies But it Is a mere consequence of
railroads and telegraphs and Is only the
application to military purposes of those
increased facilities of locomotion which
have plaed so great a part In the prog
ress of the century Mobilization is of
course the union at points fixed before
hand of the men of tho reserves who
bring the army up to its war footing and
the clothing and equipment of these men
and the distribution to the mobilized
regiments of their full materials of war
The cavalry nnd horse artillery kept upon
the frontier are now In a condition of
permanent readiness in the principal mlll
tar countries as they would be used to
cover the mobilization of the remainder
of the army The moment mobilization is
accomplished concentration takes place
on the frontier In the case of the principal
Powers Near the line of concentration
are forts which play a greater part In
the French scheme of defence than they
do In tho German The French in th
d iys of their weakness after 1S70 both
constructed a line of entrenched camps
and built a kI11I or wall of China along
the most exposed portion of their eastern
frontier whereas the Germans are pre
pared to rely upon their field armies sup
ported by a few Immense fortresses such
as those on their western frontier of
Metz and Strasburg The French keep In
front of their fortresses at Nancy a strong
division which Is virtually alwaS on a
war footing and both In France and Ger
many the frontier corps are at a higher
peace strength than those of the Interior
of tho second fine out of which fresh and are meant to take the Held at once so
as to help the cavalr and horse artillery
to protect the mobilization and concen
tration of the remainder and If possible
to disturb the mobilization and concentra
tion of the foe Those who would study
modern armies for themselves should lit
Nancy nnd Metzbut should not neglect
the Swiss annual maneuvres
The -work of the recruit of Germany and
of Trance during his two ears or nearly
three cars training as the case may be
Is as hard as any human work and tho
populations of the Continental countries
submit not on tl e whole unwilling from
patriotic motives to 11 slavery of which
the more fortunate Inhabitants of the
United Kingdom and of the United
States have no conception The
British or the Belsian paid recruit would
mutiny if forced to work as works the
vlrtuall unpaid and Ill fed recruit of Rus
sia Germany Austria and France The
enormous lofs to many industries which
Is caused by the withdrawal of the men
at the age of twent just when they are
most apt to become skilled workmen is
In the opinion of some Germans compen
sated for by the habit of discipline and
the moral tone of stiffness and endurance
wnlch Is communicated to the soldier for
the rest of his life TMs Is perhaps more
true of the German character than It Is of
the inhabitants of the other countries and
in Frarce at least the soldier training of
the entire population is a heavy drawback
to industrial and to intellectual life The e
are however as will be seen In the con
cluding pas age of this article other con
siderations to be taken Into account some
of which tell the other way
The one successful exception to the
prevailing military sstem of the day Is
to be found In Switzerland which has a
very cheap army of the militia type out
one which is nevertheless pronounced ef
ficient by the best judges The mobiliza
tion of Switzerland In 1179 was more rapid
than that of either Germany or France
and great -as are the strides that both
France and Germany have made in rapid
ity of organization and as regards num
bers since 170 the Sws also have reor
ganized their mobilization system since
that time and arc still able at a much
les proportional cost to place In the field
at least as large a proportional force as
German and this force Is believed to bo
efficient although not lursely provided
with cavalry-
The greatest change in the battlefields
of the future as compared with those of a
few enrs ago will be found In the de
velopment and Increased strength of the
artlller A modern army when It takes
up a position has miles of front almost
entirely occupied with guns and the guns
have to fire over the Infantry because
there is no room for such numbers of
guns to be used In an other way The
attacking side If both Indeed In one
form or another do not attempt attack
will bo chiefly occupied in obtaining posi
tions on which to place its guns and the
repeating rille itself deadl as Is its fire
cannot contend at ranges over 1000 ards
unless the riflemen are beavil entrenched
witli the improved shrapnel fire of mod
ern guns The carl engagements of a
war will indeed be engagements of cav
alry massed upon the frontier on the sec
ond da of mobilization so rapid will the
RENT DAY AND THE PAWNSHOP
A Hi Business Dime the Inst of the
Month In New 1 fir
To the man behind a pawnshop coun
ter the last days 01 a month afford pe
culiar opportunities o studyiug Fast Side
economics says the New York Evening
Post In the district from the Bowery to
the East Itiver there averages at all times
one outstanding pawntlcl t for every head
of population Toward the middle of tho
month the proportion is somewhat less
but at the end it is nuch greater The
ebb and iow Is regular rent day belug
the tidal Iiilluenco Saturda and Monday
