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The times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901, March 31, 1901, Second Part, Image 24

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niioleort nnel Teiililne
A new edition of tlie Ufe of Napoleon
Bonaparte bj Ida M Tarbell has been
issued nrd to It lias been appended a
Life of Josephine by the come author
The latter is perhaps the onlj thoroughly
Impartial and graphic picture of the Em
press which has bfen written It cer
tainlv presents her In a much more real
istic light thin most of those heretofore
published As Miss Tarbell states a de
termined effort vvas made at the time cf
the Second Empire to represent her as a
sort of saint and mnrtj r and the author
continues
The present sketch Is an attempt
to tell a true story or her life as it Is
revealed bv the recent diligent re
searches of Freele nc Masson and bv
the numerous memoirs of the period
which have appeared main of them
since the pissing of the Sconel Um
pire If the itorv as told here is frank
it Is hoped hv Hi author that it will
not be found unsympathetic
Unsjmpathetle it surei Is not though
It Is likely to prove something of a shock
to the Ideals of a good manj neople It
is however a picture wholly and attract
ively human and thojgh mot of those
who read It will be likely to feci con
siderable more smpathv with Napoleon
than that somen hit complex personage
has hitherto inspired there -will still be
no lack of sympathy for the wife who
might be called in her was a soldier of
fortune as he was in his He conquered
rul i ay fci e in ners and there
seems little reason to doubt that they
were mated by nature
As for the life of Napoleon firM printed
home see en sears ago and now republish
ed It is quite as truthful and lvid a
picture of the Emperor as Its successor
is of the Empress We see here not the
appalling and mysterious eil genius
threatening the liberties of Europe not
the selflh oppressor and tyrant but a
very human though almost superhuman
man The complexities and contradictions
of his clnracter are manifold but thev
are all so knit together and simplified by
two or three overmastering traits as to
be rot so very dlfllcult to understand The
Picture which Miss Tarbell glees of Tilm
not only lmpreses one as being true to
life but is csentiall dramatic The a
rious episodes of Napoleons career are
described in a way which makes the book
anj thing but a mere biogra
phy It is as fascinating as a novel In
tact it posCsses more than the attrac
tion of a novel because of Its lack of that
artiflcialitj which must lie lightly evident
in seen the mot masterly vork of fiction
The difference between a novel and a blo
graph i that In the former the authors
w ork is to construct ills plot in accord
ance with the motive of the story In the
latter it Is to take the plot as constructed
bj the logic of events and find out what
the motive of the storj I Since the
average biographer Is not gifted with the
intuition of the romance writer this Is
seldom i erfectiy done or truth would
prove superior in Interest to fiction Miss
Tarbell happens to have the genius for
story -telling combined v Ith a genuine love
of accuracj and the result 1- both valua
ble and delightful
One extract from the life of Napoleon
will chow her general method of treating
facts It Is not usual to find a writer who
can balance the picturesque and the im
liortant as cleverly as is done In this book
Napoleons return from Elba perhaps the
most Impressive episode of his career is
handled after this fashion
Willie to all appearances engrossed
with the little analrs of Elba Napo
leon was In fact planning the most
dramatic act of hi life On the 2Gth
of February 1S15 the guard received
an order to leave the island With a
force of 1100 men the Emperor passed
the foreign ships guarding Elba and
on the afternoon of the 1st of March
landed at Cannes on the Gulf of Juan
At 11 oclock that night he started to
ward Paris He was trusting himself
to the people and the army If there
never was an example of suh au
dacious confidence certainly there nev
er was such a response The people
of the south received him joyfully of
fering to sound the tocsin and follow
him en masse But Napoleon refueed
It was the soldiers upon whom he
Called
We have not been conquered he
told the army Come and range J our
selves under the standard of jour
thief his existence depends upon you
his interests his honor and his glory
are jours will march at
double quick time The eagle with the
national colors will fly from steeple
