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The times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, March 31, 1901, Second Part, Image 21

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85054468/1901-03-31/ed-1/seq-21/

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Mciits of Communication IicToit Hie
Alphabet Was Known
nils mill dentures Iulluvvcil hy Pic
lurt rlllinc S mbtilN I sell III
Cnif mill Irriiri r Idem n In
dian Petition In I In- President
As soon ns man the liuimn animal
began to think lip vanted to tell Ills
thoughts to his fellov nnn not mil those
who were about hi in hut to those nt a
instance and to poslerlt He had to
talk The desire for lnter comminIcUiim
mi In obedience to an Inhcrtnt law
which made him a social mil sociable
creature Archaeologists assume tint his
in si means of communication were gest
ures ami calls As he grew In numbers
and intelligence the depndeiee upon his
fellow -man made It nece ssarv that lit
should have some more comprelunsive
mode of expreslon until finall he beg n
to write his thought at first If the foim
of pictures and liter by alphabets char
acters ri presenting known sounJs iicall
Ing U mind a definite meaning
The dependence on nature has leng
served as a criterion for grouping p s pies
Into civ lllzed and savage To establish
the three forms of soci ilizatlon the sav
age the barbarous and the civilizi d the
distinctive mark between the two litter
Is lnniw riting that Is to sa of tlie
naterial means used h tht two lorces
necessary to the Inception and nialnte
n nice of human progress Innovating
Initiative and conservation of whst Ins
been acquired The desire for
h signs vocal or otherwise
was born of the pursuit of more and more
tas means of satisfying wants and de
hires The conservative and transmitting
pow er liecomes really established In a so
cietv only when the means of communi
cating thought nre sufficiently devlaaed
wlien linguage his taken a dfinite form
and an method Is dev lscd of fixing it
b conventional Figns more or less Indeli
ble and transmissible to future genera
tions Thus to estimate different
states of civilization man must have le
course to linguistic characters
standing by such even thing which con
terns the means of communicating Idns
in time and space that is spoken la Uu
gunge and its graphic representation
The Idea of communicating his thought
graphical to hU fellow must Have come
to man from the origin of civilization
and through man stages of development
before it reached so simple and lnenious
a method as that of alphabetic writing
Before inventing phonetic writing in gen
en man must have passed through the
period of Ideographic writing thit is
denoting that wav of writing which ex-
K t
2 - -
Inilinn Plctute Writing
presses the notion or idea and not the
sounel as In ligures svmlwls or hiero
gljphlcs expressing or represcntng ideas
This method is an advance on another
and prior mode representing and commu
nicating thought much more simple
which may be called in a general way the
use of vmbolic objects and mnemonic
marls This svstem attains Us perfec
tion in the wampums of the lied Indians
These are either chaplcts of beads of dif
ferent colors fashioned from shells also
usd as monevor embroideries made with
the same beads on leng ribbons forming
kinds of liclts which have the value of
diplomatic documents to the Indians
The staff messages in use among the
Melanesians the Niam Nlamsthe Ashan
tis and the peasants of Lusatlu and Si
lesia have the same significance The
notches which the btaffs some
times bear form a connecting link
with the mnemonic marks which
the less civilized peoples have the
habit of making on trees on bits of hark
or pieces of wood It is the first step to
ward writing It was customary at a re
mote jicriod for man to tie knots in a
tonl to refresh his memory For In
stance If an engagement was made to be
fulfilled at a day In the future a number
of knots corresponding to the number of
davs intervening between the time the
engagement was made and th date of Its
fulfillment would be tied in the cord and
a knot nulled daily until the time arrived
to keep the engagement
There Is no doubt that this method of
tving knots in handkerchiefs and strings
as aids to memory which many people
today resort to had lis origin in the ear
lier da s of civ llizcd socle ty The method
of expressing certain events and certain
Ideas h means of knots made In different
ways und variously arranged has been
carries to the last degree of perfection
In the Qulpus of the ancient Peruvians
The ijuipus are cord rings to which are
attached various little strings of different
colors On each of these Utile cords are
found two or more knots variously form
ed In the same order of Ideas are the
marks of ownership of family relation
ship of tribeship such as the totems of
the Red Indian Such marks were put on
weapons dwellings animals and even on
the bodies of the men Hence arc derived
trade marks and armorial bearings
These methods are the precursors of
true writing This reall onlv lieglns
with drawings cxptessing a sequence of
Ideas tint Is pictography or picture
writing Itut already among the Eskimos
aide by side with the simple representa
tion of objects certuin figures are seen to
appear denoting action or relations lie
tween objects This Is the beginning of
Ideographic or idea writing Here for
example Is the gist of a hunting story
ngraved by an Eskimo of Alaska on an
ivory whip
j t t i t r i t
The first figure 1 represents the stoi
ieller himseii his right ham making I lie
nt still which Indicates 1 and his left
turned In the direction In which he is go
ing means go Continuing the trans
lation the subsequent figures read as fol
lows I In a boat paddle raised 3
sleep hand on the head one night
left hand shows i flngri I on an
Island with a hut In the middle of it the
little point 5 I going further C
arrive at another island uninhabited
vithout a point Spend there two
nights two llngirs ef left hand seen
ii hunt with harpoon 1 a seal 10
hunt with bow 11 return In canoe
with another tierson two ems ellrcctcd
backward 12 to the hut of the en
Tills form of I dea w riting has been
liiglilv divrloued among tho North Amer
ican IndUuis One mij Judge of tli de-
Iefltloli fo Mi- President
Kree of development of this art among
tho Indians b the above exnmple of
a petition presented In 1W to the Presi
dent or the United Stltes j the Chlppe
wray chiefs asking for tlie ossesnlon of
certain small lakes I situated In the
lfihl0rliood of Like Superior ifj to-
ward which lends a certain road 11 The
petition Is piintnl In symholie colors
blue for water white for the road to
on ii piece of bnrk
The cut represents the principil
petitioning chief the totem of whose
elan is an cnibleiniilic and aneeirnl
unlriiil the enne The animals which
follow are the luteins of his co pi tltlon
irs Their eves are nil connected with
his to express unity or view C their
hi arts with his tn express unltv of feel
ing The eve of the crnne svmbol of the
principal chief is moreover the point of
