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The times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, March 31, 1901, Second Part, Image 20

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The History of the-
Copyright 1KO ly Tlic Sun Muting ami PiiMhMii
MOTIVES which have actesl
upon religion in the nineteenth
century cither by wa of dlrect
1 enhancing Its power or by re
stricting Its Influence are these
1 Humanltarlanism 2 Die Historical
Spirit 3 Science I Nationalism Al
though the course of religious history lias
varied somewhat in different countries as
well as in the different Churches rt It Is
possible to form an approximate picture
of the resultant of these forces which
t III recul the progress of the Kingdom
of God in tiie world
The first of these motives humanltar
ianlsni has powerfully Influenced the
Chrlstl m world by asserting the rights
of man liberty equality and the spirit
of fraternity the sense of human brother
hood The germs of the humanitarian
movement may be traced in the eight
eenth century as in the teaching of Lcs
lng and Herder and Rousseau in re
ligious movements like the great awak
ening In the United States the revival in
England under Wesley and Whitefield In
tentative efforts for the abolition ot
sliver Hopkins and Clarkson and
prison reform John Howard Hut the
nineteenth century has been distinguished
abov o all the other Christian centuries In
the results achieved by the sentiment of
humanity It has led to the abolition of
slavery under English rule In the United
States and in Russia to many reform
movements of every kind and degree
wherever there existed actual or latent
tyrann which robbed humanlt of Its
liherent privileges
The humanitarian sentiment is Chris
tian in Its origin derived primarily from
the conviction of the incarnation of God
in Christ Christ appears in history as
the leader of hurranlt in the struggle
for freedom Sowly but surely ever
since his advent the world of man has
leen moving forward to the attainment
of the Ideal of humanlt rev ealed In him
Ye f luill know the truth and the truth
shall make you free And If the Son ot
God shall make ou free e shall be Tree
lndeeii The progress toward freedom
inspired by him who taught the father
hood of God and the brotherhood of men
lias been accomplished in the face of j
gr at hindrances and long reverses ov er
comlng obstacles which would have been
insuperable without Christian faith In
tha nineteenth century the movement J
toward human freedom seems almost to
have reached its culmination Within
the sphere of religion the progress is
most manifest in the spread of Christian
missions which stand out in an review
of the century as one of Its most ex
traordinary achievements It mlght be
jistl designated as a missionary age
So intense find persistent lias been its
devotion to the gospel of Christ as essen
tial for inan that when the century closed
it might be truly rail that the round
world had been girdled with ChrUtian
missions whose results are more sig
nificant for civilization as well as for
religion than any statistics can reveal
The missionary has been the pioneer it is
lx comlng Increasingly evident of mo
mentous changes et to appear
The sentiment of humanlt has operated
as a motive in the study ot human his
tory giving to historical enquiry a new
interest and impetus No age has been
so frultrul in the results of historical re
search with conclusions of vital impor
tance for every department of life but
chiefi this that an independent place has
been vindicated for humanity as having
a life of Its own distinct from and above
the natural order of the ph steal world
The stud of man as he appears in his
tory lias tended to strengthen faith In
the esential truths of religion opening
up as it has done the deeper knowledge
of the nature of man to which the re
ligion of Christ appeals for the modern
method of studIng history as compared
with earlier methods consists In seeking
for those Inward subjective moods of the
human soul which lie beneath creeds or
Institutions and not solely In the accu
rate description of the objective fact The
facts ot human life call for interpretation
and for this the historian must search
Thus has been born what Is almost n new
department of enquiry the philosophy ot
history Hegel and many others Differ
as do these attempts at a philosophy of
histor they jet possess one ruling Idea
the conviction of a development in the
life of humanlt when viewed as a whole
The idea of development controlled the
higher Intellectual life of the first halt
of the century It was applied with im
portant results to the study of ecclesias
tical history by Schlsiermacher Neander
Sleseler Baur Kothe Bunsen and man
others by the Itoman Catholic Mohler In
his Smbollk and by John Henry New
man In however one sided and imperfect
manner The doctrine of development
found its classic formula In the lines of
set I doubt not through the age
One increasing purpose rum
And the tlioughts of xmn are widened
With the process of the suns
The Influence of the doctrine of devel
opment has been felt In the study ot Scrip
ture leading to a recognition of progress
iveness in the divine revelation whose
record has been preserved in the Old and
New Testaments Mozle Ruling Ideas
In the Early Ages 11 means of this
truth have been overcome till they now
seem unworthy the objections to the Old
Testament on the ground that it gave
function to cruelty deceit or an Imperfect
morality But the Inference has also fol
lowed that the revelation of God to hu
manlt must be searched for in the sacred
records and even by the light of close
critical scrutiny if the divine utterance
la to be distinguished from crude misap
prehensions or misapplications Iorms of
literary expression current usages the
historical environment of the time for
theso allowance must be made ns their
Influence is recognized The science of
biblical criticism has gained from the
study of general history a larger knowl
edge of the nature of man whicL In turn
has made the study of the Bible more
profound and thorough because more real
ana human than were the biblical studies
of the eighteenth century The prlniar
question which It has been found neces
sary to ask Jn regard to any doctrine or
institution Is cot whether it Is true -for
the canons of truth may vary with the
