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The times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, March 03, 1901, Second Part, Image 15

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rletics of practice which find their reflec
tion in similar variety in the sizes and
numbers of the rapld flre guns to whose
penetrative force there is a corresponding
thickness of armor For example two
battleships now 1S97 building for the
United States Navy have four 13 lnch Runs
In turrets and in broadside fourteen 5
lnch twenty C pounder and six 1 pounder
rapld llre puns between the two classes
they have four S inch guns also mounted
In smaller turret superimposed on the
main turrets A ship since designed will
have the same 13 Inch gun fire but in
place of the S inch and 5 inch will hava
fourteen C lnch rapld llre guns An expert
officer discussing these says In the
former the weight of fire per minute is
20C0 pounds on the broadside and oOO
while with the latter plan
ahe d or astern
It is onlv 1750 on the broadside and 509
ahead and astern Hut the main objection
to the second plan Is that the volume of
diminished bv
effective Are is enormously
the omission of S Inch guns The larger
area covered with their armor is fairly
safe from the C lnch ifun at fighMng
ranges whereas the 8 inch projectile at
any ranee and at even a considerable an
gle of incidence will penetrate ItV In the
Judgment of the present writer the weight
of this argument Jepenas upon wnn
behind the armor which the S lnch only
will penetrate If battery and men it is
strong if not decisive If motive power
only not
The object of this paper as been not to
accumulation of details but to
present an
elucidate the principles upon which the
detail- rest The latter when correct are
to prac
but the application of principles
the Imperfections
tice Subject to
ant on all human work the writer Is per
suaded that the greatest errors in practice
-and especially the lack of homogeneous
ncss which characterizes the present
chiefly from the failure to
rntll war has
refer back to principles
given us the abundant experience which
the broadside 71 as
led our predecessors to
the rule with occasional exceptions we
alone for the
must depend upon
solution of our problems and the reasoner
keeps within the limits of safety only by
constant reference to fundamental facts
The one experience of war which ships
reallv contemporary have had was in the
battle of the Yalu Its teachings lose
some value from the fact that the well
drilled Japanese used their weapons to ad
vantage while the Chinese were 111
trained still some fair Inferences can be
made The Japanese had a great many
rapid fire guns with few very heavy ones
and their vessels were not battleships
properly so called The Chinese besides
other vessels had two battleships with
heavy armor and heavy guns Victory re
mained with the Japanese In the opinion
of thewriter two probable conclusions cajH
be reached 1 That rapid fire guns in
due proportion to the entire battery will
beat down a ship dependent mainly upon
turret guns that is between two ships
whose batteries are alike the Issue of the
contest will depend upon the one or the
other gaining first a predominance of
rapid Are That done the turret guns of
the predominant ship will give the linal
blows to the engines and turrets of the
other whose own turret guns cannot be
used with the necessary deliberation under
the preponderant storm of projectiles now
turned upon them 2 The other conclu
lon even more certain than the first is
that rapid fire guns alone while they may
determine an action cannot make It de
cisive Despite the well established su
periority of the Japanese rapid lire in that
action the Chinese battleships though
overborne were not taken Their heaviest
armor being unplerced the engines and
tur et guns remained effective and they
withdrew unmolested
The battleship constituted as described
remains for the present the fighting ship
upon which the Issues of war will depend
The type Is accepted by all the leading
naval States though with considerable va
riations In size As regards the latter fea
ture the writer believes that the enor
mous tonnage recently given Is excessive
and that the reasons which supiort It
too numerous and various to be enumer
ated at length have the following funda
mental fault They look too much to the
development of the individual ship and
too little to the fact that the prime
requisite of the battleship Is facility for
co operatlnrr with other ships of Its own
type facility in maneuvering together fa
cility in massing facility also in subdi
viding when occasion demands It may be
remarked too that the increase of size
has gone much more to increase of defen
sive power than of offensive a result so
contrary to the universal teachings of
war as of itself to suggest pausing
Does the present hold out any probabili
ties of Important changes In the near fu
Jure Of revolutionary changes No For
twenty five or tnlrty years now we have
been expecting from the ram and from the
torpedo results which would displace the
gun from Us supremacy of centuries
Those results however arc not yet visible
No one disputes the tremendous effects of
the ram and of the torpedo when success
fully used but I believe I am correct in
saying that the great preponderance of
professional opinion does not attribute to
them a certainty or an approach to cer
tainty impairing the predominance of the
gun Tills Is not the conclusion of mere
conservatism In a profession naturally
conservative The fluctuations of profes
sional opinion have been sufficiently
marked and the matter sufficiently ar
gued to dispose of That contention Nor
Is this sopremucy of the gun probably a
transient matter liable to pass away with
improvements greater than those of the
last quarter of a century The
of the gun depends upon conditions prob
ably permanent upon Its greater range
Its greater accuracy Its greater rapidity
The Individual effect of each shot may lie
less than that of a torpedo or of a ram
thrust but as was said In comparing very
heavy guns with rapid fire the probability
of many hits prevails over the possibilities
of one great blow
In none of these features In either of the
other weapons likely to overtake the gun
The torpedo relies mainly upon stealth
the ram mainly upon a happy chance for
effective use Both stealth and chance
have their place In war stratagem and
readiness each In place may contribute
much But the decisive Issues of war de
pend upon the handling of rn uses with
celerity and precision according to certain
general principles of recognized universality-
Afloat such massed force to be
wielded accurately and rapidly must con
tilt of units not too numerous because of
their smallness ns torpedo crnftwould be
nor too unwieldy because of their size
We may not lie able to determine yet In
advance of prolonged experience of war
just what the happy mean may be corre
sponding in principle to the old seventy
four but we may be reasonably sure that
It will be somewhere in the ranks of the
present battleships and that In the range
accuracy and rapidity of their gun fire--especially
when acting In fleets will be
found n protection which the small ves