depaiture of two lines one directed for
ward to the lresldent nnd the other Lack
witrd toward the lakes the object of the
cl lim
In other picture writings the sjmboism
is carried out further bv tho reproduction
either of parts of the object Itself or bv
cnnvi ntlonal objects for verv complicated
ideas 1 litis the Dakota Indiins indicate
a tight bv the simple drawing of two ar
ums 1 directed against each otliter as
seen In the first cut The OJibwavs rep
resent morning 2 bv the rising sun
nothing bv the gesture of a man
stretching out ills nrms desnalilnclv 13
and to eat bv the gesture of the hand j
tarried to the mouth ei r ex icily as the
ancient Mexicans nnd Egyptians have
drawn it in their hieroglvphiesi
lrom a similar pletographic method is
P f CD
ilexienii Pnleritiistcr
derived the figurative1 writing In hitro
glvphics of tlie Egvptians the Chinese
the Mexicans of the tableland of Am
huoc nnd their neighliors the Muas of
the peninsula of Yucitan
This mode of writing is a step In ad
vance certain ligures here have the pho
netic value of tlie lirst sj liable of the
woul which tluv represent It 13 a sort
of rebus Thus the flrt words of the
Lords rrajernre rtpiesenled In the Mex
ican code bv the ligures of a Ilig pantlii
a stone letl the fruit of the Indian llg
moduli and another stone tetl the
first svllables of which form
piter nostrr
In drawings not representing more than
sounds there Is n tendenev to simplify
them tlie primitive figure b ing trans
formed into n conv ntlonal sign repre
senting i sound a svllable Tills trans
formation miy be traced In tin Egvptian
hieroglvphics as well as in tlie cunei
form writing of the Assj ilars In
Chinese writing the same thing has taken
place as it evident from the characters
shown below
0 452 Jf
tirirli4 mid Modern lilnene Hiero
The ancient hieroglv phics are lde by
side with the modern chuncters which
nre on a line below the ancient Heading
eaeh diameter from left to right we hnve
0 the moon 2 a mountain 3 a tree
I doj M horse 6 man These charac
ters though simplified lrve kept their
first signification corresponding to the fig
ure The association of these figures with
the phonetic irigns constitutes one
of the principal resouies of Chinese writ
ing H is sunposed that from the Egyp
tian writing was elerlved the Phoenician
M le of ulplmliets the prototype of mon
ef tlie alplnbets of the world
The direction of the lines in writing is
especially determined by the nature of
the materlils written upon As long as It
is a nuestion of tracing in rocks monu
ments etc there is no dominant tllrec
tion and tlie Eigns nre disposed as In
tlie pictograph at hazard in anv ilirec
tlon Hut from the time people began to
write on palm leaves on bits of bark
on tabids papvrus and papT it has
n found iecesarv to choose a uni
form ilireetion
The brush of the Chinese elctermlned
the direction downward and from riht
to left ns in painting And todav eertain
opIes write Arabic downward und read
from right to left With the expansion
of European colonization the characters
of the latin alphabet became more and
more prevalent In Europe even th
lend to religate to the second place the
other iharaeters At the same time rew
modi of willing nre coming lo the front
the telegraphic stenographic etc which
may be tlie preeursors of the writing of
the future universal international sim
pi and rapid
1 riji of Two liners Down nn
It Mutmttilii siiip
Irom tlie Arizona Hcpuhlfcan
It Is difficult to Imagine a more dare
devil and thrlllng adventure than that
of two men sliding down a steep lce
crusfed mountain one in a prospectors
pan and tlie other em a miners shovel
let such a hazardous undertaking was
accomplished tlie other day by Pete Me
Gotr and lankee Bill Murphy miners
and prosiieciors In the Sierra Aladre
mountains when thev Hew like the wind
down one side of the treeless Quartsite
mountain a distince of two miles witii
a descent of about 25 degrees and landed
in twentj flvt feet of snowdrift In the
fort j -foot chasm of Cow Creek few
miles west of Crand Encampment Wvo
It was in Jest Ins wager slmplv that
thev raced down the mountain smt Pete
lit the pan and Yankee Hill squatting
on the hoveL both finishing with a record
breaker and what might have been a neck
breake r
Thev climbed to the top of the peak
over two feet of snow on the daj of the
adventure to wash out u decomposed
quartsite which showed rusty iron ore
and v Iilcli led them to believe would car
rv gold In the afternoon It turned so
eold that the sarface of the mountain re
sembled glass
It was near sundown when the two men
finished prospecting and started to re
trace their wav down the mountain The
8llierv icd snov Impelled their prog
ress miUng the journej slow and dan
gerous at best
Less than 100 feet down Pete Jestingly
proposed to ankee Hill tint thev slide
down on the pan und shovel
I II beat jou said Pete sultlrg the
action to tht word b getting Into the
ou cant leat me replied Vanke o
Pill at the- same time squatting down
on his shovel unmindful of isisslble dan
Thev tore doan the mountain side like
an avalanehe eneh holding on to his
metal steed witii a vise like grip A mile
was eovcr d in apparently an instant
when a ridge formation turned them off
their course and thej flew tln faster at
an aeute angle Tlie 40 foot chasm of
Cow Creik was inevitable and before
tin j had time to realize the dinger the
had leaped or its e dge cleared Cow
Crei k nnd ns If uuiniu drill had bored
Die snowdrifts tweiitv llve feet
When dug out IVte and lankee Hill
did not exactiv need the coroner bat
there were not enough plasters and llni
mi nts in tamp to soothe their bruises
The came up smiling however eaeh
stoutl maintaining victor Tlie shovel
and pin will be exhumed next spring by
liisllliiers Where n Vlllll Is Irtfillor
In the Itrnti riltllon
I rom ihc Lauef t
I su wc cannot exnsct instliiot lo lie a
trustworth guide unkss the environment
is 1 simple ene apd li is been stable for
several successive generations It Is clear
that neither of these conditions obtains
In the ase of man especlill eivillzed
man His environment I lnfinltel more
eynnplex than was that of his primitive
ancestors and ft haR moreover varied and
continues to v ir ver conslderalil from
generation lo generation it has bieome
1 e unstable and pirl pissu with md as
an Inevitable result of this increasi In the
complexity and Inst iblllt of the environ
ment intlnct lias beennio less and les
adequate as a guide and reason more and
more essential Jlmc with tile i volution
of reasen Here has been i cone mltant
dissolution of Instil ct until when we ar
rive at Ivlilzed man wc find the one
Milde all but superseded b the other
Now this plires man at a ellsadvantnge
as compiled witii the brutes since the
guidance of reason is not by any means
so trustworthy us that of the Instinct
whli li It lias re placed It Is needless hirc
to enter Into u ps etiological exposition
if the defetts of reeson as a guide for
iran To do tills with any sort of full
nT and completeness wrmld be to write
a book on human error Hut whit does