relative position of the enquirer but
rather what does It mean When the
meaning of the record Is seen the ques
tion of Its truth has answered Itself
The effect of these studies even or what
Is called the higher criticism ha- not
lessened the autborltv the Bible or
hanged the character of Chrlstl inlt as
n religion of the book but their ten
dencj his Ixen to vindicate the unique
and essential place of the Bible In llteri
ture is containing the veritable record of
a divine reveintuin Some things imbed
hive bun changed the order in vhich
the books of the Bible were written Is not
the order In which they stand some of
them are of coniposito authorship who e
various parts were written at different
times the traditional chronology known
at Usshers Ifwfil has been abandoned
nor Is then- anj thing in the Bible which
places It in opposition to the teachings
of geology relative to the length of time
during which man lias occupied the earth
tin historical order of priest and prophet
has been reversed so that the voice of
propheev comes before the decline Into
ritual Wellhausen and others Popular
misapprehensions tend to vanish in the
light of a true insight and interpretation
such as tint the first chapter of Genesis
was intended to be an infallible record of
tho divine order in tho creation of the
world Tint a similar account of the cre
ation is found in Bao Ionian liter iture
only shows that the Bible writer was
illustrating by the best scientific knowl
edge of the time the vastly higher spir
itual truth with which the Bible opens
that the creation Is the work of God
thus leading man to th worship of God
and away from the lower worships ot
sun and moon and all tho hosts of
The mechanical conceptions as to the
mode of inspiration and revelation tend
to give wj before I irger and truer
coaccptlou of the process by which the
revelation Is made that God speaks to
man nctuallv and authoritatively through
the experience of the events of life Thus
revelation becomes a living process and
all later history may become a com
mentary on acred histor renewing and
conforming the prlmil utterance of God
to the soul of m tu Much It is true et
remains ito be done in bridging the gulf
between the learned and scientific inter
im tation of the sacred record and the
popular apprehennon which formed in
the uncritical moments of smith often
persists to maturs jears and constitutes
a source ot confusion and weakness A
similar situation was seen in the Middle
Ages In the wide breach between the
scholastic theologians and the popular
A new department lias been added to
religious enquiry in Comparative Religion
which aims at an impartial lnvestlgition
and free from prejudice and Is abro
mo ed by the sentiment of a common hu
manity to respect all utterances of reli
gious feeling In the soul of man How
widely the nineteenth century lias ad
vanced in this respect is seen by recall
ing a statement of Dr Johnson There
are two objects of curiosity the Chris
tian world and the Mohammedan world
All the rest may be considered as bar
barous One of the most representatlv e
monuments of religious scholarship In the
last century Is Prof Max Mullers Sa
cred Books of the East Some enquirers
In this unfamiliar department have work
ed under the impression that thee an
cient religions were equal in value to the
Christian revelation others even have
thought them to be In some respects su
perior And in general the first effect of
the discover that there was truth in
other religions hail a tendency to weaken
the claim of Christianity to be the abso
lute religion But as the results of the
study have been placed In their normal
perspective It becomes evident that they
only confirm the words of St Paul that
Gel has at no time left himself without
witnesses In the world Revelation also
Is seen to have been a universal process
and profound spiritual motives are to be
discerned beneath the diverse manifesta
tions of the religious Instincts Yet on
the whole the preponderating Judgment
leads to the conclusion that Christianity
contains the larger even the absolute
truth that while it confirms some fea
tures In these religions as true It con
demns others as false that Christianity
also has for one of Its essential charac
teristics an assimilative power which not
only enables but forces It to appropriate
as Its own an aspects of truth contained
In other religions which have not hither
to be en Illustrated In the ldstory of the
Christian Church Nor Is the familiar lest
applied to religions wholly an unworthy
one which Judges them by their historical
fruits or associations In accordance with
this test Confucianism is represented by
China Hinduism by India Buddhism by
Celon and Slam Meihammedanlsm by
Turkej Christianity by Europe and
The influence of the humanitarian sen
timent may be further traced In soften
ing the asperities of some forms of tra
ditional theolog as for example the
Calvinlstlu doctrine of election with Its
alternatives of reprobation or pitteiltlon
These certainly have not been the favor
ite doctrines which have commended
themselvcH to the spirit of the age The
effort has been made to bring the doctrine
of the atonement within the limits of hu
man experience It has be en found Im
possible to present the doctrine of end
less punishment after the manner of an
earlier age Many causes have combined
to deepen the sense of mstery in which
Is enveloped the deslln of man and there
has been begotten in consequence an un
willingness to dogmatize where in earlier
times such a reluctance was nut felt In
this connection may be mentioned two
religious iKxlles which took their rise
alwut the beginning of the centur Unl
versallsm proclaiming ultimate salvation
for all men and Unltarlanlsm asserting
the dignity of man and his divine endow
ment But in all the Churches alike has
the name humanizing force been fell
leading to efforts In theological
In order to make It apparent
that the primary truths of Chrlstlanlt
arc uot merely urbltrar principles or nr
rangements unrelated to life and to the
needs of the sojl but that In their essen
tial quality ihere is conformity with tin
larger rcasou ot humanity with that feel
ing for the Inhere lit worth of things ojt
of which reason proceeds and with which
Its cone luslons must conform
Thus far tho humanitarian sentiment
has been rvn srded in Its combination with