cls that rely upon the torpedo or ram
alone will not be able ti overcome thoush
they may In rare instances elude
Concerning the frigates and sloops of our
kv t sS
predecessors their place is now taken and
their duties will be done by the classes of
vessel known genetically as cruisers pro
tected or unprotected The protection the
defensive element of strength has refer
ence mainly to the engines to the motive
power The battery the offensive factor
tends upon the whole to revert more and
mnreilo the development of lire to utiliz
ing the length or the vessel by multiplying
the number of guns and diminishing their
individual size and the tendency Is In
creased by the fact that as such ships are
expected to fight only vessels of their own
kind their probable target Is penetrable
by light guns Speed Is the great element
In the efficiency of cruisers and whatever
the speed In smooth water a great advan
tage Inures to Inrger ships In heavy winds
and seas As for armored cruisers ol
which there arc many they belong rather
to the class of battleships than of cruisers
Whatever the advantages of the particu
lar ships the name suggests n regrettable
confusion of Ideas
Ill in ohm Knet rs Whose Hone llcst in
Ciillfomln Soil
Krom the San KruiMisco Kxttnimr
In the centre of the ring where the fa
mous trotters of the Palo Alto stock farm
are walked after exercise and before
stabling Is a small strip of land about tne
length of an ordinary city block and halt
as wide where lie Interred several of the
record braking horses of the farm and
which Is doubtless the most curious cem
etery In the world
No huge or massive gate marks the
entrance to this hallowed ground but on
entering that section of the farm where
the valuable brood mares stallions and
llllies arc stabled ones attention Is Imme
diately attracted to the very centre of Him
place by a group of wldespreading onks
that cast their silent shad over a stancn
memorial snnft
On reaching the spot you are imme
diately impressed by the little row of
mounds that rise on either side of the
monument in an instant you realize that
you are walking on sacred ground and
ns you read the epitaphs on the head
boards you feel like doffing your cap out
of respect to the dead animals that dur
ing their lifetime smashed records ga
lore and pushed California to tho front
as a stock raising State To the employes
about the farm this graveyard Is sacred
nnd when one of the attendants comes to
tell you about the wonderful unrecorded
deeds of the horses ho scarcely speaks
above a whisper for fear of disturbing
the dead in their final sleep
The founding of the cemetery came
about In 1SXS when several horses of the
farm met their death by hre Among the
number was the ill fated champion year
ling filly Norlaine 2l 1 2 by Norval
214 3 1 son of Electioneer dam the
the great Elaine 220 who held the
worlds record as a thre and four-year-old
she being a half sister of Electioneer
As Norlaine was a champion and much
thought of at Palo Alto the most beauti
ful spot on the farm was selected for her
burial place As time rolled on her rest
ing plot created for all time the memo
rial burying ground for the famous horses
that die at the Palo Alto farm One by
one new graves appeared and the atten
tion of Mrs Stanford wns attracted by
the mounds and on enquiry she learned
that it was the burial place of the horses
that had made Palo Alto great
At that time there was nothing to show
what horses were burled there and notic
ing this Mrs Stanford remarked that
such noted -horses should have tablets
placed on their graves showing their
names dates of birth death and records
and Immediately Issued such Instructions
The interest taken in this led the lady to
have a monument erected to the memory
of the great Electioneer 125 the son of
Ify Rysdyks Hambletonian Dam Green
Mountain Maid
The Inscription on the monument of
Electioneer reads
To the Memory of Electioneer 123
Foaled May IKS Died December 3 ISO
Bv Rysdyks Hambletonian Dam Green
Mountain Maid History of the World
Contains the Names of None so Great In
Number of Performers and Champions
Sired by Him in the Golden State
Electioneer though dead since 130 still
has to his credit the largest number of 220
trotters accredited to any sire
Today the family of Electioneer holds
the worlds records
Twelve graves have been laid out in this
odd cemetery The first is reserved for the
grand old mare Beautiful Bells the
greatest of brood mares who Is now twenty-nine
years old but a hale and hearty
old lady
Graves eleven and twelve are still va
cant -awaiting the coming of the dams of
Arion and Sunol and Manette and Wax
Each year after the winter frosts are
over tender flowers and hothouse shrubs
are planted on the graves and throughout
the season the graves are kept fresher and
greener than many of the resting places of
human beings There Is no neglect of
these graves of the well beloved
Ingredients Ixed In Counterfeiting
Precious it inN
From the CliiraEo Clironicle
To meet the growing demand for arti
ficial jewelry the process of making pre
cious stones has been greatly improved
within the last few years and Its further
development has enlisted the services of
some of the most skillful chemists
The material chiefly used Is glass but
It Is not the ordinary glass of commerce
It is prepared with the greatest care by
highly skilled artisans for upon IrS clear
ness and perfect homogeneity depend the
fuallty of the Imitation gems which are
far superior to the cheap grade of coun
terfeits that rely on silver backings for
their lustre
This glass can only be made from abso
lutely pure quartz or better still from
rock crystal as quartz frequently con
tains minute veins of Iron which would
impair the clearness and color of the
glass The bicarbonate of potash and the
oxide of lead which are mixed with it
must also be chemically pure Other In
gredients of less Importance borax
which promotes the flux and ii small
quantity of arj enic
The best glass for Imitation gems con
sists of rock crystal 32 per cent bicar
bonate of potash 17 per cent oxide of
lend 0 ier cent borax 1 per cent and
a trace of arsenic Carefully prcparwl by
competent hands this mixture produces
a grade of glass which In brilliancy and
iridescence yields little to the genuine
diamond itself and these qualities mav
be further enhanced by the substitution
of potassium for the bicarbonate of pot
ash and an Increase of the quantity of
oxide of lead used
Stons carefully made by this process
can only be distinguished from the genu
ine by experts Tills Is true however
only so long as they are new for Imita
tion gems wear off become blind and
lose their fire with ace and It Is to
remedy theso defects thai the efforts of
chemists are now directed
Opaque gems like the turquoise and
the opal are made from glass whose
transparency Is destroyed by the addi
tion of oxide of zinc after pulverization
The color of tho turquoise Is produced by
means of oxide of copper and cobalt
Ilueli s nilioIlzt M Viltinlinl Trillin of
Its Con n Irj
From the linden Daily Mail
Windsor Castle is the proper home of
our Kings liecause in a sense it sym
liollzes the character of Knglnnd and
Englishmen Dgiplte the Iniquitous res