i ontun ns nnd that most Intimately Is
tint undir tho working of this new ar
rutigemeut us wu nuv call It man Is con
tinually going wiong In matters psjeho
loslcM and It U most difficult tn set him
right Do not wo plosiclans see him per
sistently sinning ugalnst the laws of
health and that with n temerity that
would 1c utterly nmazlne did we not
know thul temutli ths temerity there lies
a still more astonishing Ignorance of ail
tho laws of his being It Is often a tusk
cf much difficulty to enforce the most ele
mentary principles of hglene ev n among
the educated e lasses among the unedu
cited it Is well nigh impossible
Flora With HerAVaiiil Holds Sway
at Easter Season
Ifie Hose SHU siulmi ns flieen
of 111 Iliivvcr Inrilen Prmlilels
Iriini the little 3v IiikiIiiiii Ituleil liv t
llllMMl illiclllllnn Hit Nliseunvs
The spring and cseclall Easter two
Is the season of flowers However thes
diluty produetlons of the oarth in iv ap
peal lo one whether as a reigning fail
or fa in j or wiPi some deeper signify
imce of beautv and frngilltv and
u growing tasto for them In a
people tli notes an tver increns ng love for j
the beiutlful The windows of the row-
er stores at this se ison are concentrated
masses of delicate splendor where tht
rashionilile triinnphs of the
isls art appeil to the possessor of a full
purse to come inside and purchase With
sueli u purchaser the natural considera
Hon Is What is the stIe this ear I
and If u ladv wishes to deck her boudoir
or adorn her eorsage or hair or a geu
tlemin wishes to make a present to u
lad cither will do well to sIict roses
for tile di sired purpose Tho rose i -till
queen of flowers and the Arneric in
Haut Is the queen of roses and will
doubtless continue to hold its supremocj
for man ear3 lo come
The Easter ilem ind for lilies tills jenr
has been exception ill lirgc Ovei hilf
a million dollars worth ne been Im
ported from Bermuda alone j
standing the disease which has attacked
the bulbs In that countrv Great numbers
of this flower ha e also been obtaine d
this season from Japan Its original home
where it flourished many thousands of
ear3 ago Numerous persons prefer the
calla to the Easter ill objecting to the
he ivy perfume of the latter There has
nlwas been attributed to the white and
gold flower something divine and It Is
generally held to lie at Christmas and
Easter the fittest adornment of the
Christian altar
The carnation Is the fad this season
When the United Sates attempts un
thlng In the flower line It usuall excels
unit carnations being the rage It has pro
duced the finest carnation the world has
ever seen the Thomas Eawson named
after Its originator a lative of Boston
who received no less than JC50W for the
first series of cuttings from his match
less production Ihere have been man
fancy varieties produced since but none
to compare with the Eawson It is of
exceptional large size of an exquisite
pink shade and possesses a delightful
fragrance The manner in which the car
nation Is being cultivated at present is
truly remark ible
l nder the hands of expert growers It
has been made to assume almost e ver
hue and combination of hues Imaginable
The genus Dianthus to which it belongs
In common with the pink lends itself to
a well nigh infinite variet of cross
breeding or h hridization The original
carnation was In fact a hbrid and was
first produced oy a Trench gardener some
3X ears ngo Its color was nearer blue
than pink its edges fringed to a depth
of fully a quarter of an inch while It
was possessed of no odor and Its stem
was so Inadequate to supporting its
weight tint an artificial holdei was
to enable the flower to maintain
an upright position All these features
have lici n gradually eliminated The pen
ciiings that have been made to apienr
on the pure white carnation are especial
ly noteworth nnd often produce a most
piquant effect As the darker shades of
tarnitions possess least odor it is now
Iwing attempted to graft the varieties so
thit perfume and richness of color will
be united An IntTtstlng experiment in
this connection Is at present licing con
elucteel b some English growers 1 his is
to make the pans is odorous as the Io
let and from present Indications suc
cess ma be predicted
It is a remarkable fact that Dulch
growers still maintain the pre eminence
which the have held for the past several
hundred ears In the production of sudh
flowers as lnacinths narcissus tulips
trocus rhododendron etc A practical
Illustration ot this fact was furnished In
one of the large flower ctores of this city
where lie encouutered a traveling sales
man representing a Dutch firm Tills
gentleman travels all over the world sup
plying dealers In this country and else
where with the flowers the growing of
which In perfection may be said to be
cnnfini d to tlie northeastern lmrtlon of
Holland The fact that this little section
of the world Is able to keep up Its pres
tige In the production of certain klnus of
flowers since tht sixteenth century is all
the more remarkable when one reflects
lint eighteen vears have sufficed for the
degeneration of the Bermuda lily and
now that Japan has put Its floral wares
in the market and attempted to supply
the world the same deterioration is being
noticed by American dealers In bullis
from thit countrv so much so that fully
ier cent of the importations from both
localities this s ason have been found ut
terly worthless This seeming riddle Is
however ver eas to explain in tho
first place the climate and the soil
or that portion of Holland where the
flowers are produced are Ideal The latter
Is a sand crust permeated by tlie water
lieneath constituting n perfect sjstem of
natural irrigation In the second place
the Dutch growers form a most decided
contrast in their methods to the flori
culturists of Bermuda Japan and other
places With these latter the chief ob
ject appears to turn their cash as rapidly
as possible in order to do this the bulbs
have been forced and the best stock has
been exhausted by exportation tho in
ferior kinds bMne kept for replanting
Tho result has been that a poorer crop
has been produced each successive ear
and the stock bulbs have liecome so
weakened by continual forcing thut they
have been rendered peculiarly liable to
disease which In fact has now attacked
Hum and threatens u virtual extinction
of the industry in both Bermuda and J
pan Tlie Dutch growers on the other
hand do not export their best stock amr
carefully reject unu destroy alt tnrerlor
iliey no not lorce their bulbs no mit
tr how prissfng may be the demind foi
an e irl trop or how profitable their
cumpii ince with such demand They pur
sue the same clean business methods that
their ancestor for many gintratlons
hive followed and whether this arises
from patriotism conservatism or whu
not it cannot be denied that It Is a salu
tary exuaple to other parts of the world
and to merchants und manufacturers In
other lines than flower raising
I remember said an old flower dealer
in this city when tlie taste of the time
ill the mitter of flowers ran mostl to
bouquets and set pletes of the most for