Christian faith and as giving new force
and distinction to Christian life find
thought But on the other hand it must
now be noteel tint the same force work
ing apart frem the Church and often In
oppesltlon to It has been a limitation to
Christian progress In the Trench Rev
olution humanltarlanism was associated
ith a negative destructive tendenc
which overthrew the Church disowned
God and Immortalitv and set up in the
place of deity a so called goddess of rea
son This negitlve tendercy Ins con
tinued to exist and has found constant
manifestation it has attempted the dei
fication of humanlt as though the hu
man race were worth In Itself of being
an object of worship It ins exalted man
at the expense of God conceiving of hu
manlt ns alone Immortal as compitent
to steer its own course without super
natural direction It has weakened the
sense ot nationality has Injured and en
dingerid famll life has taken away he
highest sanctions from morality and has
reduced religion from being a revelaton
from God to a purely subjective process
In the soul of man worthy of icspe ct
but withoutauthorltv It lies creates an
abnormal sensitiv eness in many direc
tions It his svaed socialistic move
ments aiming at the rights of man and
seeking to achieve universal happiness
iiut with an antagonism sometimes 1 itent
seunctimes expressed to Ged and Christ
anil the Chrlstlcn Church The prejudice
remains which had Its birth in the Trench
Revolution that religion Is a creation ot
priests for their own selfish ends anel the
Church an agency for robbing humanity
of Its rights liberty esiuallty and fra
Principles and convictions like these
found utterance in the philosophy of
Comte 1TS9 Isr7 who called himself the
founder of the religion of humanity
anel who proposed the scheme of a hu
manitarian church limited by no national
loundaries whoe only deity was man
whose ritual found a place only for great
men who had been the benefactors of the
race Theolog and metapliies were
discarded as outgrown methods of ex
plaining the phenomena of tho universe
and in the place they vacated stood the
so calleel Positive philosophy which
rejected all supernatural Influence The
church of humanity had indeed no his
tory and was a failure from its birth
But the combination first seen in Comte
ot humanltarlanism with the methods
and principles of natural science has
been the most formidable opponent
against which Christianity was ever
called to struggle- It has been represent
ed In England by John Stuart Mill and
by Herbert Spencer and many others To
the Influential writings of this school of
thinkers is due In great measure the
widespread deep seateil skepticism since
the middle of the century To the same
cause b wa of reaction are owing the
spiritualistic movement the so called
Christian Science and other kindred
tendencies toward a crude supernatural
Those who entered the controversy In
behalf of Chrlstl mil and against the ad
herents of the Positive philosophy suf
fereel at first for the lack of any adequate
philosophical method on which to rest In
the effort to overcome this stupendous
alliance between a humanltarlanism
working for tho improvement of social
conditions In combination with natural
science whose postulates Involved the de
nial of the miracle and Indeed of all su
pernatural agency agnosticism It
seemed for a time as though the
phy of Hegel would serve the purpose of
a stronghold to which Christian warriors
might resort while in the stress of a
conflict which Involved not only the re
adjustment of Christian doctrines to their
new environment but also the main
tenance of the Idea of God of the king
dom of God in this world and of n future
life for the immortal soul In Germany
stems of were worked out on
the basis of Hegelian principles which
as Interpreted by orthodox theologians
stoed for a principle of surpassing value
If It could be maintained that the life of
humanlt while dependent in the present
order on physical conditions was et
above the life in external nature with
which tho natural sciences deal that the
very definition of humanity Implies the
IKiwer of rising to the knowledge of God
Nature lias no knowledge or conscious
ness of God or Intimation of immortality
It is in bondage to natural law and with
out freeelom The life of humanity must
not be studied from the point of view of
natural science but Is seen in the records
of human history The Influence of Hegel
deepened the Interest in historical en
quiry at a moment when the absorption
in the natural sciences threatened to gain
the ascendency But the Hegelian philos
ophy for reasons which It is not possible
here to render failed to accomplish the
service expected from It It may lie tliat
the failure was temporary onl and be
cause It was not fully understood There
arose a school o thinkers the Hegelian
left wing who while retaining their ln
te rest In histor et fell under the In
fluence of the presuppositions of the nat
ural sciences Thus Strauss in his Le
ben Jesu conceiveel of the person of
Christ as a casual product of the human
imagination while Tcuerbach in his Es
sence of Chrlstlanit reached the con
clusion that religion begins ami ends in
a subjective process in the soul Thus
Instead of overcoming the Positive philos
ophy German thought gruvitatetl to the
same result with this difference pei
haps that it assumed the form of pan
theism rather than of atheism In the
Tubingen school led by 1 C Baur
whose contributions to the study of
Church history are et of high value
there was reserve about the miracle If
not Its tacit denial and a conception of
tho Christian Church as a product of hu
man origin rather than the purpose of
Iiut the effect of Strauss was beneficial
in that It sent enquirers back to the study
of the person of Christ and of his age
Never before was attention so concen
trated upon the life of Jesus as illus
trated In a large number of biographical
works too 1 trgo to be enume rated here
As a result of these studies the convic
tion grows that while there Is a local as
pect of the person of Clulst so that he
reflccte d the peculiar opinions and living
Interests of his age and availed himself
of current beliefs et he was also Infi
nitely above his time What he was and
did and said in Palestine nineteen hun
elred ears ago must lie supplemented by
what he lias been to tiie world In subse
