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The times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, March 24, 1901, Second Part, Image 19

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85054468/1901-03-24/ed-1/seq-19/

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POBTOBICAMCRJOLOGY
The Island Once ii Electing Plate
for Religions Festivals
InCcrrxtliiK Mime Relics nt the
hmltlifconlnii Institution Prehis
toric Pceiples Cnine Hundreds of
Miles tu 1orlilr nt llils Shrine
The acquisition of Porto Illco by the
Vnited States was a source of the great
cst gratification to archaelologists all oer
the countrj B them the Island Is consid
ered the richest field for research which
has been opened to them for mans j ears
Vp to the present time the field is prac
tlcallj as It was hundreds of jears ngo
Rich arratcur archaeologists visiting the
island at arious times toe purchased
imperfect relics of a long extinct race
but this class of collectors bur an thing
offered to them which smacks of anti-
quit and as a rule their collections are
not of any great scientific value The
curators of the National Museum arc
deepl Impressed with the Importance of
Porto Rico as a field for archaeological
Tesearch and the are -anxiously awaiting
an appropriation from Congress to begin
extensile investigations there
Porto Rico was the Carib Jerusalem
where the prehistoric West Indians and
the people of Central and South America
assembled at certain periods to celcbrite
their religious rites These people it is
thought came from the northern and
eastern coast of South America and
Central America The opinion of archae
ologists is that these peoplo were the
Caribs They lived along the coast line
for the most part and were sailors and
fishermen The AMndward Islands ljlng
as they do In a curved line from the
northern coast of South America a4r an
opportunity for Insular inter-communication
an opportunity which the peoples of
the coast lands extending from the shores
of Florida on the north to far below Rio
Janeiro on the south understood and took
advantage of as Is shown by the pottery
and other relics which hav e recently been
found as well as in their language
ill iM
Decorated tfne Collar
Taken altogether the ceramic phe
nomena of the Sojthem States seem to
j Indicate pretty much the degree of In
tercourse between the natlonf occuping
the neighboring land areas as would be
exported of enterprising peoples well
enough advanced In maritime mat
ters to navigate the wide straits
with considerable ease yet de
cidedly attached through long oc
cupation to definite traditional seats of
habitatVn the tendency being under
such conditions of association for culture
elements to pass b infiltration from the
ldgher to the lower culture groups
Slit CLsdHVCS IMESTlCVnONS
The moat significant archaeological in
vestigations however in his connection
were those of Mr Frank Hamilton Cush
Ing at San Marco In southwestern Flori
da and the explorations of Mr Clarence
Moore In the sand mounds of Florida
Th latter has clearly revaled a culture
not akin to that of the Indians found
upon the ppot when this region was first
visited by Ponce de Leon but Mr Gush
lags explorations in the old canals and
artificial lagoons reveal a wealth of
archaeological treasures all of which
show that the ancient eople of southern
Florida were allied to those of the An
tilles and of Middle and South America
Columbus knew Porto Rico as a place
of m stery where religious rites w ere ob
served Herrera one of Columbus his
torians mentions that a sailor from the
discoverers ship reported seeing a man
on the Island with a wldte tunic down to
his knees and an old Indian repotted a
cacique or prleit who was clad like a
Catholic priests of Spain The history of
the strange race which peopled the Island
centuries ago Is all but a eloped baok
to the scientists of antiquities and they
will enter upon their investigations in
Porto Rico with the keenest zest
The remarkable beaut and finish of the
stone implements of Porto Rico and oth
er of the Antilles Islands were not whol
Jv unknown to students of American ar
chaeology prior to 1S76
Now and then small collections had
found their aj to London Copenhagen
or New York but they had never ben
collected In sumdent numbers for a com
parative stud until the Latimer collec
tion was presented to the Smithsonian
Institution This collection the finest
known has on served to increase the
interest of archaeologists In the j rehls
torlc Inhabitants of Porto Rico
A Mammiform Moiif
Among the specimens are pott ry
cuts smoothing stones mealing stones
stools dlscoldal anj spheroidal stones
b ads c liuders amulets rude pillar
stones mammiform stones roasts and
stone collars Many of the objects are
very simlnr to those found in other parts
of America and hroughout the world
but others are so very rare as to merit
the most cartful scruttnv und research
Some of the specimens were found In
cases but the greater part were turned
tip by tho plow and hoe where new lands
were put under cultivation Uy aomc
-dentists It Is bolleved that the makers
of lhse obeJctB were a purely neolithic
poopie thtt Is a people who lived at the
period wh n the newest or most ttccnt
rocks were formed The neolithic renod
began at the latter end of the Btone Age
and extended to the time when eiiimal
life some species of which ore rot -et
cxtlnt existed on the earth
According to some scholars of nnthro
polog the prehistoric Porto Itlcans were
nov savages but in the middle status
of barbarism These peopje lived In
round and square houses with thatched
roofs grouped In villages They made
potter tbe boldness and truthfulness of
whose ornamentation attest their skill In
that art Their Implements of Industry
so far as the have been recovered arc
the most beautiful known Taelr canoes
capable ln the larger forms of holdirg
2iw persons were exquisitely wrought
with the sides raised with canes daubed
with bitumen and not Hat out with a
keck Their artists were prodigies In de
sign and workmanship as the finer forms
In the Latimer collection attest Their
social life Is lltll understood but proba
bly resembles In tbe main that of the Flo
rida Indians
There Is not an entire vessel In the Lat
imer collection all of the specimens being
fragments of various shapes coarse red
pottery well baked ana some of the