see the rising aud falling of lesser tides
but It remains fcr the month end to set
the great current pawnshopwards More
articles are pledged on Januar 31 than on
the first three das of February
Every pawnbroker has his regular cus
tomers A man without an overcoat comes
In his coat collar his onl collar turned
up about his rer celt nnd his hands
thrust fir don itio his pockets Under
ltts arm he has a bundle wrapped in a
newspaper which unrolled on the coun
ter dlplas an old sealctte coat a
tablecloth and tome cf his own more in
timate wearing apparel
He wouldnt wait ho saS rather
mom fully I told him that it was too
lilaiutil cold to go 01 1 soakin stuff to
day and wed square up when the wife
gets her scrub monev Wednesday next
But notliln d do him He wanted it to
day and hed got to get It
That a what answers the pawnbrok
er cheerfully wovo all got to get It
ivery time How much do ou want
Well were only a dollar shy but
make it one fifty and thatll give us
something to go on
The broker reflects tappim on the
counter Lets see what have I got of
vour now Notliln but m ov rcoat
But ou e safe all ngat for I only had
one llfiy en tliai
The lollatcral security Is apparently
fgPIPI
opening of war In the future be This
cavalry will be accompnnlcd by horse ar
tillery and followed by light infantry con
stantly practiced In rapid marching In
time of peace or by mounted Infantry
But the great battlefields of the later
weeks will be battlefields above all of ar
tillery The numbers engaged will be so
great that the heaviest of all tho re
sponsibilities of the generals will be the
feeding of their troops during the battles
prolonged during rcveral days which will
probably occur and It Is doubtful how far
the old generals cften grown unwieldy In
time of peace will be able to stand the
daily and nightly strain of war Jomtnl
has said that when both sides are equally
strong In numbers in courage and in
many other elements of force the great
tragedy ot Borodino Is the typical battle
Lewal lias pointed out that In tho battles
of the future such equality must be ex
pected The battle will liegln on the out
break of war In the operations ot the
frontier regiments The great masses as
they come to the field will pour Into 1
fight already raging The bxttle wtll be
Immense and prolonged Promotion will
probably lie rapid among- the generals
awing to Incompetence and retirement
and certainly among other officers owing
to their exposure In these das of smoke
less powder when good shots can pick off
officers In a manner unknown In wars
which Tiave hitherto occurred Whethe
it will be possible to get armies to ad
vance under heavy fire after the officers
have been killed Is doubtful when we re
member that modern armies consist ot
the whole population cowards and brave
men alike and that regimental cohesion
Is weakened by the- sudden Infusion of an
overwhelming proportion of reserve men
at the last moment Orrthc other hand
in the German army the reserve men will
be fewer In the first line than In the
French nnd the regimental Hjslcra more
available in the field while on the French
side the greater military aptitude of the
French face may perhaps be counted upon
to remedy the comparative defect Th
Prussians make up forTKe inferior mili
tary aptitude of the German people by
patriotism discipline andthe conferring
of honor and of civil employment In after
life on nil who do their duty In war They
alo provide more effectively than do the
French against Incapacit in high place
Above all however we should attach Im
portance to the wisdom of successive
Kings of Prussia in treating- the Prussi in
arm an an almost sacred Institution and
In constantly working In time of peace
to make It and keep It a perfect instru
ment or vrar
The weakest point relatlvcl speaking
In the French organization and the
strongest point relatively speaking In
the German Is the officerln of the second
and third line The one year volunteer
sstetn gives the Germans excellent ter
ritorial officers while the French have
been forced virtually to abolish It as Im
possible of successful application In a
country so jealous of privilege as Is mod
ern France The territorial infantry regi
ments of France would be excellent for
the defence of fortresses but would for
field purposes be Inferior to that part ot
the Prussian landwehr which would re
main over after the completion of the re
serve corps The reserve cavalry regi
ments of France have been created In or
der to provide promotion and sinecure ap
pointments and would not produce a cav
alry fit for true cavalry service in the
limits of ths article to explain how It is
that the Trench could create a field ar
tlller of the second line In time of war
which would probably be superior to tnat
of Germany This forms a set off against
some other Inferiority of the French
The newest point In the development of
modern armies Is the recent separation in
centur we have seen the chanse from the
smoothbore to the rifle and from the
ordinary to the repeating rife We have
seen the modifications of artillery which j
good and the red necked man gets the
extra fifty cents Wife keep well he
Is asked as he Is departing And hows
Mosey I havent seen him ct this
month
Oh hell be in soiae time this mortiln
He want3 to raise two tifty on a pair ot