mil tpes A collection of the various
stles of bouquets In use in 1SCS to 1870 If
exhihltcu toda would probibl attract
more attention on account of thir oddity
of form and formal construction than any
of the artistic decorations seen In our
show windows There was a mathemati
cal exactness aliout tlie arrangement of
each row of flolvers which is seen no
where at the present time In horticultural
work ercipt posalbl in the ribbon beds
where foliage plants ore grown
Camillas used to be tlie principil
flowers uaed and what with wiring
tooth picking and trussing up generally
the making of n bouquet was epiiti a 1 1
borious t isk Notwithstanding this fad
w lilch or course had to le catered to b
tlie trade there were true artists who un
derstood and appreciated the beautv of
the flowers themselves nnd tho pnsslbill
tii s of arranging them with taste and an
tvo towards harmony ot effect The true
lovers of flowers have alwas been the
ones to Improve the public taste in the
matter of arrangement
Vis 1 have seen wonderful changes In
the business in in time continued the
forlst About S70 an increased demind
for flowers v as especially marked Ca
mellas tube roses and such flowers hid
seen their da and roses earnatlons vio
lets anil chosinthemums wers com
mencing Sji supersede them The rose
however was alwavs the principal flower
and much attention was given l experts
to Improved forms and methods of grow
ing It
nrsm in tub rottTcnoi n
I have seen tht Martsthal Nell that
glorious climber the Jacqulmlnot and
such varieties rie to eminence to ield
to the present American Beauty nnd
Kaiscrine Augusta Victoria
With the enormous Increase In the de
mand for cut flowers and tlie facilities
rendered possible by Inventive
lncenulty growers made haste
to transform their establish
ments Into veritable factories for turning
out roses and other flowers The keen
niss of competition In this kind of work
soon led lo the nccessltv of concentrating
nrrg upon a few crops nnd thus was
evolved the spiclallt Spec ilizition as
sumi d considerable Importance as earl
is lTi and from that date to the pres
ent time its ilevelopTn nt has cn phe
nomenal Although roses have nlwas
sen Pi the lead carnations violets and
i hivsaithemiuns were coming into
ii f Ivor Hit demand fur oni kind of
soared lasted more tiin a few
seisons and the number or varieties
nwii commercials somi twenty vears
n fii was gieater than nt pn sent What
provnl to be notable lmetus to horil
i itltunl work was the org inizntlon In
vt or the societv eif Ariericin Florists
At the first meeting of this soeiet the
President Mr John Thorpe gave some
lat noting facts or -a statistical nature
lelatlii to tlie work of growing plants
unJir He stnteil that the actual
minb r of flowers produced at that time
nssji was almost incredible To his pcr
s null knowledge he said nine growers
if loses scrl to New York 0O0WM flow
ers and rt tills wns riot 50 per cent of
the rcses soul to trnt market Mlone He
estimate thit th agijiegate number of
nisis grown around loston Philadelphia
Cleveland 1 Iciio Washington anil in
ail otlur pines could nnt have beeh les3
than ZIOKHmi The numb r ot cirn itions
grown was at least five times greater or
about IMoiifol He -calculate I further
more that at lenst one fourth as many
roses and cnrnulons wcie grown by pri
vate tstjbllhnints
ihero has itdi within the past few
Mars rnpid Increase in the number of
lit lii florists establlthmerts especially
In i itiis and manv n Iho retailers have
irivin up growing fioners hiving found
It to iheir nilvantafce tq devote their en
tliv time to the iniitiagcTnent of their
liislmss Tho popillaritv of the carna
tion w is giitn a g OHt Impetus in lKM by
ii formation of the American Carnation
Soeiet Ovtr four miMion dollars woith
in these flovirs have been sold during
tho past car
it ts estimated at the Agricultural De
partment that the retail value of all cut
flowers sold annual In this country
umnunts to Jli30 the apportionment
of this sum being For roses JSi0OW
camitlons II0H10 violets J750OJ0
chrvsanthemums ioW miscellaneous
fowers including lilies etc Jl250J0n The
number of rosts c armitions and violets
sold auniiall is said to exceed three hun
dred million
ti Iiiigcr n Devotee to Ills GorKCou
IrlliipluKS of Kxirllrr Dnjfl
from the Denver HcpuWIcan
It tases a man In my business to ap
preciate that times have changed in the
cittlo trade said Henry J Bates of
Buffalo N T looking sorrow full at a
picture of a cowboy In full regalia v hlch
adcrns the rotunda of thi Windsor HoteL
I travel for a harness hardware house
and I used to come out this wa every
ear with a big line of samples I ately
I have lieen going through the South
and this jear the firm decided to send
me this wav
I know what to tike em I told the
firm 1 used to travel out on the plains
every ear So 1 Just filled a trunk with
simples of fancy hardware in the har
ness line 1 hail fancy spurs with big
rowels and jingle bobs some of em sil
ver plated nnd I had bits of spades and
spikes and all sorts cf fixings
There wero things that the firm had
had in stock for a dozen ears and they
told me that it was no go but I said I
knew whit the people wanted out here
and I filled a trunk with em excess bag
gage every trip The stuff weighed like
lead and Jingled when the smasher rolled
It oft the car like a box of sleigh bells
First town 1 opened it rn was in New
Mexico I had sold a pretty good order
to a house In Santa Ie and then 1 open
ed up with these
No use said my man we cant sell
that line of goods
You Just let mc show jou sas I
There was a towpuncher out In front of
the store so I Just ran out with a sample
What de think of these spurs I
saS to him It was a pair of spurs that
a cowpunchcr in my time would sell his
horse and go afoot to wear rowels two
inches across fancy bars double chain
inserts of silver rosette buttons oh they
were winners He looked them over kind
er slow and 1 could see the looks of them
took his ee
Then he sas Theyre pretty enough
but I should think theyd hurt the horse
Siy that prctt near Jirred me off my
feet Think of a covvpuncher that was
afraid of hurting his bronco 1 dldn t
have a word to say I tried It on in one
or two places besides- nnd I ran up
agHlnst the same thing They dont esc
tlie heavy bits now ittul they don t care
for fancr quirts and they take care of
their horses like a Yankee horse trader
1 wrote hack to the tirm that I guessed
I d ship that trunk of samples back by
freight but the didnt wait to write
hick They telegraphed me Sell sam
ples for what theyIll bring if for old
So I sold the lot to a man in Albuquer
que and he turnesl aruimd and sold them
mostly as curiosities to Eastern tourists
samples of what the used to do to the
horso liefore they got civilized But it
was a lesson to me
1 Curious Iiiillaii of tlie In
Roland P DixMs in Science
In view of the present discussion in re
g ird to the existence of the musical bow
lu America and of its independent de
velopment on this continent tlie occur
rence quite rare at present however
of a form of this instrument among the