toration of Wyan the Destroyer we can
still mark Its ancient lines and wonder
at Its ancient splendor It Is vast It Is
rugged it Is without a plan It has grown
with the energy and zeal of Britain Com
pare It to the palaces of France and nolo
the difference
Windsor lacks the beauty of the Lou
vre the Ixiuvrc lacks the chaacter of
Windsor Even the fortified castles of
Touinlne are more elegant than the great
jialace of our Kings Vet we are more
likely to see another Louvre than another
The vast towers 2nd the modest cloisters
tfford a whimsical contrast which cannot
be matched elsewhere nnd though the
hand of change has been heavy upon Its
walls Windsor has been a casrle for a
thousand years
Nor may Its situation be matched In the
world Once a stronghold It Is now the
pleasure palace of one of our kings There
many a monarch has ruled hunted loved
and teen burled Its walks have witness
ed the processions nnd pageants of many
centuries But never have its lofty walls
looked down upon a more sorrowful prog
ress than that which recently wound up
the slope to the noble gate of St Georges
tTrom the Mejcgcndorfer JUaetter
Inexperienced skater falllnur teturen to other-
on ice uc me I tir beat engaged
More So in Name Than in Its Ac
tual lovei iniieiii
An Oligarchy Itntlier Tlimi n Nation
oT Free People Utlllly Billed by n
Die tutor lt Mobility llep lent
Ipon One Man Its Military Power
Whethei our nearest sister republic
the Mexican Republic deserves to be tt
sldered as it simlar nation with that of
the American Consolidation of States Is
a matter that some people think may ad
mit of question A recent letter from the
capital of that country takes the ground
that white the national constitution
prates lnrgely or civil liberty that
Is not known in Mexico The author
of the letter declares thit while Mexico
has today the best Government that has
ever fallen to the lot of the Spanish
Auiericau people It rests primarily on
military power which of late has been a
greatly j trengthened by a strong commu
nity of interest between Its beneficiaries
mid the powerful representatives of the
foicign capital which owns everything in
Mexico to the nineteenth or
the twentieth century
Mexico has not a good government a
government under which its citizens en-
Joy security of life liberty uiid the pur
suit of human happiness a government
best suited to the development of it won
derful country and the people native to IL
It must always be lwrne In mind how
ever In thinking of Mexico and In at
tempting any political or social compari
son that the constitution of that country
Is merely a peg upon which to liang the
title of a republic Its limitations are
disregarded in the laws its provisions
violated constantly by the governing pow
er and It is seldom referred to except In
oratorical flights or In theorizing essays
The Mexican constitution dictates Itself
to be inviolable
The form of government in Mexico and
the actions of the governing power are
not only n refutation of this statement
but they constitute all the proof which
Is to the effect that Mexico In
reality Is a constltutlonless political or
ganization From this fact arises any
uneasiness which may be felt In regard
to possible changes of power In Mexico
or the extent to which disturbance may
go should any political crisis face that
people Notwithstanding the methods
provided for In the fundamental law for
Veiling with political emergencies It is
thoroughly understood by those who
know their Mexico that In the very na
ture of things there Is no constitutional
suggestion which would be followed by
the people In case of serious political dis
turbance The political life of Mexico is
held together by the hand of the one
mini whoever he may happen to be who
represents not only the executive head
but the entire Government of the country
In the power which he wields
The lawnuiKIng power of the Mexican
Government is nominally vested in tho
Consress This Congress Is supposedly
elected by the direct vote of the nconle
each member representing district as In
the United States In reality the
members of this Congress are practically
appointed by the President of the repub
lic Some of the members have never seen
the districts which they repicsent not
withstanding the fact that the constitu
tion requires them to be residents there
of Each State has a separate gov
ernment of Its own the people supposedly
electing a Governor but In reality ac
cepting the appointment of the Preside nL
The Mexican Congress passes no laws ex
cept those desired by the Administration
Free speech In Congress is an unknown
One of the most significant signs of the
times Is disclosed in a declaration recent
ly made by a Mexican Senator to the ef
fect that General Porforlo Diaz Is the
last President of that Republic who will
be able to suppress Congressional debate
of Government measures
It Is stated In well chosen word1 In the
Constitution of Mexico that the rights of
man are the foundation and end of social
Institutions But the Interpreters of this
document are discriminating as to wiose
rights constitute this foundation ind as
to which social Institutions are supreme
It Is declared in Mexicos fund nnentnl
law that the people have at any time the
Inalienable right of altering or modifying
their form of government Tills declara
tion should be qualified to read to the ef
fect that If those people who desire a
chinge are sufficiently numerous and
well organized to start nnd maintain it
revolution to a successful end this consti
tutional clause becomes active but In all
other cases it is to be considered
This description of Mexicos form of
government sounds worse than It really
is for while It is jietuctty true and fully
understood It still detracts in one- way
from the excellent qualities of this po
litical organization its adaptability to the
country In which It prevails the people
who live under it nor does it detract
from the high character admirable
statesmanship and unsullied patriotism of
the man in whose personality lies the
secret of the peace piospc nty and hap
piness now enjoyed by lo V people In
ine Government In Mexico is a strong
peisonally conduct eil centralized organi
zation Us power is maintain by an effi
cient military and police fotce by su
premacy in all political positions and by
a encouragement ami friendliness
toward the capital invested in enter
prises which bring occupation to the peo
ple and wealth to tin- Investors Twenty
four years ago the present President or
Alexico placet himself In power by revo
lutionary methods At that lime he and
his followers represented a rarely milita
ry clement Fortunately for Mexico there
was mother side to the character of this
soldier of fortune which has developed
niarvelotisly In the latter years of his
From a man who was known only
ns a soloier he has iK come more distin
guished for Ins statesmanship and lor his
commercial acumen Never relaxing his
political or mlltnry vigilance for a mo
ment he lias retained in all Its plenitude
his absolute sway as dictator and yet rt
the same time he has drawn to himself
the admiration and friendship ot tnoae
to whom commerce and industry are more
inspiring motives than political or mili
tary leadership