plcce s have glassy surfaces A frag
ment of the bottom of a cup or jar shows
an ingenious lab rinthlno design traced
On it by a deep furrpwlng produced by
a sharp pointed instrument when the clay
of the vessel was soft The most Inter
utln objects 111 tlu i ollectlou are the
stone collars and the mammiform stones
Some of these collars are In a rude and
primitive state Indicating a stage of
manufacture Others are hlghl polished
and beautifully decorated The are right
and left Bhouldered as though to be used
In pairs
The decorations or designs on these col
lars nre nlaced only on one side the
outside They closel resemble a horse
collar and were used so Irof Otis T
Mason one of the curators of the Nation
al Museum ard nn archaeologist of inter
national reputation thinks as regalia
such as Odd Fellows use when on parade
Professor Mason Is enthusiastic over
the posslbllitl for archaeological re
search in the practicnil unexplored Held
of Pprto Rico
Porto Rico said Prof Mason to a
Times reporter Ms a eritlble paradise
Jt is destined to be the ideal winter re
sort for the rich The Isand is mountain
ous Uie mountains hating rounded tops
few being headed 1 he foot of one moun
tain almost touches tint of another Tho
island it of volcanic origin It seems to
have been recardcel as an Ideal spot for
rtilglout fistiv ls b the prehistoric peo
ples who ll ee on the ntljacent Mauds
and coasts of the Northern Middle and
Poi to Itienn Mone aiittil
South Americas They would come in
their huge canoes to Porto Rico in great
numbers nt definite periods and celebrate
their religious rites Most of their stone
Iiaplenients wore hlghl polished und
richl decorated They were evidently for
show or p trade punwses Those that
were Intended for use were not so hlthly
wroutht nor so elaborately cocrcd and
deeorateL Take for Instance their celts
or stone hitchcts With these the dug
out the core of large trees from which
the made their canoes The trees of
Porto Rico are not characterized by a
well delincd fibre tough and pollshable
like most of the trees in this country
Thcy are for that reason more easily
gouged out by such celts or stone uxes
as we find the prehUtoric people of Porto
Hlco used
Like all the American Indians the Ca
ribs for such I believe these people to
have been bclieed that the mountains
of Porto Rico were each one presided over
b a genius or spirit to which they made
votive offerings and Images to win the
good will of the mountain god The mam
miform stones are interesting as show
ing this fact These stones represent a
Naman figure with arms and legs curved
under the bodr with the back curved in
a hump rcsimbllng a mountain Ihe fig
ure t pities the genius or go 1 of the moun
tain and the form or shape of the hump
on its back was intended to represent the
characteristic shape of the mountain to
which the- Image was dedicated for In
stance if a mountain top was somewhat
peaked the hump on the stone image
would be peaked as a rule tne pc ufo
THE TIMES WASIIINGTOX SlNDAY MARCH 24 1JOI
be installed before the jear is out But
it is not the Intention of the authorities
to burn all the waste paper it will be
utilized in two was First bj the sort
ins and saving of that which is marketa
ble
AVhile the worth of clean piper and
rags depends upon the demand and the
price upon the market quotations et
the records of the past few years show
the average would be about JS per ton
th season through for a good qunllt of
stock and the poorest quallt about JC
Assuming tho above figures to be cor
rect and taking Into consideration the
fact that the waste would be disposed of
at a much less cost per ton than by the
present sjstem more than 30000 would
be saved to the city in this item alone
Rut after disposing of the salable part
of the nigs and paper there remains the
combustible p irt to get rid of which by
following the practice of foreign cities
can be disposed of at a prolit b convert
ing te heat obtained from the combus
tion into horse power
This orms the second method of util
izing the waste paper rags and other
combustible waste Of the grand total
of rubbish collected about DO per cent Is
good onlj for combustion and Is there
fore to be used as fuel It has been dem
onstrated that this class of garbage in
the modernized furnace for its combus
tion and for utilizing the heat units for
the creation of steam has In It one tenth
the value of coal This means that New
1 ork city toned out to sea last car more
than 5 COO tons of coal which had a mon
c value of JK 000 This rubbish was
Worse than wasted for after being dump
ed into the sea it was blown drifted and
tossed about b wind tide and waves
much of It Inndlng on the shores ami
beaches of the health resorts there to be
come a nuisance nnd menace to humanity
WH MEN USE PROFANITY
theories bet forth li nn Imvn
Ukc PrnftMiior
Irom Hie New lork Tribune
Prof G T W Patrick of tho Universl
tv of Iowa recently read a paper on
Profanitj before a scientific society In
Lincoln Neb A good deal of It was
couched In technical language which can
not easily be translated Into popular
phraseology And some of the ideas which
he advanced will nrobably not receive
unanimous approval from those who have
studied human emotion an I its expression
with care Nevertheless the topic is one
in which a great man people besides sci
entists are Interested hat Prof Pa
trick set out to do was to auswer two
questions Why do men swear And
when they swear why do the use tho
words thev do
In the- first place the variety of cir
cumstances in which profanity Is indulg
ed In is pointed out It is characteristic
of anger a failure to find adequate ex
pression in ordinary language for an em
phatic statement nnd an eftort to stimu
late workmen and horses to extra effort
And the use of oaths Is accompanied by a
pleasant feeling of relief from some pain
ful stress On this latter point Professor
Patrick quotes a sentence of J II Camp
bell concerning the phsiology of the
emotions
The shouting anu gesucuia
tn llnli Tminmnim on itlfl1irt nf flflS
images are to be found only on peaked- I cinn rinCiniiiiiit h relieving nerve
top mountains and rounded back images tcnson and Indeed as Hughllngs Jack
only onlj round top mountains Thse son has suggested swearing ma not be
mammiform stones are peculiar to Porto Wtnout Rs phjslological Justification
Rico and are unique objects of Tne lecturer at Lincoln elaborates the