quilts aud some kitchen tins He goes
out chuckling
An old woman Is already waiting to take
his place She has brought her car rings
big gold pendants of Dublin pattern which
are evidently old acquaintances of the
pawnbroker Indade now and I thought
Id never have to bo callm on ye this
time but the wife of the man I wash for
Choosda took sick a Manda So be
gins the prelude of a long narrative When
she finally backs away with her dollar
three others are pressing for their turn
They are all eas -minded chatty and
jovial Pawning with them has become a
rather pleasant business transaction it
has almost the nature of a social call
Another patron come In He 13 a Jew
with his wifes diamond ring Same as
before asks the banker almost with
out lool Ing at It Dten a He gets it
and after carefully folding the bills Into
his wallet shuffles rapidly off about his
business
Diamonds are always good says the
pawnbroker Theyre a sort of Ghetto
mone Weve had some In and out o
here every month for a year Aud often
a Jew doesnt drop off our list when hes
really enough ahead to let his wife hold
on to her first diamonds He Just keeps
on salting his savings down in more and
when he fiuds himself pushed 3 awns
them Of course by and by he com to
see that the Interest on his earnnis Is
being paid the wrong wa and decides
to trust the savings bank and o we loso
him But there are always lots ot others
to take his place
A good deal of this stuff a 111 ba taken
out again the eed of next week com
mfnted the broker and some of It on
Saturday Half of t would never come
heie at all it a go J o the
East Side didnt n e i as ihc tiu and
natural thing to bo al - a 1 ii b lad
P
wpppif
marlno torpedo boats Our machine guns
are not thought much more ot by most
Prussians than the steam gun of Kit
ridiculed by Dickens In Martin Chuzzla
wl If great change was to have been
made In tho art of war by modern weap
ons one would have thought that the first
things to disappear would bo alt vestlea
of protective armor and the use ot cavalry
in the field Yet protective armor has
been recently restored to as large a pro
portion of many armies as usvl It In tha
wars of the beginning of tho ontury and
the use of cavalry In tho field s defended
as still possible by all tho highest au
thorities on the Continent My own opin
ion on such matters Is that of a layman
and should be worthless but tt agrees
with that of several distinguished mlll
tar writers- A confess that I doubt
whether In future wars between good
armies such as those ot Franco and Ger
many It -will bo possible to employ cav
alry on the field of battle and I go so
fax as to think that the direct offensive
still believed In by the Prussians will bo
found to have become too costly to bo
possible Our South African experienco
Is not however regarded by Continental
authorities as conclusive
The author ot Ironclads in Action Mr
Wilson who has made a very thorough
study of the future ot naval war has
pointed out with great force the most
striking of difficulties of war In the fu
ture as caused by the enormous concen
tration of forces In a particular tract ot
country The result of that concentration
must be great difficulties about supply
prolonged battles of an Indecisive kind
leading to exposure absence of sleep and
to conditions which would form the sever
est strain for professional men of war
while those who wllf now be subject to
them will be the ordinary population not
very specially warriors except so far as
patriotsm may In some cases make up as
regards courage and endurance for ab
sence of military tradition The vast num
ber of wounded will be exposed for longer
periods than was the case In many of the
earlier wars but when we remember Iep
sic and Dresden and the retreat from
Moscow It is again easy to see that the
change is rather In the direction of gen
eralization of conditions which were for
mer exceptional than a change to con
ditions wholly without precedent
I have all through this article written
of Germany and France as the modern
military courtrles to be taken as a stan
dard in all comparisons Tho French have
imitated the Germans very closely since
the war of 1573 But although imitation
Is generally feeble It must always bo
borne la mind that the F ench people have
greater military aptitude than the Ger
man and that unless beaten at the be
ginnlrg of a war they are always In the
highest degree formidable The perfection
of svstem is to be found In Germany and
the peculiarities of the German system
are the combination of enlightened pa
triotism in all its individuality with iron
discipline The sstem Is so sres that
unless well rnariaged tt would crush out
Individual responsibility but the system
itself encourages this Individual responsi
bility all down the gradations of the army
to the humblest non commissioned officer
and even to the detached private The
universality ot promotion by a certain
high standard of merit and the absence ot
Jobbery are more thoroughly obtained In
Germany than In any other army and
Lord Wolseleys criticisms on the 1S3S
field It would carry us yord the proper maneurres of our own army criticism
rrwefi In 3 90 In which lie told us that
no one had ione well In the field and
that this proved that no one could have
done his duty during the past year would