Maidu Indians of Northern California ap
pears worthy of a brief note
Tlie bow as used by the Maidu is a sim
ple bow of cedar some two and one lialf
feet In length at pres ut strung with
wire but formerly with a fine sinew cord
In plnlng the Instrument it is held in the
left hand the hand grasping the centre
of the bow thumb inside aid palm fac
ing forward tho bow extending horizon
tally to the left The right nand end of
tlie bow Is placed in the open mouth and
the bowstring tapped rapidl with Ismail
flexible twig held in the right hand
H v ar Ing the size of the resonance
chamber the mouth with the aid of the
tongue and by opening or closing the
mouth to a greater or less extent notes
aro produced as In a jew sharp The
tones are hoaever verv faint and are
audible only at n short distance
The use of this bow known us kaw
olone panda Is restricted to the medi
cine men or shammans und other per
sons are rarely allowed to see nnd never
to touch the Instrument The sacrcdmss
of this bow tho fact that It Is used b
the medicine men only in communicating
with and pralng to the kukinl or spir
its and that its manufacture is uccom
panied by teremonlal observances includ
ing the rubbing of the how with human
blood nil seem to point to the bow ns
being of native origin The limited con
tact of these Indians with the negro and
the place held by the instrument in the
religious life of the people here as will
as elsewhere In America would se em to
militate against the view that tin maslcal
bow Is on this continent the result of
Skulls Iotiitil in Icnrlngr Dorwi nn
OIll IlllIllltlK
from the st hoim flolic leniorat
While tearing down an old building at
217 South Third htreet recently August
Wilkinson found nearly a dozen human
skulls between the raf ti rs supporting the
i lllng of tlie second story room of the
house The varied In size from that of
ai Infant to those of fiili growii men nnd
women They were kept for u time by
Wilkinson but later hauled away with
tlie dirt that was being carted from tho
premises How long the skulls hive been
there or b whom they were placed Is n
mister that bids fair never to oe solved
solved For many ears the house his
b n tenanted but of late it lias been un
occupied Its former Inhabitants have
lonu since scattered
The house itself is ono of the earl land
mirks of the rlty according to the story
told bv old risldents of the viclnit It
was evidently one of tlie finest residences
of St Ianils at tlie time it was built and
no doubt many a gathering of the finest
folk lu town was seen Inside Its walls In
the long ago
The old staircase has hand can cil fili
gree work on It the walls show th it thev
have been painted time lifter time In col
ors artistic nnd handsome The timbers
used to support tlie structure aro of the
massive hand hewed kind characteristic
of buildings erected mauv eara ago
August Wilkinson who his a coal vard
at the corner of Third Street nnd Clark
Avenue his been engaged in tearing tho
building down at the order of the local
authorities and will use tho ground In all
probability for a coal yard He sas he
has been told by old residents that the
building is over 100 years old Whether
the skulls were placed there cars ago or
more recently he Is una bid to say John
Magulre sr a retired renl estate dealer
has hud the renting of the house for tho
lust twenty two jears and he says that
It Is probahly one of the oldest dwellings
In St Iaiuis
Licsciit jleihois Par in Advance
of Those of Former Daws
lllllllniicen of Modern Iv lllxntlmi
of Greknt o s
ems in Ierrc liiiK Out Law lolnl
e rs Miiu I lielr iKllmico 1
The age of steam clectricit the tele
graph the telephone nnd the Iron tlad
In fact the1 ago ot progress In the twen
tieth century is likewise an era of dread
to the burglar safe blower second story
worker and rascals gencrall Wherever
the criminal may turn to the North
South East and West he will find ap
proaches guarded and sll avenues of es
cape closed So It Is evident that tho
proverb The way of the transgressor Is
hard Is drll becoming gratleii in
the minds alike ot rascal and policeman
Man are the resources of the detec
tive nnd police and expert must be the
criminal who slips through the coll laid
for his apprehension The electric bell
connecting piwnshops with the nearest
police station or hendqu irters as the
case may be tlie dall police bulletin re
citing in cold tpe tho robberies and
lookouts of tho preceding twent four
hours the police telegraph nnd telephone
systems including numerous boxes
scattered here and there through streets
of ihe big cities compulsory reports from
pawnbrokers and second hand dealers re
ceived dali and methods of criminal
Identification net before known or but
little used are a fev of the wiys now
Invoked by tho iolite to maintain public
order and secure protection against the
rascal of ever class nnd type To this
list may bo added the descriptive cir
cular sent broadcast by the thousands
from police headquarters of every large
city aadrcssed to sheriffs jail authori
ties even postmasters and hoteikeepcrs
and containing minute description ot any
criminal wanted for my particular crime
A most Important adjunct to police
work is the electric bell Every largo
city has Its sstem of communication by
this method chiefly between dealers in
cheap goods or pawnbrokers and the
police department Several piwnshops la
Washington are fitted up with such de
vices so that in case suspicion falls on a
patron of tjie establishment of tho three
balls or upon the goods he offers Tor
pawn word my be sent unknown to him
to Police Headquarters The first knowl
edge such a patron of the pawnshop hns
of Impending danger is the lnsty entrance
Into the establishment of a detective or
policeman Then he Is questioned respect
ing the goods to be piwned how they
came into his possession and In m my
iastances is collared and led away un
der arrest to a prisoners tell Apparent
ly In Washington pawnbrokers deem it
best to stand in with the police for
besides reports made daiiv to headquar
ters as required by law they give in
formation which may fall under their no
tice and frequently assist In this manner
In the capture of criminals Elsewhere
co operation with the iiollce b pawnbrok
ers is not universal nnd In several big
cities there is believed to be a wide di
vergence In views on the udvlsabillty
of supporting authorities
Ever day in the ear a publication is
issued by the local Police Dep irtment
giving information about criminals It is
a single sheet affair small size and Is
published on n hand press ot headquar
ters It contains reports of robberies re
ceived during twent four hours preced
imr with a general description of the
property stolen and any clue If there is
sueh to the thief Moreover it has the
dscrlption of any supposed rascal want
ed by the police for any of a thousand
crimes Whether the fugitive Is v anted
In Washington New York Cubi or the
I hlllppines his description and occasion
ally his photograph will go into the
make up of the bulletin provided the
case has been brought to the attentijn cf