quint ages or what he Is and Is In
the present age
hllc Christian thinkers were strug
gling with the problems raised by the
Positive philosoph the natural sciences
were commanding In an Increasing de
gree the worlds attention until Darwin
made his great discover of a la v of
evolution when it seemeet as though
natural science had become the arbiter
and final tribunal before whose Judg
ments the world must bow Thin there
followed the sharp even bitter conflict
between science and theology when
scientific men whose lives had been spent
In devotion to the stuily of natural phe
nomena were tempted to write expositions
of religious history In order to show the
fallaciousness of the religious attitude
and theologians accustomed only to the
postulates of the spiritual sphere ven
tured Into the domain of science to put
spiritual Interpretation on Its conclu
sions and discoveries It was a confusing
and pilnful moment when a subtle skep
ticism pervaded the Churches nnd haunted
even the minds or Christian believers
Now that the smoke ot the battle has
cleared away while man tragedies are
disclosed It does not apiwar tint the
Churches have been weakened b the
strife or have yl any essential truth
or ccnvlctlon The belief In God and In
his crentlon and government of the world
the incarnation of God In Christ the
miracle for which hrist stand and pre
eminently the miracle of hi resurrec
tion in a wonl the supernatural Inter
pretation of life remains unsh iken It Is
unjut to charge as has sometimes been
done dishonesty nnd a spirit ot evasion
against those who while the fierce battle
was in progress kept silence unable to
defend by fcngent argument what et
they cherished still as true
In the latter part of the centur there
came efforts at the reconstruction of the
olog In order to a better adjustment of
the Increase of knowledge regarding the
nature of God and ht relation to the
world The Joctrine of God as Immanent
In the world and not only transcendent
or abov and npnrt from It has proved
valuable In reconciling many ot the dis
coveries of history and of natural science
with the Chrlstl in faith Efforts have
also been made to simplify theology by
tho reeluction of the largo and complex
even conflicting mass of Christian tenets
and beliefs given in histor or repre
sented In various Christian sects to a
few simple principles in which all must
agree resting for their confirmation not
on metaphysics but on the genuine
Christian Instincts ns revealed in the
New Testament There has been at
tained nlsu a better philosophical method
for meetirg the dllllcultles and perplexi
ties of the age
But these attempts at the beter Inter
pretation of revealed religion and the
formation of more consistent theological
s stems have found a temporary rival In
eforts to create first of all a better ss
tcm of natural theology as It may be
called which shall take account of tho
doctrine of evolution anil other discov
eries of natural science since Pales
time and the day of the Brldgewater
Treatises Those who aim at a recon
ciliation of religion with science treat the
idea of evolution as a mediating prin
ciple by which the conflict between
science ami religion may be overcome
This effort Is the more significant In
view of the popular Interest in evolution
a wonl which has lecome almost the
watchword of the age Trom this point
of view- the Invasion of religious terri
tory by scientific men Huxlev Tyndale
Haeckcl and others and the counter-invasion
ot scientific territor by philoso
phers and theologians give promise of
some mutual understanding In the future
It remains now to turn to another mo it
pof nt motive which has affected the for
tunes of religion In the nineteenth cen
tur It may bo called Nationalism
meaning by the term that higher concep
tion of the life of tho state or nation
slowly but most eflectlvel asserting Itself
throughout the nineteenth centur never
apart from religious convictions alwas
indeed in their support and furtherance
In illustration of this point we turn again
to the French Revolution as giving the
momentum both directly and by way of
reaction to the conception ot the sacreel
ness of the State as an ultimate fact In
Gods government of the world In that
fearful outburst of the Trench people
their long pent up indignation was vented
no less against the State than against the
Church the one a elevlce of kings and
lawgivers for holding mankind in subjec
tion as the other was a scheme for the
same end by a lleslgnlng priesthood The
hunanltarian sentiment received In con
sequence at this Impressive moment a di
rection of antii ithy to nationality as an
evil to be overcome or at least to be ket
In subjection to some higher principle It
the rights of man were to be secured
Something even of this negative mood
entereil Into the formation of the Ameri
can Constitution where there Is to be
noted a singular omission of any refer
ence to deity as the author and preserver
of the national life On the Continent of
Europe there was the phenomenon of Na
poleon bulldidg onthe ruins of the Trench
Revolution while et preserving the de
structiv e motives which Inspired it Na
poleon rev ived the dream of empire In
whose expanslw embrace the nations ot
Europe were to be subordinates If not
suppresses altogether He proposed to
reconstruct the map of Europe ns though
nationalities and crowns were purely
human artificial arrangements to be dis
posed of at his sovereign pleasure
The failure of the Trench nation Its
demonstrated Inability to do the proper
work of a Stale as well as the fact that
the career of n Nafioleon was lmssible
Indicates Inherent weakness In nH tho ni
tlons of Europe at the be ginnlng of the
nineteenth century They existed either
in repose and even stagnation after the
long turmoil of the age of the Protestant
Reformation averse to change distrust
ful of enthusiasm or were content to
strive for purcl selfish uims In accord
ance with the principle that tho people
existed for the State rulers followed their
personal vvlllms Indifferent to moral
sanctions heedless of the growing evils
calling aloud for redress Such In partic
ular was the condition in Trance It w is
lietter in England but even there the na
tional selfishness hardness and cupidity
wire so strong that England became of
fensive to the world and cspeilally to the