logical interest I ijea siii further bi remarking that in the
Herrera speaks of low legged stools 1rimniC and natural form of combat the
which these sat
upon prehistoric people
and strange to relate Just such stools as
he speaks of have rccentl been found In
caves in the mountains They are occu
lar in shape and are made from stone nnd
wood The legs are only an Inch or so
long The back of the stool or what
would correspond to the back of a chair
extends backward sit a great Incline more
like the elevated slope of a lounge or
couch than the back of a chair At the
front edge of the stool is the face and
head of a monke or other animal This
sticks out from the edge like a knob to
a door These stools are highly orna
mented with carvings and designs snd
are evidently Intended for ceremonial pur
poses onlj
These Porto RIcan relics for religious
and ceremonial purposes convince tho
student of archaeology that there must
have been monuments temples and oth
er archaeological remains which have
not et been discovered It Is so evident
that the island of Porto Rico was re
garded as a holy spot by many peoples
living many hundreds of miles away that
the thought Is irresistible that ether nnd
more Interesting remains of a past civili
zation of a religious chiracter await the
discover of the man of science
The archaeologist wants to find and see
where they were set up He wants to
find thPir quarries and the Instruments
with which the worked New York
Boston and Philadelphia arc all eager to
enter the promlflng field offered In Porto
Rico and It is hoped that the National
Museum will be able by an appropriation
of Congress to take an early and an ac
tive part In the work
BIG FORTUNES THHOWN AWAY
Tons of 1 nper Cnl nnd Crnernl Re
fnsc v usted Aunuall
IVom the rhilidepd Record
Vast fortunes are thrown awa annual
ly In the waste of New York city The
poor of Paris could lie well housed fed
and clothed with the proceeds from the
waste of that clt This statement Is not
based on mere supposition but upon
facts gleaned from an experiment which
was tried b the city authorities last car
in caring for a certain portion of the
citys waste
For a period of twelve months the re
fuse and waste gathered from Street
Cleaning Pistrlcts Nos 12 H and 16 was
delivered at a special station where It
was carefully separated Into its consti
tuent parts and such as could be utilized
for an good purpose was sold for what
It would bring and the balance was dc
stroed The area covered includeed a
population according to the census re
turns of 116 55 Z ery class of house
shop store and a few factories are to be
found within the districts so that the
results of the ears work would form a
fair basis for estimating the value of the
waste of the whole city
During the ear 12947 loads of separated
refuse ftom carts holding four cubic
ards weighing 9W pounds per load or
In tho aggregate i ij tons were gath
ered from tliis territory Of this amount
S8 per cent to CO per cent was burned
as uselcs and from 5 to 8 per cent was
worthless while about 37 ier cent was
marketable The matter reserved for
sale contains 30S8 C16 pounds of paper
which was classified as follow Mtnlla
paiier 471 ST pounds news W301 mixed
442 8W strawboard 72C8 mixed wrap
ping 23 136 books 1S20
There was a total of 576 812 pounds of
rags classified as follows Woolen Ik -a
white I14J0 mixe d 11C5M black
195S2J bagging 4865 twine 21 C70 soft
back carpet lSTG hardback carpet 79 -820
wool carpet 3 915 llnsey carpet 7lb0
old coets fJU stockings 4SDJ
Among other articles there were found
SOslO pounds of old Iron 431 pounds of
copper 2109 pounds of zinc 1W7 pounds
of brass 3C pounds of lead 976 pounds
of old rubber AVti pounds of old shoes
404 pounds of hair cloth 7C pounds of
curled hair 2109 old lints ti lpads of tin
cans 40 mattresses 2 8W barrels and
292Uj proprictnrv liottles Besides all
this it must lie remembered there was
au immense amount of matter of all
clasres gathered b the countless number
of rag and garbage collectors who do a
business independent of the city depart
ment
Takirg these figures as a basis for es
timating the amount of refuse concerted
from the boroughs of Manhattan and
Hrnnx for Ibis ear at the same time al
lowing for the natural increase It would
amount te 112000 tons for twelve months
Aliout 32 perl cent or KSIO tons repre
sents the paper and rags
It is interesting to note that the dally
newspapers In New York consume sio
tons of paper per da of which it Is es
timated one half remains In the city and
Is not sent into circulation through the
malls This one half will asa iunt to G3
K70 tons during the ear To this vast
paper heap must bo added the immense
stack of printed mutter such as circu
lars posters advertising letters etc and
the refuse from the weekly and monthly
publications
Aliout one half of this vast total of
waste paper finds Its way back to the
manufacturer through private channels
while much of It is consumed In the fur
naces of office buildings Institutions and
the like with most unsatisfactory results
For example- the Federal authorities In
their building downtown undertake to
elestroy large quantities of paiicr nnd ow
Imj to the fierce draft due to the tall
chimncs nnd the poor combustion half
burnt paper is distributed impartially
over the neighborhood
For weeks together last summer tho at
mosphere of a section Including parts of
Hroael Wall and Exchange Street was
at certain hours loaded with floating
ashes and half burned scraps of paper
anel on several elavs in particular the
walks and pavements In the vicinity of
the Custom House were literally carpeted
with tharred fragments of burned Gov
ernment records
Thrso crude methods of disposing of
this particular kind of waste are bound
to become a thing of tho past very soon
for step3 are nnyr under way whereby a
moelemUd destructor one which is pat
terned after an U destructor win
wnole muscular sjiem comes uuu nvij
nrtinn nnd nnv restraint that Is DUt Upon
this form of activity creates a necessity
for other outlets Men In anger may
perhaps be obliged to repress ever overt
act and every expression of emotion ex
cept facial movements or some form of
vocalization Profanity Is therefore a
safety valve - If a man did not swear
ho would do something worse It may be
likened to the engine blowing off steam
Irof Patrick Insists however that this