The development of the military arm of
the Government has kept pace with the
increase In the Industrial army Educa
tion has been made compulsory among
the people and at the same time the press
of the has liten effectually gag
Ked In the domain of partisan contention
Political leaders refer In elegant diction
to the Constitution of Mexico and its be
nign influence and at the same time no
politician opposed to the administration in
power is allowed to draw a political
bieath The people with a suffrage guar
anteed to them by those who freed their
country from the Spanish yoke have no
knowledge of their political privileges nor
do they attempt to exercise them
There are but two classes of people In
the country those who rule and those
who obey The rulers are few in num
ber but In their hands lies the wealth of
the nation and Its power The traditions
of centuries demand subserviency of tho
many to the few and It Is granted with
out question
The samp contributor on points noted
above observes that
To an American who has enjoyed all
of the political and civil liberty granted to
those born In the 1nlted States the polit
ical condition of Mexico Is almost shock
ing But a more complete understand
ing of the people of that country and tho
conditions which prevail among them v ill
Inevitably lead to the conclusion that ap
parently ilow progress In political edu
cation has been wisdom of the most pro
found description In that It has gently
brought a nation from Ignorance nlid
sloth to it quickened Intelligence and mar
velous material development Fully ap
preciating these latter features of Mex
ican economies still it Is necessary to
fully understand -the system upon which
they are founded to observe with Intelli
gent appreciation the rapid progress of
events In Mexico today and others of far
more exciting Interest which are nearly
Another Inrt of Aniiliiniy
from Town Tuiurs
They had lieen at the maMiurade ivhrre Oic
had n eegiiized him at once Ua it the loud
healing of my hcjrt my darling thit told you
I ta hrrt V murinurlil he
O no lie replied 1 recognized jou hy the
hize of jour feet
from the Chleaco Tribune l
tntle Itastus l am forry to hear m ity von
lUe setitt boeiclies better than ym do the
Hit m boss TV kin UIotik to - many
Victiea ez ji Et a mind hat vo
ktarnt jlnc nio n one church
Cnses of Sudden nnd M xtednii Jl
Krom the Xew York Press
When a man or a woman Is whitked
away at a moments notice when he or
she leaves his or her office or house to go
to tht next street and thereupon vanishes
from the face of the earth there Is n pecu
liar fascination attaching to the case
I here was Mr Conant editor of Har
peri Weekly He left his otllco one day
to go to Ills home In Brooklyn and from
the moment he crossed the threshold of
his olhce to this moment no living eye has
seen hm as far ns cm be found out He
steppea into Franklin Square and was
swtiiotvett mi ntlerlv
in big cities like New York nnd Jondon
hundrc ds of people vanish lti the course
of a year A considerable number of
ttiese evanlshments rt for cause but
others art lacking in a motive and are
weird in their mystcrloj jness There are
plenty of disappearances In which the
character and the environment of the vic
tim uhsolutely preclude iny supposition
of a voluntary effucvrnvnt
A ffv years ago the disappearance of
fieorgo Fitch a wealthy stockbroker
starteti London The missing man was
ot inlet habits and had a substantial bal
ance at his bankers So far as is known
he had no domcstlr worries There was
no reason why he should not have lived
a prosperous gentleman but he left his
office one evening tor Ms home in the
suburbs ami disappeared He never
reached his home urd though he was
well known no person was ever found
who could swear that they had seen him
after he had jwssed the door of his office
No trace of him from tint day to this
has ever been found though it reward of
jjmj wns orTercil for any clue that might
throw light on the mystery
A few years ago u romantic and pain
ful case of mysterious disappearance wns
engaging the attention of the British For
eign Office C Fitzgerald an English
newspaper man of repute had set out on
a journey from Sofia Bulgaria to Vien
na lip never reached his destination tind
although every effort was made to trace
him his movements and his fate after he
left Soils remain a mystery to this day
Jt Is wild that he was carrying important
despatches to the Bulgarian Government
nnd If that Is true the mystery remains
n mystery no longer for he probably fell
a victim to one of those oath bound po
litical organizations with which that tur
bulent principality Is honeycombed
Fitzgeralds case brings to mlml the
case of Benjamin Bathurst a kinsman of
Lord Bathurst who fell off the earth
early in the last century He was sent on
a secret mission to Vienna at the time
when England wished Austria to declare
war against Napoleon as a diversion from
the campaign In Spain On reaching Pre
leberg In Bradenburg a couple of sen
tries were told off to guard the inn In
which he rested On setting forward on
his journey toward nightfall Bathurst
thanked the sentries and told them that
they might withdraw They did so and
while the people of the Inn were on the
alert to see him off he walked beyond the
circle of lights and vanished In the
midst of all the people nssmbled Air
Bathurst stepped a few feet out of a
circle of lights and vanished as complete
ly as If the earth had swallowed him up
England offered SIOO and Prussia halt
that sum for any clew that would Jead to
a solution of the mystery but none was
over forthcoming
But a more weird and uncanny disap
pearance than these Is the case of an En
glish farmer named Williamson living In
Surrey One morning he started to cross
a big meadow near his house to give some
Instructions to workmen on the other side
He trudged along whistling and singing
to the middle of the field aand there suu
denly and unaccountably vanished There
was no wall no ditch no bush even that
could have concealed him for a moment
Ills wife who was standing at a door of
tho house with her In her arms
was watching him and she suddenly
screamed out Hes gone What an aw
ful thing and fell to the Hour uncon
When she revived her reason had fled
Two neighbors who had been looking over
the Held when Williamson started to
cross It also saw the strange occurrence
and were so frightened that for weeks
afterward they were unable to work No
light was ever thrown on thismysVry
and the memory of It haunts tlio neigh
Another uncanny case which Is well au
thenticated Is that of a boy Charles Ash
more He lived on it farm In Sussex
England and one day was sent to bring
n pall of water from a well about MM
yards from the house He did not return
nnd the family becoming anxious the
father went out with a lantern to Feek
the boy A light coating of snow covered
tho ground though ncne was tailing
then and tho tracks made by the boy
were plainly visible up Jo a spot half
way between the house ahd the well At
this point they suddenly ceased and noth
ing but the unbroken surface of the snow
was visible Nor was any trace ot the
boy found from that day to this He
never reached the well for It was found
frozen over and--the Ice had not been