American colonics so that after the lapse
of a hundred ears the dislike of England
still remains diply rooted in America
and It seems as if any alliance between
these peoples of common descent were
forever Impossible HoweveVthls may be
there has been a reaction against nation
ality during the nineteenth century The
nations have been forced to struggle
against this opposition ami through the
struggle they have attained their purifi
The subject is connected with the
fortunes of religion In mail ways The
j Indlffeience to nttlonallty distrust
ot the nation as incompetent for the
exigencies of life the placing of an ab
stract humanity as an Ideal above na
tionality so thai to labor directly for
the Interests ot lumanil apart from the
well being of the nation and even in its
defiance became tho motive of reformers
these character itics when seen In the
religious sphere have le d to a reaction
asalnst the varic furms or Protestant
ism nnd especiall ns represented in the
Stato Churches The Roman iithollc
Chutch which In all Its histor has sub
ordinated national distinctions to the
higher Interests of a common Christen
dom 1ml fallen into inefilelene In the
eighteenth centur and was no longer
reckoned a force worth of consideration
either by religious thinkers or b states
men But In the first third of the nine
teenth centur theie came a change
when the Roman Church arose from its
lethai gy to mett the demand imposed
upon It by the timid fears of statesmen
and icelcslustlcs as the sifeguard of re
ligion and morallt where national
Churches or particular Churches
were thought to have failed The Na
poleonic usplrntlons after universal em
pire and the frantic effort to real I re It
by rearranging or suppressing nationali
ties has its codnterpart In the religious
world In the effort to restore a Christian
Empire with the Papacy at its head a in
th Middle Ages The effect of this am
bition ma be seen In Germany and other
countries but is most clearly manifest In
England where the Oxford movement
15 1 appears as an unnatlonnl It not
anti national uprising In bfhalf ot some
Imperfect conceived cosmopolitan
Church the so called Cathollclt The
date of the Movement as Newmar
fixcel It was Kebles sermon on the
Apostacy of the Nation il Church Tills
same feeling that national existence h
Inferior in importance to humanitarian
reforms or to the expression of religion
In some other shape than In any particu
lar or n itlonal Church has b en shown
in the break with the Established Church
In Scotland or In the difficulties experi
enced in Germinv in consolidating the
forms of Protest intlsm In a strong State
Church or in the aspirations after some
universal form of religion to b accom
plished by a parliament of religions Be
neath these various schemes there is the
common principle that humanlt Is a
worthier object ef devotion than the
State and constitutes a higher Ideal In
whose cause to lalior This conviction It
may be added has been strengthened
vastl by the extraordinary way In which
durlns the nineteenth centur the whole
world lias been brought together b the
material forces of steam and electricity
That there Is here a great truth no one
can den but the point to be noticed now
Is that nationally has been at a disadvan
tage in the competition with humanity
Out of tho neces ltles of the situation
there has been born the spirit ot a deeper
enquiry into the place and significance of
tho nation as the Indispensable medium
by which the highest result can be se
cured for the world at large Thus we
have the studies in this direction of Ger
man students Hegel and Stahl Trende
lenburg and Bluntschli Maurice In Eng
1 ind and in America Mulford In ills book
The Nation all of them combating the
motive of Comte and setting forth the es
sential even the eternal significance of
nationalit The ancient doctrine is still
preserved that the people exist for the
Stale but It Is justified on the ground
that the State also exUts for the people
for the freedom of tho Individual man so
that through the State the rights of man
are better subserved nnd more securely
guaranteed than by an exclusive one
sided devotion to the cause of an abstract
As the nineteenth century drew- to Its
close It became Increasing apparent
that the nations had emerged from the
depression In which they were found when
the century opened America mi be said
to have attained the consciousness of na
tionality in its highest form In conse
quence of the civil war and to have en
tered from that time upon a new career
In that iwful conflict whose origin dates
back to the rise of the anti slaver move
ment may be discerned the Issue of the
century humanltarlanism on the one
hand contending for the rights of man
careless If neeel be for the national unity
If onlv a great reform could be secured
and on the other hand the nation
realizing that slaver was a force hostile
to national unit and Integrlt ami on
this ground demanding Its suppression
The two attitudes In this instance appear
organically related while et the spring
from distinct and separate motives In
ls70 Germany and Italy took their places
In the famll of nations Nor
there be omission to mention- Greece
which after Its subsidence for hundreds
of ears again attained Its national ln
It has become further apparent that It
is to the Protestant nations including
Russia which is also outside the pale of
Latin Christianity America Russia Eng
land and Germany It is to these na
tions that the leading place must lie con
ceded together with the determination ot
the worlds fortunes Those nations re
maining in alliance with the papacy are
for the present at least in an inferior
The triumphant assertion ot the spir
itual significance of nationality in the
latter part of the nineteenth century has
made It further apparent that the forces
working for religion and especiall for
its Protestant forms were stronger than
the forces In opposition The nation vo
ters the arena of the controversy ti a
spiritual force assuming as a first prin
ciple the existence of God and his super
natural government of the world Never
was this truth more Impressively Illus
trates than In the experience ot Lincoln
who when he became President of the
United States In the supreme crisis of its
histor ceased to be indifferent to reli
gion and passed into a devout lwlif In