theory is not altogether satisfactory to
him He raises both psychological and
phsological objections to it some of
which will impress the average reader as
a trifle abstruse Hut ho also urges that
swearing is more than a mere expression
of emotion It is designed to produce an
effect on somebod else He traces Its
origin back to the animal instinct to fight
or fly when attacked In a primitive stage
of existence the creature would In Ihe
former instance shbw Its teeth get Its
back up and spit or growl All of this
behavior would be intended to put the
enemy to flight sajs Prof Patrick who
adds The human analogue of the growl
or roar of anger Is the profane oath
One can easilv recall situations to which
this explanation does not seem to nppl
When a mans collar button rolls under
the bed or the bureau for Instance and
he Indulges in unparliamcntar language
It can hardly bo imagined that he delib
erately alms to intimidate the eluslvejblt
of metal Still it may be that the Jowa
professor Is referring only to the evolu
tion or the swearing Instinct in man and
does not intend that his theor shall ex
plain each particular manifestation of It
The hpothesls advanced to acount for
the habit of swearing leads naturally to
Prof Patrick s explanation of the form
of mens oaths thesreckless use of tha
names of the Deity the saints and sacred
things Assuming that this motive Is or
was when tne practice originated to
shock or startle it would be hard to flnel
a better way to accomplish the object
than the practice which is forbidden by
the third commandment
Here again the tneor falls to cover all
the observed facts however accurate It
may fit a tew There are some oaths the
precise significance of which Is obscure
Rut on the other hanel there ore many
which dbrtincti call down the curse of
Heaven upon the person addressed and
are meant to do so And It is probable
that a good deal of the swearing that
Irof Patrick has In mind is made up of
contractions from what were originally
well defined maledictions the most em
phatic form of expressing a wish that
evil beidily or spiritual might befall
someboily There Is more in an oath of
this kind than shocking the sensibilities
of the subject
LOPSIDED MEN AND VTOMEir
Different rn Iletween the IOKS I3j es
and inrs of enrlj Kverj body
From tlic New Sork Sun
The two Bides of a persons face are
never alike The ees are out of line in
two cases out of five and one ee is
stronger than tho other In seven persons
out of ten The right ear is also as a
rule higher than the left
Onl one person in fifteen lias perfect
ees the largest percentage of defects
prevailing among falr h ilred people
bhort sight Is more common In town than
among country folk and of all people
the Germans have the largest proportion
of short sighted persons
The crystalline lens of the eye Is the one
portion of the human body which con
tinues to increase in size throughout life
and deies not cease with the attainment
of maturity
The smallest Interval of sound can be
better distinguished with one e ar thtn
with both The nails of two fingers never
grow with the same raplditv that of the
middle linger growing the fastest while
that of the thumb grows the slowest
In lftv four cases out of a hiindred the
left legls stronger than the right The
bones of nn average human male skele
ton weigh twenty pounds those of a wo
man are six pounds lighter
That unrul member the tongue of a
woman la also smaller than that of a
man given a man and a woman of e qual
size and weight It may be appalling to
reflect but it Is nevertheless true that
the muscles of the human Jaw exert a
force of over MO pouneis
The smmetry which Is the sole Intelli
gible ground for our Idea of beauty the
proportion between the upper and lower
half of the human body exists in near
all males bat Is never found In the fe
male American limbs are more smme
trlcal than theise of any other people The
rocking chair according to an English
scientist is responsible for the exercise
which Increased the beauty of the lower
limbs ihe push which the toes give to
keep the chair In motion repeated and
repeated makes the instep high the calf
tound and full and It makes the ankle
delicate and sleueler
British women are said to average two
Inches more in height than Americans
Averages for the height of women show
that those born In summer nnd autumn
arc taller than those born in spring or
winter The tallest girls are born In
August
As far ns bos are concerned those
who first see the light during autumn and
winter are not so tall as those born ns
spring and summer Those born In No
vember arc the shortest in July the tall
est
An average head of falr hnlr consists of
143 040 hnlrs elark hair of 105000 while a
rexl head Ins onl 3200 Fair haired peo
ple are becoming less numerous than
formerly
A person who has lived seventy ears
has had pass through his heart about
C73920 tons of blooeL the whole of the
blood in the body passing through the
heart In nbout thirty two beats The
heait beats on nn uverage of seventy
times a minute or 2C792CW times in the
course of a ear so tlmi the heart of
nn ordinary eighty jears of age
has beaten 3OO0fMO00 times The heart
beats ten strokes a minute less when one
is lying down than when one Is In nn up
right position
ANTIQUITY OMHE HORSE
j
The Pir t Was Aljout the Size of a
Common lNil Fox
A
t
Aiieentry f e Inulnr Plodders of
the Present JUnj V Snnlior of
Quadruped Denizens Mutintnlii
Ifnnces Once i Hail Four Toes
Ho was only an old horse harnessed to
a ramshackle wagon whose wheels made
zigzag markings on the Pennsjlvanla
Avenue asphalt The harness was a com
bination of carpet rope and leather One
ear drooped llstlesslj Ills bony skeleton
was easily traceable through the Tusty
hide The underllp pendulatedln unison
with the movement of the head Only
an old horse an epitome of equine des
pair et that horse had a pedigree and
an ancestr whose antieiuity antedated
that of the proudest nobles of Europe by
millions of ears The knee sprung fore
legs and sprained Joints teild a story re
plete with genealogical Interest and the
gnarled boofs gav e hint of a glorious his
tory when his ancestr hounded In un
bildleel freedom over the hills and plnins
of the world of antlqult These were tho
daS when the world was oung nnd ani
mal life first made Its appearance The
earth was a paradise of beauty when