Admit Menu by AVIiieh Indian Bnn
iIIIm llscaitc PursuiTM
Krom the London Exprew
Some of tne Indian tribes over which
we rule give us a great deal of trouble
notably the Mahsuds though It Is pleas
ing to learn from a recent Bombay tele
Krani that they are at laat being brought
to something like orderand are paying
the hue lately imiiosed upon them as
well as agreeing to cease their rantls
The Mahsuds however are not by any
means the worst of the Indian robber
tribes that unenviable distinction proba
bly falling to the Ilhlliv who are the clev
erest scoundrels In tho world both In
their methods of acquiring other peoples
property and In evading pursuit
They are very proud of their skill In
pilfering and openly boast of It One of
them once told a British officer that he
could steal the blanket from under him
and was promptly challenged to show- his
ability That night when th officer was
fast asleep the Bhll robber cut a hole In
his lent crept noiselessly In and gently
tickled the hands nnd feet or the sleep
ing man The officer stirred uneasily nnd
turned over In this way the Bhll was
nble to pull the blanket out a little way
By repeating this performance he finally
succeeded In coaxing the blanket com
pletely from under the sleeper
When in his nefarious little
games the Bhll wears hardly any cloth
ing and irtri lithe body is rubbed with oil
to facilitate escape from any would bo
captors When hotly pursued by the
British troops the robbers make use of
a very clever device They conceal their
svmt clothing under their small round
shields and scatter them about to resem
ble stones or bowlders Then picking up
a few twigs If there are any to be had
they assume all sorts of grotesque atti
tudes their almost ileshless limbs sil
houetted against tlin dark night sky
closely resembling the charred limbs of a
tree Absolutely motionless they hold
their positions till the enemy has passed
In tills way a British subaltern In
charge of a party sent to capturp some
Bhlls was considerably startled one even
ing The pursuit had completely lost
sight of the robbers end finally the par
ty tlrcw rein by a clump of gnarled and
lftit tree- trunks tired and hot from theiN
hard exertions The officer In charge
took off his hat and placed It on the end
of it broken limb when Instantly there
was a wild scream of laughter and the
tree trunks suddenly came to life and
vanished In the darkness
He the Wrong Door In u
Boston Hotel
Krom the Chicago Tiiim lIcraM
When Francis Wilson is playing an en
gagement within easy traveling distance
of his home la New Rochelle N Y he is
occasionally visited bv bis family Re
turning from a rehearsal in Boston the
other day the clerk of the hotel Informed
him that his wife and two daughters had
arrived and had been assigned to apart
ments next to his own The comic opera
monarch threw ceremony aside mid
making tils way to the abiding place of
his household thumped on the door with
a show of playful and noisy ostentation
Who Is If a feminine voice queried
It the nctor responded with re
proachful emphasis It If you Insist
upon my revealing the shivering and
naked truth Is the head of this ranch
Whom tlo you wish V see was the
next enquiry that filiated promptly nnd
cautiously over the transom
Oh well as to that said the un
abashed visitor who now allowed his
sense of the ridiculous to have full play
II doesnt muke much difference Any
body will do Pin not nt all particular
Jty the way is there anybody just at
present tlmt you would cure to see
At this point the dcor opened and a
middle aged ladv who was a perfect
stranger to the comedian surveyed him
from head to root and said with icy se
I am not at all certain that I cere to
see you sir You arc distressingly for
Mr Wilson had bcsleced wrons
Out Anions 3Iniiy in Humble Jew
ish Quarters in Xew York
Atmiiij in Ills Old Acre to Preserve
tilt mill IlcllKlnn of II If
Ancient Ilnce Ut voteil to the ioi
ire In Which He AVus TiniKlii
A ragged man who looks like a peddler
or a beggar picking his way through the
crowded misery of Hester Street or as
cending the stairs of one ot the dingy ten
ement houses full of sweatshops that line
that busy mart of the poor Ghetto Jew
may lie u great Hebrew scholar He may
be able to speak and write the ancient
tongue with the facility cf n modern lan
guageas fluently as tho ordinary Jew
makes use of the jargon the Yiddish of
the people ho may Ihj a manifold nuthor
with u deep nnd pious love for the beau
tiful poetry In his literature and In char
acter an enthusiast a dreamer or a good
nnd reverend old man But no matter
what his attainments and his quality he
Is unknown and unhonored for he has
pinned his faith to a declining cause
writes Ills passionate accents In a tongue
more and more unknown even to the cul
tivated Jew nnd consequently amid the
crowding and material Interests of tho
New World he Is submerged poor In
physical estate and his moral capital un
recognized by the people among whom
he lives
Not only unrecognized by the Ignorant
nnd the busy and their teachers the rab
bis who in New York are frequently
nearly ns Ignorant as the people he is
also as his learning is limited largely to
the literature- of his race looked down
upon by the influential and Intellectual
element of the Ghetto an element so
cialistic in literary sympathy Russian
rather than Hebraic Intolerant of every
thing not violently modern wedded to
movements and scornful of the past
The maskll therefore or man of wis
dom the Hebrew scholar Is called old
topy dllettnhte by the up-to-date so
Of such men there are several In the
humble corners of the v r hon
One peddles for a Jvlng another has a
small printing oflie in a basement on Ca
nal Street a third occasionally tutors in
some one of many languages and sells a
patent medicine and a fourth Is the prin
cipal of the Talmud Thorn a Hebrew
school in the Harlem Ghetto where he
teaches the children to read write and
pray In the Hebrew language
Moses Relcherson is the name of the
principal Man of wisdom of tho pur
est kind probably the finest Hebrew
grammarian In New York and one of the
nnst In the world his income from his
position at the he ad of the school Is 5 a
week He Is seventy three years old
wears a thick grey beard a little cap on
his head and a long black coat His wife
is old nnl bent They are alone In their
iniserauic apartment on East With Street
Their son died a few weeks ago and to
cover the funeral expenses Mr Relcher
son tried in vain to sell his Encyclopedia
Britannlca But nevertheless the old
scholar who had been binding over his
closely written manuscript received the
visitor with almost cheerful politeness
and told the story of his work and of his
ambitions Of his difficulties and priva
tions he said little but they shone
through his words and In the character of
the room in which he lived
Born In Vilna sometimes called the Je
rusalem ot Lithuania or the Athens of
modern Judea liecause of the number of
enlightened Jews who have been bcrn
there many of whom now live in the
Russian Jewish quarter of New York he
has retained the faith of his orthodox
parents a faith springing however from
tho pure origin of Judaism rather than
holding to the hair splitting distinctions
later embodied In the Talmud He was