the mysterious control of the destln of
the nation by a sovereign omnipotent
hand As the Indifference to nationality
was among causes ot religious doubt
and of the weakness In the Churches In
the middle of the century so the trium
phant assertion of nationality has con
tributed to turn the tide toward theistic
belief and the Christian faph
To give a full exposition of the inner
relationship of the nation to religion and
the Churches is not possible here but
some remarks ma be offered which will
tend to Illustrate their organic connec
1 In any large historical survey the
nation appears as guided by religious
leaders Religion Is seen to have flour
ished In proiwrtion as the nation Is con
scious of Its strength and destiny Whn
the Roiran Empire broke down the na
tionalities and merged them in a large
composite unity It broke elown also reli
gious faiths and its own religion as well
till skepticism was the result and a con
sequent iinmornlit All attempts to build
up religion on tho basis of empire as
distinct from nationality ended in fail
2 The Christian religion tended from
the first to break up the empire and to
restore nationality Ultlmate ly it be
came manifest that the caue which un
dermined the Roman Empire and accom
plished Its downfall was the Christian
Church In its eastern half the Empire
was r solved Into nationalities In the
west a Church Latin Christendom rose
upon its ruins but within this Latin
Christendom tho spirit of nationalit be
gan at once to work forcing Its way
against the opposition of the till
In the age of the Protestant Reformation
when nationalit was felt as a conscious
motive It sundered Latin Christendom
Into fragments
J The Old Testament in its form as
a whole- Is simply the history of a nation
frrm Its birth through all its fortunes
Never did religion rise to a diviner and
fuller expression thin under the realiza
tion of the- conviction that God was pro
tecting the- nation and determining Its
career The Hebrew prophets were prl
marll1 statesman devoted to the n itlon
allt ns the Incarnation of the- divine
vill in whose fortunes were revealed tho
divine purpose Any nation which has
not the similar conviction that It is the
chosen people of God nnd called to some
Important task cannot maintain Its In
dependence and fntegilt and has no fu
ture This conviction today Inspires the
leading nations ot the world
1 lie nation medl ites between hu
manltarlanism ami Individualism In
serving its own ends and seeking to ac
complish Its mission It works for the
good of all and also for the freedom of
the Individual man The tendency of hu
mHiiltarlonlsm as a motive upirt from
the higher life of the State or apart from
Its Impersonation in Christ as Its head
and e nder is to weaken Individualism
and to elefeat the very end It wishes to
subserve the achievement of the rights
ot man Humanity as a whole lacks the
tangible embodiment of the na
tion It has not et the consciousness ot
Itself nor of Its unity It cannot respond
to the neeels It awakens It does not as
a whole realize It3 relationship to God
nor Is It placed In such a position as to
make It feel the need ot God It is in
danger of becoming an abstraction in so
far ns it exists without relationships But
the nation Is close at hand near and felt
as a moral personality or being seeking
Ideal ends which are also within the
bounds of possibility Humanity as a
whole undertakes no enterprises which
make It tremble as It comes to unknown
trackless seas But when the nation
comes to great crises where human wis
dom Is powerless to direct its course It
falls back Instinctively and by necessity
upou the belief ir the guidance of God
Thus the nation as a whole appears In a
higher form of personality than Individ
jal men can achieve even the greatest
men and so prepares tne way for the
belief In the still higher the Invisible In
finite personality of God
3 The nation as a moral personality
and depending upon God becomes the
safeguard of morals If there has been
a decline In morality In the nineteenth
century as some maintain shown In the
general weakening of moral sanctions or
by the Increase of dlvorco and Indiffer
ence to the sacrc dness of family life It
must be attributed In some measure to
the indlffeience to nationality from the
time that political liberalism resting on
an abstract humanltarlanism or In com
bination with a scientific naturalism
gained the ascendency So far as this
tendency has In any degree Invaded the
Christian Church it has been powerless
to effect a change for the better The
great men whom humanity Is directed to
worship do uot constitute a moral stand
ard nor can scientific postulates be made
a basis for mora culture for nature Is at
least unmoral If not as some assert Im
moral and it is only as acted upon by
Belief in Il IiiUuf ncc Held bj Wine
CcIeNtlal scioixlIM
Students of the ancient scierce ot as
trology if any still exist rt a more in
telligent class than that which sometimes
appears In the police courts for having
abused the credulity of servant girls and
country bumpkins will be pleased to see
that they can still count an emperor
among true believers Reuter tells us
that the Emperor of China has ordered
his ofilcial astrologers to search for a
propitious day for the return of the Court
to Pekln No doubt It Is possible that
even In China no very great Importance
is attached to this proceeding We have
plenty of survivals ourselves In our
court ceremonials as welt as in the cut
of our dress clothes Perhaps the Chinese
recourse to astrology may also be only a
ceremonial survival or a convenient
excuse for putting off ithat famous re
turn a little longer But it is none the
less interesting to remember that the
frst definite mention of astronomy in the
world can be traced back to the predeces
sors of the Chinese astrologers who are
now called Into requisition Wo read
that HI and Ho were the royal astrono
mers or astrologers in those elas the
terms were s non mous of a very early
Chinese Emperor It was their duty to
study the heavenly movements with care
and give timely warning of any unpro
pitious arrangement of the ptanets which
might if It arrived unexpectedly per
plex the throne with fear of change and
expose the land to the anger of the sods
Unfortunatel III and Ho were not so at
tentive to business as we are accustomed
to find modern official astronomers