tree and flower grew and bloomed in rank
abandance The excess of plant life pre
sented the flnst conditions for the en
trance of a new form of life that of the
living animal
Among the first of the higher order of
animals to people this Garden of Eden
was the H rocathere the equine Adam
and Eve the ancestor of the modern
horse He was only a little fellow no
larger than our common red fox He had
a long tall short legs and was four toed
The earth at that time was low and
marshy and the long grass and tall v egc
tatlon completely hid the horse of an
tlqult from the hnge beasts which
roamed about tire lagoons and marshes
around about him They were huge
beasts whose helghi and bulk would
rdwurf the largest elephant of today They
were slow moving animals Their stout
legs and broad feet with numerous toes
spreading apart when the weight Is borne
by them were suitlelently well aelapted
for plodding deliberation over marshes
and leldlng surfaces
But after awhile the surface of the
earth began to change The marshy
lands began to rise and the water drained
away The land Fttjl continued to rise
Ule some hugeglant awaking from a
Ions sleep until the Rocky Mountains
and the high lands of the Continent of
America reachejlthe sky and left the fly
ing clouds far below1 like Blocks of fright
ened birds
M
Kl
Z3
llonen of Iamons Horses
A new era was now born A change had
come demanding a modlficition In the
animal form and habit Most of the
forms of animal life were adapted so
completelv to the conditions which pre
vailed b fore the elevation of the earths
surface that a new adaptation was Im
possible with them and the perished and
became extinct 1or a time however
they remained confined in the pockets
formed by the mountains when they
arose These pockets or vaite s continued
dmp and marsh but so limited in
aret as eomp ireel to the pre mountaln
period tint the unadaptable nnimals per
ished by the score This fact explains
wiiy so many fossil remains of prehis
toric animals are found in limited are as
and In large numbvs
Of these prehistoric animals only three
have left descendautSjWhich are represent
ed by living creatures today These aro
the tapir the rhinoceros and tho horse
For some unknown reason they were en
abled to adapt themselves to the changed
conditions and tnils Jvere saved f rom ex
tinction Of the three tpes the tapir
and rhinoceros reiimin but little changed
They live under- conditions similar to
that which surrouiMled their origin
Thev still haunt low marsh spots In
hot countries Tiielr lliodles ure adapted
to such an envlreianont The tapir lias
chanjesl the least the rhinoceros slightly
more than the pjrK but the horse has
undergone such a radical change as to
mark him the o wcrtuure possessing the
potentials necesKar to survive He was
the animal Noah vvhoje ark of potentiali
ty saved him when the flood of change
covered the earth and all living forms
perishe d
Let him who bewails his diminutive
stature take heart and learn of the little
four toed horse for It was because cf his
littleness in part that he was saved and
was enable to surround himself with the
condition which would make him big Ue
lnr n little animal his means of protec
tion from the onslaughts of his larger
neighbors was flight He must run away
from them bpenl then was what he most
needed When the earths surface veas
fiat and low he could not hope to find a
spot where he would not be found b his
enemies Hut when the land arose he
found a land condition where he could
be practically undisturbed by the nnrsh
dvvelllng Titans To the highlands
therefore he wenU Hut the change from
moist ielding sell to firm unield ng
ground demanded a modification in tho
feet and legs of nn animal whose limbs
had been molded to suit the former con
ditions
Vegetation was rot so ranic
aJJu on tho highlands r
and
bottom lands Hence there was a neces
sity for the little four toed horse to do
a greater amount of hustling nbout for
his diincr There was In consequence a
greater demand made upon his legs and
toes and that lncrased demand Is re
sponsible for the disappearance of the
toes and for the development of the hoof
of the horse as wo see him toda
A gance at the picture of the skele
ton of the prehistoric four toed horse
will discover tho second toe to bo the
longest This toe touched the ground
llrst and sustained more of the weight
of the animal than the remaining toes
Lse causes development and it is evi
dent therefore that the largest toe hav
ing a greater amount of work to do grew
In size and strength finally leaving the
remaining toes as mere wangling append
ages utterly useless as aids to locomotion
A good illustration of this is to rest the
tips of the lingers of the hand on the ta
ble It will be found that the middle lin
ger alone touches the table the other fin-
J J J 1
Skeleton of l Prehistoric Horse
gers sjspended In the air This Is pre
clselv the condition the ancient horse
found when he stood on hard unlelding
ground The soft muck of the marshes
gave ample opportunity for each toe to
functionate In the process of locomotion
but on hard ground the second toe did the
greater part of the work
Ihe prehistoric horse did not however
stand on the Up- of his toes as the cut
will show All of the toes touched the
grounel and sustained a part of the
w eight but to n less degree than tho
second too which developed at the ex
pense of the remaining toes In conse
quence The principle In animals which
produces callouses on parts of the body
where friction nnd wear come was the
cause which developed the nail of tho
seconel too into the hoof of the horse
The modern horse now- walks upon the
tip of the remaining toe the others
either having become obliterated cr
show In the skeleton as mere splints
alongside of the main bone undergoing
iii
W
Toes UnilerRoIng Ruelfmcntntlon
a process of dwindling away or rudlmen
tatlon as It is called Some skeletons do
not have these splints but only the ar
ticulator grooves or facets showing
where thev originally articulated
In the Notional Museum can be seen
the skeletons of two horses famous in life
as racers which beautifully show the ru
dimentary remains of the bones of the
original toes One is the skeleton of Old
Henry Clay the progenitor of the fa
mous Clay famil of Kentucky race
horses He was ioaled In 1S37 and died in
isr7
The other skeleton Is that of Lexing
ton another famous race horse Lexing