the local authorities in any of the regular
channels of obtaining Information It is
apparent therefore that not alone every
W ishinglon policeman will he on the
lookout for the crimnal because he car
ries the bulletin in his pocket or In his
hat but that 1101100 und detectives else
where many of whom nre supplied with
leaflets from this city will keep close
watch lest an Important case slip
through hl hands
For a decade or more the Washington
policeman has had the patrol box as an
adjunct to his work He may telephone
to Ills station from his beat at any time
of the da or night and alwas receive
an answer He ma reiort an accident
a murder or a trifling Incident or ho may
call for the patrol wngon to i onve i
prisoner to the station He mi sound
the alarm of a fire and mn receive in
structions from the sergeant or other of
ficial of the depirtment Before patrol
boxes weie in vogue here the policeman
was compelled to take his prisoner to the
station as liest he could Patrolmen were
then wldel scattered on distant beats
and assistance when needed was not al
ways to be had Conditions In Washing
ton however hivo improved In every
ear with the advent ot the telephone
and s stems of rapid communication To
he sure there his been communication
with other cities hj telegraph for many
ears but until a comparatively recent
period tlie wires h ive not been txtensivel
used to ftcllitatc the arrest of fugitive
Occasionally a criminal escapes every
combination of br ilns energy and ex
pense which ma be brought about to ef
fect his capture Modern appliances are
not infallible and th shnwd criminal
may bring to bear wits even more keen
than the wily detective or astute insiiect
or or Secret Service man It Is remem
bered b some in Washington that the
elusive Dorse Ioultz Is still missing
that nothing his et 1hsii heard from th
murderer of the old shoemaker Hall in
his shanty near Ninth and V Streets
northwest almost ten ears ago that
Tascott the slaver of millionaire Snell In
Chicago Is et wanted and that Topeka
Joe said to lie a burglar safe blower and
desperate criminal together with Pat
Crowe of kidnapping fame are now at
large I hose notorious and In one ease
unidentified criminals have eluded the
strong grasp of the law I hey have lieen
advertised frn the Atlantic to the Pacif
ic and from the Dominion of Canada to
the Gulf of Mexico have been hunted far
and wide with a price upon their heads
et tlie vast maehlnerv or tlie law has
proved inadequate to 1 ffect their capture
While Dorsi roultz llvis his name will
he a thorn In tlie side of the local police
force Often lie bus lieen reported cap
tured and as often has his identity lieen
Now ever polico depaitment In the
country Is linked b the telegraph with
Its neighbors Them Is a spirit of co
oiieration wholesome anel generous
which results as 1 uili In tlie most cor
dial relations lielwi en detictlves and po
lice visiting frnm one citv to another in
the courso of their dut Such conditions
lead to lntreaseel advantages and to con
sequent success as a rule when a crim
inal is to be lugged The police of New
York for instance nre sometimes ac
quainted with a lawbreaker not known
to the local men A Washington
detective Is sent to the metropo
lis to make an arrest lie mu not
know the crlmln ii b sight although
he is perfi tly conversant with the crime
and all is details but from the New
York police he receives assistance of ev
ery kind On that force tin re in 1- be
policemen who can Identify the man
wanted and tho detectives there will al
ways make the technical arrest of the
accused for the Washington ofllier The
sime spirit is appirent in other cities
and towns so that ferreting out of com
plicated crimes Is now much ensler than
formerly At times when largo gather
ings take place in Washington or else
where there Is a general move ment to
piotcct the endangered city Detectives
versed In crime und the means for its
prevention and cure are sent to the city
where the celebration Is to tuke pi ice
and act In coneert with the local forces
to round up the army of rascals
Tlie science of protection for the public
Is necessarily left to tho police With tho
rapidl Increasing populatleui of ttm
countr there Is an Increase of the crimi
nal class New faces dall appear in tho
under world that must be studied so
that It has become the custom to estab
lish a rogues gallery In big cities Here
detectives may frequently resume their
acquaintance with old cases and crimes
although the Individual who was the chief
actor in a traged may be dead or thou
sands of mites away Close associated
with thl3 line of work Is found the vari
ous s stems of identification In vogue in
different cities An exten lve Stcm ot
measurements is frequently ued to Identi
fy criminals which added to their photo
graph will in man cases Insures success
ful identification
It is the custom In evcrybig city to as
sign a detective to tlie various depots
The steamboat wharv es areTalso watched
as are the freight jards where the
hobo element mav be expected to put
In an appearance Bslelen a careful ros
ter of cheap lodging houses and doubtful
localities Is alnijs kept so that the po
lice generall know when one of tho
class comes to town Twenty years ago
It was possible for organized gangs of
criminals to exist In Washington and de
predations b such societies of the lawless
were frequently reported Hwampoo
dlo nnd Fogg Bottom together with
Bloodfieid and similar localities fair
ly swarmed with tough characters but
now the case Is elifferent The march of
civilization has brought about improved
conditions and novT a woman can walk
alone unmolested after nightfall or a
man can stagger homeward Intoxicated
with but little danger or robber
Pnstnr Joliustons Experience In
Performing a Dnnl Ccreliioii
troin the Baltimore Sun
Hcv Hugh Johnston pastor of the
First Methodist Episcopal Church In his
clerical capacity has officiated at a very
large number of marriage ceremonies
but perhaps none has made so vivid an
Impression on his mind as the first time
he performed the service many esrs
agt It was In Toronto Can he said
soon after his ordination that Dr John
ston very much Interested In all the ser
vices of the church was calleel on to reael
the marriage service before two couples
the bridegrooms being two oung officers
In the British armv It was a church
wedding and when the time came for
the ceremon the bulbllng was crowded
with young people who were attracted
not only by the Interesting double w eli
ding but by the fact that this was the
first effort of the kind on the part ot the
voung minister
The bridegrooms looked distin
guished In full regimentals the brides
very shy and pretty In their bridal array
as they stood iscfore the cleigymali the
four In line first the two sirls then the
two men
The service began and things wert on
smoothly until the minister looking at
the man in front of him asked
Wilt thou have this woman to be thy
wedded wife etc
The man made no reply but the ether
groom sepiratcd from his bride called
out lKtldly I will