a teacher of Hebrew In his native town
for many years where he stayed until
he- came to New York some years ago
to be near his son His two great intel
lectual interests subordinated indeed to
the love of the old literature and religion
have been licbrev grammar and the mor
al fables of several languages On the
former he has written an Important work
and of the latter has translated much of
Lessings and Gellerfs work into pure
Hebrew He has also translated Into his
favorite tongue the Russian fable writer
Krllow has written fables of his own
and a Hebrew commentary on the Bible
In twenty four volumes He loves the
fables because they teach the people and
are real criticism they arc profound and
combine fancy and thought
Many of these are still In manuscript
which Is characteristic of much of the
work ot these scholars for they have no
money and publishers do not run after
Hebrew books Also unpublished written
In lovingly minute characters he has a
Hebrew pruyer book In many volumes
Ho has written hundreds of articles for
the Hebrew weeklies and monthlies
which are fairly numerous ii this coun
try but which seldom can afford to pay
their contributors At present he writes
exclusively for a Hebrew weekly pub
lished In Chicago Regeneration the
object of which Is to jiromotc the knowl
edge of the ancient Hebrew language and
literature and to regenerate the spirit of
the nation for whicii he receives no pay
tho editor being almost as poor as him
self But he writes willingly for the love
of tho cause Tor universal good for
Relcherson In common with the other
neglected scholars Is deeply Interested In
revivifying what Is now- among American
Jews a dead language He believes that
in this way only can the Jewish people
be taught the good and the true
When the national mguage and liter
ature live he said the nation lives
when dead so Is the nation The holy
tongue in which the Bible was written
must not die If it should much of the
truthtof the Bible many of Its spiritual
secrets much of Its beautiful poetry
would be lost I have gone deep Into the
Bible that greatest book all my life nnd
1 know many of Its secrets He beamed
with pride ns li said these words and
his sense of the beautv of the
spirit and the Hebrew literature led him
to speak wonderjngly of Anti Semitism
This cause seemed to him to be founded
on ignorance of the Bible If
and the teaching of Christ then every
thing would he sweet and well If thuy
would spend a little of that money In sup
porting the Hebrew language and litera
ture and explaining the sacred books
which they now- use against our race
they would see that they are Anti-Christians
rather than Anti Semites
The scholar here bethought himself ot
an old fable he had translated Into He
brew Cold anil Warmth make a wger
that the traveler will unwrap his cloak
soner to one than to the other The fierce
wind tries Ha best but at ever cold blast
the traveler only wraps his cloak tho
closer But when the sun throws Its rays
the wayfarer gratefully opens his breast
to the warming beams Ixve solves
all things said tho old man and hate
closes up tho channels to knowledge nnd
virtue Btlleving the Pope to be a good
man with a knowledge of the Bible he
wanted to write him nbout the Anti
Semites hilt desistptl on the refleeMnn
that the Pope was very old and overbur 1
oeneti anu mat tne letter would fall
into the hands of the Cardinals
All tills was sweetly said for about
him there was nothing of tho attitude c i
complaint His wife one or twice during
the Interview touched upon their personal
condition but her husband severely kept
his mind on the universal truths and
only when questioned admitted that ho
would like a little more money in order
to publish his books and to enable him to
think with more concentration about the
Hebrew language and literature There
was no bitterness In his reference to the-
negioct ot iienrew scholarship In the
Ills Interest was Impersonal and de
tached and his regret nt the decadence
of tho language seemed noble and disin
terested and unlike some of the other
scholars the touch of warm humanity
was in everything he said Indeed he
Is rather the learned teacher of the peo
ple with deep religious and ethical sense
than the scholar who cares only for
learning In the name of God adieu
he said with quiet Intensity when the
visitor withdrew
Contrasting shnrply In many respects
with this beautiful old teacher Is the mnn
who peddles from tenement house to ten
ement house In the down town Ghetto to
support himself and three young chil
dren S B S chwartzberg unlike most
of the subnTerged scholars Is stilt a
young man only thirty seven years old
but he Is already discouraged bitter and
discontented He feels himself the apos
tle of a lost cause thfr regeneration In
New York of the old Hebrew language
nnd literature His great enterprise in
lire has failed He has new givtj It up
nnd the natural vividness and Intensity of
his nature get satisfaction In th strenu
ous abuse of the Jews of the Ghetto
Ilutchlns Hapgood In th New York
Evening Poit
Sonic Tlmt Sennien Drt ntt li He- A a
tntjcnet Tu
Krom the London Chronicle
Inlucky ships in our navy have a
most unpleasant way ot acting up to their
reputations Any bluejacket will tell you
that me most unlucky ship lnthe navy
Is the Thunderer he la firmly convinced
that in tne event ot war she will tome to
grief he origin of this ship s
ilon Is not exactly known though a sory
exists to the effect that it wnrkmnn wns
Injured or killed luring her constructions
anu ins uepencitnts seurIIy ueated by
the admiralty of the period His wife
dying in c -birth shortly afterwarj
cursed the ship So goes the legend
enough like many another legend
It was made later on to tit events No
doubt whatever attaches to the Thun
derers Ill luck a fearful boiler explosion
and a terrible gun disaster marked her
earlier years Minor disasters have been
Most things that could go wrong with
her did so and though It was recently
stated that she had outlived her bad luck
almost Immediately afterwarj all her
guns went wrong a matter under en
quiry at the present moment She Is be
ing put out of commission und replaced
by the Hood and It Is extremely doubt
ful whether she will be employed again
save as a harbor ship men do not like
Another unlucky ship Is the Howe She
went ashore and sank at Ferrol Subse
quently she was raised and refloated
but her bad luck clings to her she Is
theworst ship of her batch to manage
By bluejacket superstition she Is doomed
to sink some consort or bv sunk by her
one of then days
Then there was tho Ill fated Victoria
A horrible story absolutely without
foundation about a man who was acci
dentally fastened down to die la her useJ
to he related In the early 9s She met
with disasters culminating In the terrible
catastrophe that bears her name The
saddest of all incidents in connection
with catastrophe has never been made
When the order was given for each man
to Jump a batch of marines were not or
dered to fall out All or nearly all of
those men were ilrowne d standing at at
tention However this Incident does not
concern the luck ot ships
The list of uiifc Kinships could be ex
tended consldenly but the above typi