ton was foated In 1S3 and died twenty-
five years later in 1S75 IIi sustained but
one defeat In the many t ces he ran
The accompanIng cut shows the rear
view of the foreleg of Old Henry Clay
and the hind leg of Lexington Here at
the knee joint In the one are seen the rudl
mentar remains of ther metacarpal bones
of two of the original toes sUll attached
In their articulator facets at the joint
These bones are from six to eight inches
long and slope to a sharp point at the
lower end Sometimes the lower knob
like end of the bone is found at Uie ankle
Joint with the lower hair or third of the
shaft wanting as Is shown In figure X
The long bones of the higher animals in
cluding man grow thinner as they ap
proach the centre of the shaft until as
ln the fibula one of the two bones of the
leg from the knee tc the ankle the be
come somewhat attenuated In the atro
phic or dwindling process of rudimenta
tlon the attenuateel portion will disappear
entirely before the much thicker ends
This accounts for the section wanting as
shown in the thirel cut
This cut shows a front and side view of
obsolete toes undergoing n process of ru
elimentation due to useiessness on account
of the superior length and development
of the second toe
Rudimentary bodies -are useless strutK
ures which once performed a service val
uable to the vital econom but which
have become useless from changed con
ditions In the boely of the animal due to
the demauds made upon the creature b
changed external conditions The vermi
form appendix that vexing portion of the
human anatomy is a rudimentary organ
Rudimentary or vestlslal parts nre al
wajs In a degenerative state vestiges of
a once more developed condition The
horse In his present condition is one of
the most modern of animals
In tracing the history and afflrities of
animals rudimentary organs are regard
cd by naturalists as far more important
than highly developed or functional parts
As Darwin sas they ma be compareel
with letters of a word still retained ir the
f
4
Kndimenlnrr loe Heine
Mtsslnir hectlou
Miov Iiir
spelling but become useless in pronuncia
tion lut which serve as clews for its
derivation
With the development of the foot to one
hoofed toe an Increase In sliced natu
rally follows All the strength of the
muscles of locomotion is concentrated
noon the toe the bones of which luive be-
come longer and stronger throwing tho
ankle Joint farther up away from the
ground until In tho modern horse the
original ankle joint becomes the knee Joint
In the fore leg and the hock Joint in the
hind leg By Increasing the elevation of
the Joint from the ground a greater lever
age lit gained thus increasing the forward
spring of the horse when running This
it Is evident Increases his speed By tho
lengthening of the bones th animal be
comes larger wmen Is assisted ty tne law
oi natural sejecuon further facilitated uy
man until the modern horse has grown
from a little animal nbout the size of a
poodle dog to ona of the large animals
vnoiner rudimentary part whlcb can
be plainly seen on any modern horse Is
the hornv wnrt at the knee and hock
Joints These warts are known to horse
men as ergots and aro placed on the In
ner side of the leg and In some horses
project an Inch or mora from the leg
These are the rudimentary remains of the
plantar surface or sole of the foot upon
which the prehistoric horse rested It
Is Identical with the harel rough surface
of the sole of a dogs foot and corre
sponds In Its relation to other parts of
the sole of trie foot to the heel part of
a man s sole In high bred horses these
warts do not appear large nor are they
apt to be found projecting far from the
leg They are attached to the hide In fact
are a modified part of the skip In
low bred nnimals the- are larger and
more apparent This Is because low bred
animals are nearer the original type
There Is alwaS a Intent tendency to
revert or throw- back to original
tfes nnd occasionally a horse Is foaled
which has one or more undevelopeel toes
or hoofs on one or all fqjjr feet Caesar
rode such a freak horse mention of which
his been made bv his contemrjoraneous
biographers and historians The two
nones which mnlre tin the letr nf a hnrse
existed as separate bones in tho
iuit tiuiiuai uul in ines muuern uuise
hvvo grown together This associated
with gradual Increase In speeel especially
on firm liard ground has made the mod
ern horse one of the swiftest of animals
and has added to his strength of limb
IXOWEBS HAVE XHEIB BANK
Scntimental llecnreli for Floral
Glories In the Orfc nt
From the St Louis Globe Democrat
With such titles us ten thousand times
sprinkled with gold and disheveled hair
in morning sleep fresh In his memory
and coming from ra land where the ar
rangement of fiowcrs Is part of the edu
cation it must be something of a shock
to tho Japanese visiting this country to
hear the prosaic names we bestow on our
chrsanthemums and to find how reck
lessly Americans arrange bouquets He
appreciates that as a naUon we arc much
less fond of flowers than are his people
and how little they mean to us in life be
yond the pleasing sensations produced by
their beauty In Japan the arrangement
of them Is pursued as an art being pro
foundly studied by men of rank philoso
phers and priests besides learned and lit
erary men ladles of the aristocracy are
allowed to pracUce the art as being likely
to inspire such estimable virtues as gen
tleness self elenial forgetfulness of care
and splrltualit A life time is Indeed
not too long for the Japanese either man
or woman to devote to an understanding
of the subtile meaning conveed by flow
ers and tho rigorous rules necessary to
observe in producing with them the best
artistic results
In Japan the peony although acknowl
edged to be the roal llower of China is
still the favorite of the upper classes It
is given on occasions of Importance the
position of honor on the dais in the prin
cipal recess never Is It placed in the cen
ter of the room nor on a shelf and no
other flower is allowed to come near Its
roal presence Sometimes art dictates
that two black twigs shall be grouped
behind It the thought being to enhance
by contrast Its abundant life and beauty
The lotus flower also Is conceded to have
roj al national rank and Is called the
King of Indian Powers On festive days
the Japanese nev er use it as they asso
ciate it enUrely with the spirit of the