Then wh asked Dr Johnston with
indignant earnestness dont ou take
jour pi ice beside her
The bridegrooms instantly changed
places and the service went on But when
the rinr was placed on the finger cf the
bride came another interriptieiu the
groom thinking tne time had arrived to
comply with the custo n of the tune and
kiss the bride turned at once to salute
The bride lietter versed in the mar
riage ceremonv resisted and the young
minister was forced to Interfere and in
duce the happy groom to imstpone his
proof of affection until the end of the
service Praer Immediately followed
but there were signs of merriment that
could not lie controlled among the wit
nesses In the congregation Tlie other
couple perhaps profiting by what had
gone before were married eiuietly and in
The service over the oung officiating
clergyman who through all his difficul
ties hid continued grave and unsmiling
hastily retreated to the vestry whre be
hind closed doors he la down on tlie
floor and gave way to his mirth
Those v ho know Dr Johnston s keen
sense of humor and appreciation of the
ridiculous will understand wliat n tax
on his sense of decorum was his first offi
ciating at a marriage ceremony
Hut n SliNsonri SlierilT Pound the
Proud Position Kxiieuslve
From the Khdsl Citr JoarcaL
Missouri is great among the nations be
cause of her manv bright sons Other
States ma lieat her on science poetry
and song hut few have men of might
nerve like the Imperial old State of the
Middle West declares an admiring
chronicler In the Macon Republican
Ex Sheriff A J Glenn returned to Macon
recently from Hot Springs Ark whither
he had lieen in quest of relaxation and
something to drink that would beat Col
onel Jie Harps tonics On the morn g
after his arrival Ms stock of S cent Mis
souri fillers having run out he stepped
into a gorgeous establishment and asked
the price of some JIavanas
Twenty five and thirty cents re
sponded the affable clerk without dis
placing anjfelasb
Durlng election times ic Missouri Glenn
sometimes went as high as 10 cents when
he wanted to do the thing right but gen
erally the victims of his generosity were
lncky to get a fiver But he didnt let on
He looked critically at tlie two brands
handed out for his Inspection as if de
ciding upon a couple of boxes of the M
cent kind and then said
4 lle you any cigars
Wh these are good said the clerk
And onlv 50 cents apiece asked the
MIssourian Whv up in Missouri only
the kids smoke these cigars Now if
ou have anv Imported gooels that Ou
could retail at 70 or 75 c its straight are
they are a pretty fair article I might
take a couple of dozen on trial but these
cheap goods mike me sick
The story went around that a Missouri
millionaire had come to town and ever
where Glenn went he could not fail to ob
serve the awe his appearance created It
was nice and he erjoved It In the even
ing he stepped Into u large hotel to look
over the papers and chat with friends
While there he gave a street gamin the
job of shining his shoes It vv is a heav
one but the kid did the work nil right
When It was through Glenn reached tn
his pocket and enquired the price Six
bits said the shiner A dozen p ilrs of
eves were directed at the MIssourian AH
wanted tn see whether he was the real
thing or not and the Macon man knew It
lie put up the 7S cents just like a man
who had as much more in his pocket It
was pretty harel to do but something
had to lie done to hold up Missouri A
few minutes after lie edged arounel to the
hotel clerk and said
May I ask OU a question in confi
de nceT
Do ou want to borrow any mono
No it aln t thit
Fire away tuen
W hats the usuil price to juv for get
ting Oiir shoes shlncsl In this town
Ten cents
That all
les thats all
And then he came back to Missouri
Hurc Exiliuple of Iliimnii ItelncT
Wlttiutit Trnee eif M111I11
From the Scientific Vmcrimn
Tills remarkable person wiio was ex
hibited in Paris at the time or the expo
sition Is one of the rare examples ot a
human being who hns been from birth
deprived of his arms and legs He was
born In Prance In the Department of Mo
rihan Brittan his father and mother
being in eas cirtumstances and living
upon a small farm Both the parents uro
of good constitution und plivsleall nor
mal Their son now about twenty five
ears of ago has no apparent trace of
arms or legs and hence is generall
known by the name of 1 Homme Tronc
or trunk man
Outside of this n markablc peculiarity
the rest nt his bod does not present an
marked variations from the normal the
head Is somewhat large In pioportion to
the bod the capillary sstem is but lit
tie developed and the head show a
baldness Ills parents have al
was taken great care of him and lie
lives In a noimal va apart from th
use of his members as none of the es
sential organs of llfo -are wanting He
ents drinks and digests like another per
son but if left to himseir he would un
doubtedly die as it is impossible for him
to move his body in order to procure food
It may bo thought tint his condition
would react upon tho mind and that he
would be of a sad disposition and place
but little value upon existence On the
contrary ho seems to be satisfied with
The writer questioned him upon this
point and he responded that he was quite
contented with existence He eloes not
suffer from want of occupation as might
lie supposed as he has different kinds of
work to keep him busy One of his chief
occupations is that of making small ta
bles and chairs and other objects by
nailing together pieces of wood which
have been previously cut out for him He
takes a nail In his mouth plants It in the
wood nnd drives It In ver adroitly He
tan also thread a needle with his mouth
and can take up a glass or metal cup
which Is given him to drink und empty It
without spilling a drop He seems to be
sufficiently Intelligent without beln r par
ticularly so
A Time When They Were Mos
Valuable Posses Mon
shnel llerrlnK starcrrnn arid Other
Palntnhie nrnlxenn nt the Wntrrs
in Wonderful ProfunlOfm The
Supply ovt Grentlr DlmlnlliI
Tlie shad TierrinK and other fisheries of
the Potomic and Its tributaries were la
former vias of greater slue than at
present It wus early recognized In th
history of both Virginia and Marlal
that laws were necessary to protect the
Ilsh In the streams and hence In 173 an
act was passed by the Maryland Legis
lature prohibiting the destruction of
young fish by weirs anil dams the penal
ty for a v iolntion ot this law being 31
This law became permanent In 1793 As
e nrl as I79S an act wts passed to prevent
persons from visiting the Patuxent Itlver
with corels or poles from the commence
ment of February to the beginning of
June the penalty being JEli for a white
person and If n slave It was ten lashes
on the bare back unless the slave was
redeemed by his masters payment of 19
In the cirly das many thousands ot
fish were taken each season nnd some
limes very large hauls were made This
season usuall lasted from Jive to seven
we eks beginning about the last of March
and enellng early in May Some writers
i this subject say that 1000000 barrels ot
herring was not too high an estimate for