Sir George Air Is said to have been In
the habit of stirring up any member of
the Greenwich staff who missed an obser
vation by oversleeping himself or other
wise with a cutting nttle calculation
The royal observatory he Avould say
was founded for observations of the
moon during the ear in all and the ob
servatory costs the nation 600 a year
Hence each observation of the moon is
worth 20 and by losing one last night
you have cost the nation oi HI and
Ho were not kept up to their work by
any such reflections They gave them
selves up to riotous living and so failed
to predict an eclipse of the sun The re
ligious rites due in such a case were not
performed China was exposed to the
anger of the gods and the unfortunate
astrologers were seized and put to death
with the usual accompaniments of boiling
oil ami melted lead Prof Simon New
comb sas that the date of this affair has
been computed In the tw ent -second cen
tur before Christ which makes it the
earliest astronomical transactions of
which profane history has left us any
We have said that astronomy and as
trology were originally one In fact it
Is safe to si that astrology came first
and astronomy was gradually developed
out of its mists and msteries Most of
us now look at the stars with the very
practical feeling that they help our ships
to find their way across the trackless
wastes of ocean Navigation still depends
on the work dore at Greenwich for its
efficiency and all tho mechanical inven
tions that have done so much to trans
form the sailor would be useless without
the labors of the nstronomer
If we have an higher regard for the
celestial phenomena stars and planets
meteors and comets and so forth than Is
Involved In this utilitarian view It Is con
nected with the dazzling wondere of which
the astronomer has to tell u and his
fairy tales concerning the origin of the
universe and the nature of the systems
In which other planets circle other suns
But when man first raised his ees to
the heavens whether he did so in ellgnl
fled obedience to his Creator or in dull
amazement that he no longer went on
four feet It was rather In the spirit pre
served by the Chinese Emperor alono
amung potentates that he regarded the
stars Anthropologists have given us
many theo les to account for the undis
puted fact that the stars and planets were
In all parts of the world looked upon by
primitive man as the rulers of his for
tune and arbiters of his fate No doubt
the obvious control of the sun over the
seasons and harvests so important a part
of earl life and that of the moon over
the tides were the first factors in the
worship that man soon learned to pay to
the lights of the heavens After the actual
Identification of the heavenl bodies with
the gods which found a very recent ava
tar In the medieval theory th it each
planet was kept in Its complicated orbit
of Ccles and eplocles b an attendant
angel came the later and more reasona
ble belief that the movements of the stars
must be slgrs of the celestial will even
If they h id not such actual influence on
the affairs of men as the moon obvlousl
had over the tides Its natural origin
could hardl be better explained than In
the fine verses of Bron which sum up the
teellngs that mule Chaldeans ana Zulus
OJlbwaS aril Eskimos Tcho Brache and
Paracelsus W illensteln and Napoleon
agree In the attrilutlon of such powers
ot prediction It not of influence to the
e Rtars whuli are tlic poetry of lie vrrn
If in jour bright leaf e i vtc would lcini the fate
Of mm ami empires ts to be frffivcu
Tfut in eur jfirjtiuiu to be Rtet
Our Uevtinies ucrlcap llteir laorjl Utc
And claim kindred mill ou for ye re
A beauty and a mystery anil create
hi m Butli love and reverence from atar
That fortune fame power life hare named thera
elve a star
We need onlv refer to such words as
disastrous ill starred ascendency
or Jovial to remind ourselves of the
depth to which this ancient belief rooted
itself In European was of thought As
late as the seventeenth centurv the wisest
man held with Bacon and Sir Thomas
man that nature hes response to tha
Increasing purpose ot the world Retl
glous truths the personality ot God his
creation and government ot the world
Immortality and the freeelom of the will
these are shattered wo are told
by the great eternal iron laws of
tho universe or an in hopeless
contradiction with the most solid
truths of cmuirical science And so
It must be added are the sanctions of
ethics nnd mora law It is when w
turn to the State to the moral personal
ity of the nation that we encounter other
laws and living forces which restore what
an empirical science or a transcendental
humanltarlanism has broken down Hero
the supreme test is spiritual the well
being of the nationality The State must
build upon the famll as Its cornerstone
It must enforce those moral laws which
the history of nations as well as hrjnan
experience In its best estate reveal to b
the Inmost expression of the normal life
of iron
The beginning of a new century may
seem like an artificial division ot time
but the self consciousness with which tho
nineteenth century closed the efforts at
lntroverslve estimates of Its place In his
tory nnd of tho work It hart accomplish
ed Indicate something more than a con
ventional barrier to be passed Prophe
cies In regard to the new age may be fu
tile for God reserves to himself tho
knowledge ot the future But it Is much
If we can to any extent read the mean
ing of the past and detect the sources of
its strength and weakness And for the
rest Christian faith and hope are Inex
tinguishable looking forward to the ful
fillment of tho Christian Ideal that-higher
unity where Christ appears as the em
bodiment of humanity and the voice of Its
yearning for a perfect brotherhood
where the nation also acknowledges htm
as Its overlord so that In the words of
Christian prophecy the kingdoms of this
world shall become the kingdom ot our
God and of his Christ- In that ideal con
ception tho dominium belongs to tho
State and the mlnlstcrlum to the Chris
tian Church
Browne that there might be much truth
In a sober and regulated astrology Th
Heme ot Commons called the famous
U illlam I Jlly before it In 1CC6 to enquire
how he had been able to predict the great
fire and the plague as he certainly had
don under cover of one of his Ingenious
hierogl phics and treated him with