dead Tho roal llower of Japan of
course is the chern blossom The Idea of
floral rank Is one to which the Japanese
are very sensitive and the established
laws of precedence must be closely ad
hered to in the arrangement of their flow
ers To an American it seems perhaps
inexplicable that the should have placed
tbe purple wistaria high above the white
which they mostly exclude from their
compositions
Irises stand very high In rank but are
regareled as difficult of arrangement and
therefore the most arbitrary rules have
been evolved In their composition With
one large flower but three leaves are al
lowed with two flowers seven or fifteen
leaves are used three flowers are given
thirteen leaves and live flowers are fur
nished with eleven leaves
So deftl are thoughts conveed by the
arrangement of flowers In Japan that
often verbal messages are unnecessary
In November the coquette sends toiler
lover a leaf or branch of maple Like
It he translates her love has changed
On farewell occasions those called re
turning flowers because they bloom
twice a ear are used to subtly express
the hope of a safe return Before peope
that are 111 blossoms of a sturdy vigor
ous growth -are placed that health and
streugth may be suggested Only very
gay Uowers are strewn In profusion when
supplications are made for those in af
fliction Pravers for rain are accompan
ied by large floral pieces so arranged as
to point from right to left that the east
wind bringing rain may be honored and
very naturally the reverse order typlf
ing the west wind Is emploed when fair
weather Is desired
Border of the thin mist shades of the
evening sun waves In the morning sun
companion of the moon snow on the leaf
of the bamboo moons halo spray capped
wave starlit night beacon light tho sky
at dawn the first snow and golden dew
are among the many imaglnatlv e and pret
ty names the Japanese bestow on their
chr santhemums thesS flowers which
appeal so strongly to their poetic natures
In the arrangement of them the are v en
careful arid guard against seven faults
their stems must not be of the same
length a single blossom must not turn
Its back nor present its full face three
flowers must not appear to form a tri
angle they must not be hidden by leaves
nor must the be arranged In the wa of
steps an open full blossom should never
be placed at the base of the composition
and one odd one should not fall between
two oUiers alike In color
EEHOIC SUBGICAL WORK
Resuscitation UfTcctetl by
a Vlaun Heurt
From the New vorV Tribune
remarkable storv is told In a Danish
medical periodical relative to the treat
ment of a patient who had become as
nhvxlited from the administration of
chloroform The operating surgeon was
a certain Dr Maag but the method
which he emplOed had previously been
suggested b Dr Prus of Lernburg
A laborer twenty seven years old who
hid suflered from sciatica was to be
operated upon to relieve that trouble
Chloroform was given and the Perat on
struggled bowev eland
beguu The patient
and when the process of anaesthesia was
carried further he stopped breathing
Several expedients were resorted to in order
but in vain
respiration
der to restore
And there was no longer any pulse
in this emergent Dr Maag opened the
chest detached portions of the third and
fourth ribs two and a half lrches long
anu turned them back with the flap of
flesh Through the oponlng thus made
he thrust his hand The heart was flrm
lv grasped and compressed rhythmically
that organ began to
After a few squeezes
fvr - ii i -a no necessarv to em
compression again at times and also
ploy artificially But b
to Inflate the lungs
was kept alive
hese means the patient
for eleven hours and a rnlf and Dr
Maag is inclined to believe that the man
would have recovered were it not that
one- of the pleura was accidentally punc
tured
VVenltti In Forests
From the Chicago Inter Ocean
Fifty thousand citizens of Indiana are
emnlojed in the wooel Industry and re
ceive annually n5 0j0000 in wages The
product of this labor brings IA00OOOJ
each ear to Indianas manufactures
This was the statement of Mr John P
Brown Secretary of the Indiana Fores
tr Association in a recent address lie
believes that the first centurv of Indi
anas hlstor will measure the end of
Indiinas forests
When Indiana was organized as a biate
boundaries 2S 000 square
there were In her
miles of valuable woods There are now
miles In all the prairie
onl 4V00 square
States 41JTO square miles In the lake
States and S0W0 square m ilea In the
States Mr
manufacturing
Central or
ISrown eleclares that the greater part of
the Indiana forests has disappeared that
almost Its entire
the State now imports
consumption of timber that the walnut
cherry poplar maple ash and other val
uable trees are practically gone He esU
mates that if the fi 5O0W acres of rough
lands and swamps not suited for agricul
ture in Indiana could be offorested It
would add to the States material wealth
jao OeWuwl I would double the value of
Indiana s land assessment whereas If th
rough lands are to remain as at present
no income can be hoped for
EXHIBIT OF THE SCHOOLS
National InstitutiondofLearningat
the IiuiTuo Exposition
Cln s Exercises rortrnyert 1r
tlloffrnpli nnd StereopttU
con Reeorili Method of Trnehrrm
nnd Replica of the PnplU Shown
A novel educational exhibit to form a
feature of the forthcoming Pan-American
Exposition Is in course of preparation
here It Is intended to show the form
of class exercise employed in every gradu
of the public schools from the first to
those of the normal school by means of
graphophone blograph and stereoptlcon
records thus appealing to the eye and tha
ear of the spectator and reproducing
vlv Idly In a life like manner the methods
of the teacher and the response of tho
pupil National educational systems will
be thus represented front the publlo
schools of Washington Annapolis Car
lisle Indian School and West Point Tho
only portion of the exhibit completed ara
the graphophone records from the Wash
ington schools These are now stored In
a room at the Bureau of Education
Building
W C Boykcn of the Bureau of Edu
cation Is the originator of the scheme
and Judging from the results already oo
taine1 he has reason to be gratified with
Its success Contrary to expectation tho
records of the exercises of the younger
pupils are If anything the best Tho
manner In which the talking machine re