cal cases will suilte In fact of them It
Is absolutely useless to argue against
nautical superstitions The bad Tuck
of course varies In the majority of cases
It Is confined to break downs and so
forth but whatever It be once the un
lucky reputation attaches to a ship It
will last until she ends her career And
since the new- roval yacht has thus got
labeled nothing that may le said or left
unsaid of her will clear her As she has
cost over CMOUOn something must be
done with her One superstition Is that
royalty will decline to use her and that
she will be handed over to the lords of
the admiralty In place of the Enchantress
the anything but seaworthy craft that
now carries them around
WHNltiiijrtifitn Body Twice Removed
Since First Interred
From the Chicago Newr
Within me precincts of ilount Vernon
the beautiful estate once occupied by
George Washington and now preserved
by the nation in his memory are three
spots where the first President has been
buried The tomb which is now pointed
out to visitors as containing the remains
of Washington Is not that in which his
body was laid on the dato of his burial
December IS IM Twice since- then the
coffin has been moved but never away
lrom Mount Vernon
The old family vault In which tho body
of Washington was first interred was sit
uated about S0O yards to the south of the
mansion in the side of a deep dell sur
rounded by great trees and was simply
a narrow excavation in the bank of earth
arched over with brick and covered with
deep sod Washington before hi3 death
contemplated the building of a new vault
and had selected the spot where he
wished it located but the end came sud
denly the new vault had not even been
begun and the body was buried In the
oltl tomb
Here it remained until an attempted
desecration A man broke Into the vault
but was nlscovcred just as he was making
off with the skull and some bones Ths
robber had found tho wrons body for
these relics formed no part of the remains
of Wns ngton
A second sepulchre was made In the
south side of the steep hill near a small
wooded ravine on the site especially se
lected by Washington The excavation
was walled In with brick and arched over
at the height ot eight feet aboe the level
ot the ground The tomb itself was sur
rounded by a wall of brickwork twelve
feet high and guarded in front by an
Iron gateway opening a few feet In front
of the vault door
Ther body of Washington was moved
into tnl3 tomb In 1MI and remained there
unuisturbed until 1STT when John Stryth
ers of Philadelphia made and presented
to the relatives of Washington a marble
sarcophagus for the better protection of
the corpse
When this sarcophagus was brought to
the Tomb it was found to be too large to
pass through tho Iron doorway of the
vault and on examination the vault It
self was discovered to be so poorly pro
tected against moisture that its dampness
would destroy In a short time the texture
of the marble and deface the richness and
beauty of the exterior sculpturing It
was then determined to build a suitable
receptacle for the sarcophagus on the
right of the entrance to tho gate outside
of the vault This was accordingly done
On the morning of S lrday October 7
1S37 all things being In readiness for the
removal of the remains of Washington to
their new resting place lights were pro
cured and the vault was entered Wil
liam Strickland who nsslsted at the re
interment gives the following account of
what then took place
Accompanied by Major Lewis and his
son we entered the vault dcor The coffin
containing the remains of Washington
was in the extreme back part of the vault
andto remove the case containing the
leaden receptacle It was found necessary
to put aside the coffins that were piled
UP between it and the doorway After
clearing the passageway the case which
was decaved was stripped off and the
lead of tiie lid was discovered to have
sunk very considerably from head to
foot so much so as to form a curved line
of four to five lrv hes In its whole length
n ii aAtianAit nt tli metnl hnd tier-
Semites would only study the Bible would j haPs caused the soldering of the joints
go deep Into the knowledge of Hebrev to give wav abort the upper or widest
part of the coffin At the request ot Ma
jor Lewis this fracturetl part was turned
over on the lower part of the 111 expos
ing to view a head and breast ot large di
mensions which appeared by the dim
light of the candles to have suffered but
little from the effects of time The eye
sockets were large nnd deep and the
breadth across the temples together with
the forehead appeared of unusual size
There was no appearance of grave
cloths the chest was broad the color was
dark and had the appearance of dried
flesh and skin adhering ese to the bones
We saw- no hair nor was there any offen
sive odor from the body A hand was
laid upon the head and Instantly removed
The lead of the lid was restored to Its
place The body raised by six men was
carried und laid in the marble cofiln nnd
the ponderous cover being put on and set
In cement It was sealed from our sight
on Saturday tne itn uay ot uctouer
On the lid of this marble sarcophagus Is
sculptured the American shield suspend
ed over our festoonetl flags Percjied upon
the sunerlor bar of the shield and form
ing the crest is an eagle with outspread
wings Below this design and cut in the
marble Is the name Washington
The remains of Mrs Washington now
rest In a similar sarcophagus of marble
plainly sculptured and situated on the
left of the gateway or entrance to the
Western Unctor Says the Hnliit Is
Ctiiiiiuoit Among tvv York Men
From the New York Sun
A Western physician made his first visit
to New York last week and at a seml
public dinner on Saturday evening he hap
Iened to be seated with men who had
spent all of their lives In this city One of
them said to him
Doctor I have often wondered how
New York would Impress a thinking man
on his first visit What impresses you
most In the streets
The thing which first attracted my at
tention said the physician and which
still holds It Is the fact that most of the
men whom one passes In the street are
talking to themselves Why is it Dont
New Yorkers have friends to whom they
may talk or are they so given to talking
that they must talk to themselves when
they arc alone Do they all talk In their
Is It because men work harder here
that they go along the streets mumbling
to themselves I dont know the true ex
planation of It but I have been In man
different cities and In none of fliem have
I seen so many men talking to themselves
as in New ork
Dogs on Exhibition Care Notliinff
for Display
The niir V v Unlet nutt General
ly niNimsei In 2timnnence GontI
Xntnretl ti ml WIIIIiik to Shake
1nvTii When Oat on tin AlrlnK
To a perfectly uninitiated person at the
dog show this week It was very pleasing
to realize every now and then amid all
the technical and professional talk tho
badges and the tabs and the prize notices
that the dogs were Just plain dogs after
all and cared nothing themselves nbout
all these distinctions Going about on this
basis the Ignorant observer felt n dimi
nution of self respect before the curious
eyes of the most valuable canines and
was able to regard them with feelings ot
friendliness rather thn of criticism -