the number of fish tnken In a vison
Also with reference to the flavor of the
fish of the Potomac It is said that next
to a small and delicate Nova Scotia her
ring the Potomac herring was more nu
tritious by far than any others in the
waters of the United States
The shael rockfish and sturgeon from
the ramc stream according to epicures
had a flavor superior to any cithers in the
Union In 130 when Jonathan Elliott
wrote the Ten Miles Square fiife shad
were wonh j per hundred Falls shad
S13 per hundred herring ft per hunelred
rockllsh from to H per thousand and
sturgeon 3 cents per pound The weight
of each kind of fish found in the Potomac
Is given In the same work ns follows
Studgeon 40 to 120 pounds rockfish
1 to 7 pounds shad C pounds tailor 3
pounds rar S pounds eel fresh water 3
pounds common 1- pounds cirp i
pounds herring 2 pounds pike 2 pounds
lerch white 1 pound perch elow 1
pound mullet fine scaled 1 pound
corasc scaled half pound
Scamoro Iatnding thirty miles below
Washington owned by General Mason
was a noted fisher some three quarters
of a century ago At this place about
the ear IKS at one draught of the seine
47i rockfish were -aid to have been ta
ken the average weight of eaeh fish b
Ing sixty pounds It was then nnd Is
lion a habit ot many species of fish to
annually ascend the Potomac and other
rivers that flow Iito the Atlantic to fresh
water to deposit their eggs thus pro
viding at the same time for the continu
ance of their species and an abundant
suppiv of nutritious food for man Tho
principal kinds or these migratory fish
thus ascenellng the Potomac were and
are the shad herring anil sturgeon the
first two kinds ascending the rivers to
fresh water annually nnd the latter
making two visits one in May and the
other in August The sUirgeon is salel
to hate lieen In the early das taken in
great ciuantttles btween Georgetown anil
the Little I alls The fish Is sometimes of
a v er large sire weighing from 7S to 1W
jiounds One remarkable fact about this
memlicr ot the piscatorial family acs
cordlng to the early writers was that
vhlle it was consllered a great delicacy
In the James the Potomac anel the Hud
son et In tho Delaware it was esteem
ed of little value Th sturgeon was
caught with floating nets with largn
mesh s or vvifji an Ingeniously contrived
hook not provided with bait for the fish
to swallow but with a curious device
prepareu in such a way as to pierce him
in the body so deeply ns to securely hold
linn rnd bring him in T
rh great fisheries for herring In ear
lier davs were situated lietween Wash
ington and tlie mouth of Creek
fifty miles below the city The principal
fisheries for shad were confined to et
stricter limits between the mouth ot the
Ocoquan Klver on the right bank of the
Potomac and the shores just aliove Fort
Washington on the left hank or from
fifteen to thirty five miles below Wash
ington Many herring Indeed are caught
above and below these limits at the pres
rut time but not nearly so many as
within them
Some ot the finest shad are caught in
drop nets two or three at a time at the
foot of Little Falls On account of Its
remarkable agility the fish is sometimes
enabled to ascend the rapids the tall of
the water here being only about thirty
feet In three miles nnd the fish having
surmounted the falls are then found as
far up as the Great Falls
lierriug however never manage to get
above the Uttle Falls Of this kind of
fish from 100 to SdOOUo were often taken
at a single haul of the seine and of shad
according to some accounts from 10000 to
13 0H were occasionally drawn at a time
The seines were very large being from
B0 to 13M yards long nnd were hauled
In by means of long stout ropes and cap
stans fixed on shore Tlie seines used at
tho best shad landings were constructed
or such large meshes that the herring es
caiivd thus saving time and expense by
separating the two kinds of fish
According to one of the authorities of
the Fish Commission the Potomac has
ulwas been celebrated for the excellency
und value of Its shad and herring fisher
ies Reports of their magnitude have not
on sjstematieally lieen kept b the
Commission for the past several years
but have been secured from the accounts
of early authors Acconlirg to these
more or less traditfonal accounts the
productions then as compared with the
present were simply fabulous The Po
tomac fisheries annually decreased In val
ue and production up to the time of the
The Intermission which then ensued in
I suing operations allowed tho fisheries to
recuperate so tiiat in the ears Immedi
ately subsequent to the war It was
found that the had in a measure re
covered from their former depletion lu
137 the minimum of production was at
tained during which season less than
aiOuni shad were taken In the entire river
In 1S7S the result of the Fish Commis
sions artificial propaganda first manl
f steel itself nnel since that time there
has Iccn a steady increase in tlie run of
Tho early fisheries on the Potomac
were presee uteel almost entirely b means
of haul nets but in 1S3 gill nets were
introduceel from the North which steadl
1 grew In favor and up to about 1S73
were almost exclusively employed lu
that car pounel nets were Introduced
and these rapidly superseded tlie sill nets
as the till nets had previously supersed
ed the hauls or seines
About June 10 1SK an Atlantic Mlmon
wis caught In the Potomac which was
probabl the first that has erer been seen
In the river An amusing statement was
litelv made b a member of the Oldest
Inhabitants Association at one ot tho
meetings of that society The old gentlc
niin asserted that he distinctly remem
lered the time when one could walk
across the river at Analostan Island on
the lucks or the sturgeon This sensa
tlunal observation created something fit
u stir in the meeting and brought down
upon the speaker much contradiction and
lalller but he stoutl maintained the
ac uracj of his assertion
Tlie nature of the Potomac fisheries
has greatly chingeu within the pist
thirtv ears Long ago the catch of shael
and herring h hiul seines was not
made at the spawning grounds of the fish
the entire run of both kinds reaching
their spawning grounds In the river In
der these inndlihn fishing In the river
was prosperous vv ith the Introduction
of he pound net the site ot the fisheries
was transferred to the Chesapeake Bay
the capture of shad beginning at the
Capes all the shad reaching the river
having to run the gauntlet of the pound
Sets v lilcli nre set all the wav up tho
river from its mouth to the District of
Columella The result is vhot 0 per cent
of all the shiil are taken outside of the
livers and in the Chesapeake or in the
lower estuaries of the Potomac Under
these conditions a decline in the river fish
eries has been unavoidable anel the op
portunities afforded feir natural produc
tion aro entirely Inndecriate lo Keeping
up the supply Ihe fisheries are now
under cone ftians mainly artificial and
their maintenance to this extent is de
pendent upon artificial propagation

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