great civility on his assurance that the
prediction had been made according to
all the rules of Ptolemy and Avlcenna
The scientific belief In astrology was
first really broken ns It was In tha
mind of Dominic Sampson by the- opin
ion of Sir Isaac Newton knight and
umwhlle master ot his Majests mint
that the pretended science of astrology
Is altogether vain frivolous and unsatis
factory Irdeeei when the law of gravi
tation and Immense size and dis
tances of the heavenly bodies were once
accepted the th or hat the stars and
planets were elesigned merely to fore
shadow the destinies of man could
hardly be continued Among the vulgar
astrolog got its most serious blow about
the same time from the wit of Swift who
amused himself b attacking Partridge
the almanaemaker and leading astrol
ogers of the time The series of pamph
lets that clustered round EickerstafTs
famous prediction of this wrenched mares
death and In which Swift shonrcel how
unreasonable It was of Partridge to at
tempt to maintain that he was still alive
form one of the most amusing and useful
squibs in literature Astrolog was fair
ly laughed out of court All the same
Napoleon beleved mo3t firmly In his star
and the Chinese Court where Swift Is
perhaps not read still keps official
astrologers It Is not eas to kill a natu
ral and pleasant superstition in the mind
of man whether b science or b lltera
tare -The London Mail
Work ot Survejora In the Trims
African Telejrraph Service
From the London ews
UfiJl Lake Tanganvika German East
Africa De c 10 19- The surve ing party
for the African and Transcontinental
Telegraph line arrived here on the 3d in
stant having partly surveyed the coun
try from Karema At the present mo
ment the line has been laid for about
sixty miles north of Kassanga tliat is
It now runs from Edtuta at the south
end of Lke Tamranj lka miles
up the cast coast of that lake The sur
vey ts pegged out to Karema 150 miles
north of Kituta and the preliminary sur
vey between Karema and UJljl is being
made The line will then go from Tjlji
reiunel the southeast coast of the Vic
toria Nanza cross the Uganda Railway
sLirt the country west of Iake Rudolphs
and then follow the Abyssinia frontier
and work round slightly to the west and
so to the Nile The country between
Karema and UjiJ Is extremely moun
tainous and in order to find a suitable
route a wide extent of country must be
The surve ors found the natives le
tveen Karema and UJIji Inland extremi
ty shy of a white man Arabs or rattier
half caste Arabs and coast natives
-abound ever where hardly a village le-
ins passed vvitnuut some ot tnese people
being located In them trading rubber
with the natives These villages are by
the bye very strongly stockaded and the
natives own quantities of guns Powder
is however scarce and bits of stones oft
en do dut as bullets The guns are muzzle-loaders
with filnt locks and caps and
are calculated to do more harm to the
man at the butt end than to the target
vhatever it ma lie VJUi Is a very Inter
esting natlv e ami Arab centre The stand
ing white population numbers on an av
erage ten seven being German Govern
ment officials all military men and three
Greek traders Arabs are ver plentiful
a numl er being men of considerable
wealth The chier trade Is In Ivory and
rubber the former crossing the lake nnd
coming mostly from the Congo Free
State Tho total population of Ujljl is 8-
It is the second largest native and
Arab town In Central Africa Tabora
which Is also a German Government sta
tion is the largest arid has a population
of 10 0K The Roma or Government en
closure is a well built stone building The
Greek stores are also wetbhum tnn sinrv
stone houses and the principal Arabs own
similar dwellings The native huts art
scattered all around these Arab houses
The currenc throughout German East
Africa is the German rupee and copper
coins called pesas going sixt four to the
rupee Fifteen German rupees go to the
poung sterling The Germans pay their
workers and Soudanese soldiers very
high wages for Africa and so one sees
neirl all the natives about here clothed
well and cleaulv in cotton white nnd col
ored goods The language Is Swablll
Scattered all over UJtJi which lies gen
eral about one mile from the lake shore
on undulating country are mango trees
These with their thick and dark green
foliage present a pleasing appearance
and Just now the coming season when
the grass all around Is green and the
atmosphere In between the showers so
verv clear Ujljl is a very Dlace
and the- view of the mountains across the
lake is simply enchanting The new Ger
man steamer Hedwig von Wlssmann ha
made Its trial trip and has proved a
great success The other two steamers
the Flotilla Companys and the Tangan
lka Possession Compans are well on
the way to being launched All Is again
quiet at the north end of the lake There
la some more trouble brewing with the
natlvts bordering the lake fceis reu here
anel Karema and some sort of an
will be sent against the chief offen
der Katunka who ran away when vis
ite el tvve or three months ago by Lieu
tenant lajnck
-V Queer Difteuier
1 rom the Londi u Morning lt
When the bbrarr ot the learned John SrlJtn
who was -noun as the incomparable long be
fore Cinquc valli balanced bathtubd on billiard
cuoi waa handed orer in accorcLmie with his
will to hU oh unirerMt the strange discovery
was made tlut he had ued pjirs of 5pectacli s
as bootinarker ami fonrotteu all about It so often
that wverat n fire ot the ec aids to eyesight were
found nilhm the pae of as many volume- A
number ot more valuable markers wtrc left In the
boots of an elderly lauy who died intestate th
other day in larls Her unnrc tentlout Roods and
ehattels were to be m1J by auction and the
commissionaire employed to convey them to the
salesroom beiiyr of a literary tum ot mind per
hapa discovered that nearly every volume con
tained a share cetincate or security of uorne
Mnd or other He did not actually reirard these
document as treasure trove but he concealed his
krowleitec of their existence and purchased tha
boots containing them at the sale At the lat
hralin he naa encased In conversation with a
juire illnstruction How far the code will cover
sueh a use of special Information remains to
1m seen unless indeed the case ha already been

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