The hot sleepy St Bernards looking
like big babies petted and self conscious
pretended Indifference to the passing
crowd Spoiled almost to the point of im
becility they allowed their heads to- be
patted by scores of half timid feminine
hands rolling up their eyes with a
- not -
look But let one of
these lethargic monsters see or snuff a
friend in the distance a frown of Intense
eagerness would appear en his great pup
py face and the most tremendous bound
ing anil barking would begin
Once In a while some fortunate fellow
would be unchained and taKen out for
nn airing and with the St Bernards total
disregard for his size and dignity he
mould romp around sit down on the floor
and in the exuberance of his heart offer
his paw with a look of Infantile delight
to any passer by Coming back from his
happy excursion he would with an un
mistakable look of sulky injury flop
down on the floor of his cage with a re
signed sigh while a keeper stepping for
ward deferentially arranged the ntraw In
such a manner that he should have a
comfortable pillow for his head
The big dogs were always the quiet
ones The mastiffs Danes and blood
hounds for the moat part slept or watched
quietly and were peaceful toward each
n was at the Pack of the hall where
the little Irish terriers were assembled
that tho most terrific snorting and snarling-and
clawing of cages was to be heard
These smart faced sharp eared little
dogs look like the street gamins of the
canine race i uu or loterest nght cu
riositythey sit constantly with ears
pricked eyes shining on the watch In
fact In shape size cclor In general look
of comhattveness and shrewdness they
bear a strong resemblance to the cele
brated yaller cur which is the unfail
ing companion of every darky household
in the South In strong contrast with
their appearance were their high-sounding
names The Lady Dockleaf The
Bradbury Lion and their valuations J150
for Ihis little barking fury 170 for that
They had managed to do some mischief
in spite ot their short chains and close
wire netting One unwary terrier allow
ed his ears to slip between tlw wire of
his neighbors cage and a prompt nip was
at once bestowed with which slight
wound he elicited the greatest sympathy
from ever passer by during- the even
In another compartment one sharp yel
ow face was fixed vengefnlly uport a
neighbor In tne ert case who pretend
ing Indifference and even- ignorance of
this meaning look dozed quietly behind
his screen occasionally shitting hU paws
and glancing at his angry neighbor with
a look of mild curiosity which said You
there Ive lieeji asleep and forgotten
you All these elaborate manIfestitou3
of indifference were swept aside hy tho
Irate looks of the belligerent terrier whi
continued to gaze at his placid victim
with a glare of fixed determination
which seemed to prophesy The time
will come the time will come
A hen any noise that was the least un
usual occurred in the hall the long dou
ble line ot Irish terriers set up the mist
noisv scratching and barking They
heard everxtiiing they saw everything
and over even excitement became a
sharp eyed mass of yapping furies
Gee said a hoy watching them how
would a cat fare eh
The Scotch terriers looked like the first
cousins of the Irish terriers their frees
wore the same look of overweening in
terest and sharpness They looked ier
fectly satisfied with themselves and ready
to pick trouble with all the rest of the
A large black colored poodle whtso
hair swept the floor like a frinze and who
wore a scarlet ribbon oobblng anion tho
tufts of hair over lis eyes like a toiknot
wasfled by his compltcent lad owner
past their compartments Tncy set up a
perfect yell or disdain they glanced once
at this effete looking toy dos and then
giving short barks looked up at the
passers by as if they were questioning
what sort of creature this might be
Between the St Bernards at the front
and the terriers at the back of the hall
were all the varieties of hound setters
and bulldogs but between those amiable
self possessed monsters and these little
excited creatures lay the strongest mints
of Interest and contrast New icik Commercial-Advertiser
Preachers Xo Loncer at the Mercy
of Tailors
Krom the w York Ercnini Pot
Up to within a few years ago clergymen
were obliged to have their clothes made to
order It was a costly proceeding as the
trade was confined to a few- high priced
tailors who had no hesitation In fleecing
their reverend patrons The prices paid in
those days for an ordinary suit ranged
from J 13 to 30 and was a very serious
item of expense in the ministers accounts
As the pulpit does not pay over large sala
ries the clothing bill was disproportionate
and the shabby genteel clerical coat was
rather common A welcomed revolution
was started when a Broadway house same
time ago commenced the manufacture ot
clerical wardrobes on a large scale and
sent circulars to every clergyman In the
1nlted States and Canada The firm reduced-
the prices Just 50 per cent to tho
great satisfaction of the profession
The success of the company was so
speedy as to arouse rivalry and today In
nearly every large city there are sev ra
concerns which make a specialty of cleri
cal clothing Beside the regular manufac
turer there are installment dealers and
also tailors who will rent out clerical ap
paiel for special occasions The Install
ment men supply suits for the pastors of
poor churches missionaries and other
workers with small but certain salaries
The dealers who hire out clothing do bus
iness chiefly with ministers who come to
the city upon private business and have a
sudden call to ierform some rcllgl ius
function They occasionally supply young
theological students who are asked to
officiate In a church Or chapel during the
summer when the regular Incumbent Is
away on hi3 vacation Competition has
increased to such a point -that a minister
can secure a suit of clerical clothes just
as cheaply as a business suit can be ob
A Brokers Menu Atlvnntncrc of a
Krom the El Dorado Republican
Vp at the Hoffman House the brokers
were celebrating Washingtons Blrthday
as brokers sometimes do Between cel
ebrations one of them remarked
This Is gettlmr to be a great country
for liolldavs Theyre coming along pretty
fast nowadays Weve got all the old
ones and n lot of new ones and this tar
were to have still another
Whats that asked one of hs
St Patricks Day
Trot along trot along said the third
of the tlio Weve always taken a con
pie or more In honor of St Patrick but
well be doing business Just the same
Dont you know you galoot that that
Isnt a legal holiday
Bet you a bottle of wine that It will
be this year Its been decided to cicse up
-ill the exchangts and banks and all tho
public buildings will le closed Not a tap
of business will be done on St Patricks
Ill take you said the broker nearest
the liar Lets have tho bottle now and
settle the Ixton Mntch 17
Done said the man who advanced
the proposition But we can provo It
now Its marked among the holidays on
the cabndir Get a calendar and see
A calendar was consulted by tho man
who had Liken the bet and then with an
expression ot disgust on his face
v ooor idiot St Patricks Day falls
on Sunday

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