be Impossible In Germany and must have
bnfVpd military opinion throughout that
country
It Is not unusual tn assume that the
the German army of the cavalry Intended enormous military establishments of the
for patrol duties from the cavalry Intend- j Continent ot Europe are an almost un
ed for fighting In the field We have had mixes evil But this may perhaps be dis
to face the same problem in South Africa puted on two grounds In some cases
but this condition of our war wa3 peculiar such -as that of Italy the army acts as a
It has been said that the hlstorv of war- und of rough national university In which
fare Is the history of the struggle among the varied life of districts often discord
weapons and that each change in tactics ant is fused Into a patriotic whole dialects
and even In strateg has come from sclen J are forgotten and a common language
tlfic change affecting weapons In tho
learned In the case of France the new
military sstem is a powerful engine of
democracy There is a French prince not
of the blood serving at this moment In a
squad of which the corporal is a oung
are beginning to give an application of 1 peasant from the same department A
the qnick flring principle to field artillery I few years ago I found the Due de Lu nes
and tfic us of high explosive shells like- J who is also Due de Chaulnes arid Due di
ly to affect by their explosion even those
who are near the bursting shell and who
are not struck by its fragments Smoke
less powder has altered the look of bat
tles and has reduced their noise It pro
vides excuse for the incompetent It would
be easy however to exaggerate the im
portance of these changes as regards tac
tics and still more with regard to strat
egy while with tattles we are not hero
concerned The great Continental mili
tary nations have hitherto not allowed
themselves to be much affected by the
changes in the weapons and many of the
modern fads which are adopted In small
armies are condemned by the leaders of
these c -eat forces The British machine
guns for example like Brilisn mounted
Infantr are generill regarded on the
Continent as a fancy of our own All na
tions have their military fads except per
haps the severely practical Germans
Russia has its dragoon organization from
which it is recding America has her
dnamite gun the French have their
Chevreuse the owner of Dampierre the
rersonal friend of kings serving by his
own wish for as the eldest son of a
widow he was exempt as a private of
dragoons and respectfully saluting young
officers some of whom wee his own ten
ants The modern military sstem of the
Continent in the case of France and Ger
man at least may also I think be shown
to have told In favor of peace It Is pos
sible for us to occasional demand a war
with the greater freedom because we de
not a a rule know what war means
Those ot us who have seen something of
It with our own eyes are a very smalt
minority But every Inhabitant of France
and Germany has the reality of war
brought home to him with the knowledge
that those of his own kin would have tn
furnish their tribute of cannon llesh as
the French and Germans call it at the
outbreak of any war and the influence
of the whole of the women of both coun
tries Is jxiwerfully exerted In consequence
upon the side of peace
on rent day If they found thenslves
getting ahead anv thed start looking for
a new way to blow It in
Throughout all tho bargaining ot the
morning it may be frankly said that there
was no Incident which could be called pa
tm tic The articles pledged were merel
so much negotiable propert
UviiiIiiK Dress in aii Frnnelseo
Irom the Arzaiuuc
A unique edict regarding the proper
dress for an evening function has beeu
sent out by the First Friday Cotillon Club
of this city It sas The standard of
dress of the Tint Friday Cotillon is what
Is local known as full
dress being encouraged and a
army or naval officers ordinary uniform
allowed and Inasmuch as the term Is va
rlousl interpreted the club deems It best
to stisle In advance Hs construction with
a desire to prevent any possible surprise or
uupltasartness Wo hold the term even
tng dress to mean For gentlemen whole
suit of solid black frock coat or cutaway
wh te Iucn white bow tie For lady en
tire gown of homogeneous material deli
cate In tint aud texture though not neces
sarily worn en tran or decollete Gowns
of heavy shadp should bo pronouncedly
evening in other respects Any doubt as
to conformance with the above standard
will b deciced against the individual and
in favor of the club at large Chaperons
wishing seats In tho parlor or on the low
er floor will be expected to remove their
hats Tull dress encouraged ovenins
dress required In explaining the objeit
of this notice1 James G Jones the organ
iser of the club said It was issued fer
the guidanc of members many of whom
might not know exactly what was meant
by tho term evening dress 0ur3 Is a
middle coes club and it U tto desire ct
mjself and the other active spirits to edu
cate the middle class in correct social
usages We try to have only hlch ctasi
music at our functions no rag time or
cheap and wo discourage all light
holding and unseemly Ianclng Th s hint
regaruing irrect m 3 was 3cnt to edu
cata lie of n b 0 nght not
uulc tand the cor et thins

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