produces the replies of the Juveniles Is
both amusing and wonderful the effect
being perfectly natural and realistic
There are some choice specimens of tho
customary mistakes of young pupils and
every inflexion of the voice Is faithfully
caught by the Instrument from the burst
of shrill confidence jot the smart boy
to Uie hesitation- of the conscious delin
quent together with the demure tone of
tho sweet little maid As the classes
mount hlsher and the voices of the pupils
become deeper the effect Is less diverting
but still very good In the actual exhib
it stereoptlcon pictures of the respectlva
classes will accompany the sound records
and a more delightful et practical
method or showing tho system employed
la the public schools of the District could
hardly be conceived
Twenty seven classes Including all
grades will be thus represented in addi
tion to which there will be twelve blo
graph scenes unaccompanied by dialogue
Each graphophone and blograph record
will last but little over one minute la re
producUon The graphophone and ste
reoptlcon records of the Dlstrfct schools
will comprise the following
First Grade Language lesson Miss Rld
dieberger teacher Denolson School a
number lesson same grade Miss Caspa
rl Taloe School and another language
lesson Miss Talor teacher Garnet
School colored Second grade A compo
slon reading Miss Getty teacher Dennl
son School study of the markets Miss
Breen teacher Franklin SchooL Third
grade Local geography Miss Goodman
teacher Wallach School nature study
subject rodents Miss Kupfer teacher
Harrison School Fourth grade Litera
ture and old Greek story Miss Lackey
teacher Wallach School history MIsa
Williamson teacher Tayloe School Fifth
grade ArlthmeUc Miss Lackey teacher
Dennlson School geography Miss Dodge
teacher Blair School Sixth grade Phy
siology Mr Rlordon teacher Greenlsaf
School literature subject Evangeline
Miss Hoover teacher Force SchooL Sev
enth grade History Miss Slpe teacher
Webster School arithmetic Miss Osslr
teacher Grant SchooL -Eighth gradj
Civics subjoct Supreme Court Miss
Rawlings teacher Hilton School litera
ture subject Snowbound Miss PatU
son Franklin School technical grammar
Miss Handley teacher Seaton School al
gebra Miss Gibbs teacher Sumner
School colored
Among the high schools the following
classes will be represented First begin
ners class In German Dr Sanhoofd
teacher phslcs Dr Roszel teacher
American history Mr Wilson teacher
literature subject Macaulaa Essay on
MUton Miss Helen M Renolds teach
er biology subject Respiration Mr
Thomas teacher colored high school
French Mr Fontaine teacher
There are two records from the Normal
school first preparation for lesson on
the pine Miss Brown teacher second
songs taught teachers ia training for use
in the primary schools Miss BenUey
teacher
The blograph pictures will comprise the
following 1 kindergarten visiting
game director Miss McKnew Seaton
School 2 Lesson on the hen first
grade Miss Rlddleberger teacher Den
nlson Building 3 and 4 Phsical train
ing of white and colored pupils 5 Natura
stud Lesson on the Rabbit Miss
Kupfer teacher Harrison School 6
Cooking lesson 7 Cutting fitting and
sewing i Ph ileal exercises of high
school girls Miss Walton teacher 9
Laboratory scene la one of physical
sciences 10 Battalion drill of High
School Cadets 11 Wood turning and
bench work Manual Training High
School 12 Forging Manual Training
High School
The exhibit will be given a separate
hall the Government Building at the
Pan American Exposition and will form
three entertainments dally It Is pretty
certain that the Annapolis and Carlisle
Schools will be represented though tha
same cannot be yet said of West Point
WARD OF A TBUST COMPANY
ThrimhiuK n Rnnenl ns rart of tha
Corporations Duty
From the New vork Tribune
As the members were finishing their ci
gars in the club smoking room tho con
versaUon drifted to Uie soullessncss of
corporations That sort of talk is all
v ery w ell said the man from the West
but I hav e a story to show that the rula
lias at least one exception Some years
ago the trust company I represent
through the death of a client becama
guardian of the interests of his widow
who was a minor and an orphan Tha
oung woman was Impressionable and
sodn after her husband s death becamo
infatuated with a worthless fellow who
though a married man gained her prom
ise to elope with him Suspecting soma
such action on his part we induced the
girl to visit friends who might have been
expected to keep a reasonable oversight
or her In spite of our precautions how
ever the man made an appointment with
her met her and was about to drive
oft with her when an agent of ours who
had been detailed to observe his move
ments appeared administered a sound
thrashing to him and advised him to
leave town lest a worse thing befall him
He chose to sta and cause the arrest or
our man for assault and battery Wa
retained the best counsel available
the case and finally won but at a
cost considerably greater than the value
of the small trust we held if trust for
the widow and we just charged it to
profit and loss and never rendered a bill
We figured that it had been our duty a
the Blrl s guardian to safeguard her hon
or as welt as her property Just as her
father or brother would have done If she
had had either and thats what we did
And I suppose she took another oppor
tunity to run awa with the rascal after
all suggested a listener
That s the funn part of It- She was
deeply grateful to us after the affair was
over and In the course of a ear or two
married a reall nice fellow
Conrtesy Snved Him
From London Spare Moments
Wlt has often saved an offender from
punishment in military as well as In clvU
Not long since a non commissioned of
ficer entering a barrack gate In Dublin
fresh on sentry
w as mistaken by the one
try who Immediately camo to the shoul
der
The noncora unaware that his colonel
was Just behind returned the salute a
thing not permissible In the circum
stances Arrived at his quarters he
shorto itelved an order to attend be
fore the colonel
On presenting himself he was askea
how he camo to return the salute know
ing full well he was not entlUed to It
Not la the least embarrassed ha
promptly answered
Sir I always return everything I am
not entitled to
His ready wit pleased the colonel who
laughingly dismissed him

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