to steeple to the towers of Notre
Dame Then jou will be able to show
jour scars with honor then jou will
be able to boast of what jou have
done jou will be the liberators of the
countrj
At Grenoble there was a show of
resistance Napoleon went directly
to the sol ners followed by his guard
Here I am jou know me If there
Is a soldier among jou who wishes to
kill his Emperor let him do it
Long live the Emperor was the
answer and in a twinkle Gv men
had torn off their white cockades and
replaced them old soiled tricolors
Thej drew them from the inside of
their caps where thej had been con
cealing them since the exile of their
hero It is the same that I wore at
Austerlltz said one as he pascsl the
Emperor This said another I had
at Marengo
From Grenoble the Emperor
marched to Ijons where the soldiers
and olllcers went over to him in regi
ments The Ilojalit leaders who had
deigned to go to Ijons to exhort the
army found themselves ignored and
Ney who had been ordered from Be
Eancon to stop the Emperors advance
and who started out promising to
bring back Napoleon In an Iron cage
surrendered his entire divls on It was
Impossible to resist the force of popu
lar opinion he said From Ijons the
Emperor at the head of what was
now the French passed
ion Autun Avallon and Auxerre to
ontainebleau which he reached on
March 11 The same day Louis XVIII
fled from Paris
The change of sentiment In these
few dajs was well illustrated in a
French paper which after Naoleons
return published the following calen
dar gathered from the Kojalist press
21 The exterminator has
signed a treatj offensive and defen
sive It Is not known with whom
Tebruarj IV The Corsicau Ins left
the Island of Elba
March 1 Ionaparte has debarked
at Cannes with 1100 men
March 7 General lionaparte has
taken possession of Grenoble
March 10 Napoleon lias entered
IJ ohm
March 19 The Emperor reached
Kontainebleau todnj
March 19 ills Imperial Majesty is
expected at the Tuileries tomorrow
the anniversary of the birth of the
King of Rome
Twe dajs before the flight of the
Bourbons the following notice ap
peared on the door of the Tuileries
The Emperor begs the King to
eend him no more soldiers he has
enough
What was the happiest period of
jour life as Emperor O Mcara asked
Napoleon once nt bt Helena
The march from Cannes to Paris
he replied iinmediatelj
The marvelous etorj could hardly have
keen better told In so brief space
The life of Josephine fills about one
thira of the present volume and is If
sinythlng better written than Its prede
cessor The storj Itself Is full of poetry
nnd romance and a dramatic quality
which like that evident In the hltory
of Napoleon seems less to resemble sober
fact than the brilliant creation of some
Imaginative romance writer The pres
ent biographer frankly recognizes this
romantic quality in the second paragraph
of her work She says
If ore searches In the hgends of
the Island for an explanation of the
petition to which the child of this
humble spot arose he will find noth
ing more serious than the prophecy
of an old negress made to the little
girl herself that one d ly the would
be Queen of France If he looks in
the chronicles of the Island for an
expHnation he will find nothing to
Indicate tint she could ever rise
higher thin the life of nn indolent
eieole a life narrowed bj poverty ind
made tolerable chietlj by the beauty
of the nature about her and bj her
own happy indifference of tempera
ment
The fr inkness of Miss Tarlell Is only
equaicd bj the sjmpathetic Intuition
which caues her while admitting all the I
defects of Josephines temperament nnd
training to discard convention- stan
dards and estimate her heroine at her
actu ll value taking Into consideration
cverj fault everv virtue cverj excuse
for error everv pln o of the tumultuous
time in which the Hoiap irtes lived For
example she pictures with faithfulness
the famllv of Taselier de la Pagerle to
which Josephine belonged and leads us
to see at once the kind of morality which
the future Empress of the Trench learned
in her childhood The story of her raar
ri go to Alevander de Bcauhannls is
rather instructive It reveals much con
cerning the morals of the socletj of that
day
The Influence which hid led the
lamer oi Alexander ae Ueauharn lis
to a k for the h ind of a daughter of
M de la Pagerle for his on was not
altogether creditable The two families
had never krown each other until 1737
when M de Beauharnais came to Mar
tinique as governor The elder M de
la Pigerie was not slow in seeking the
new governors acquaintance and sup
port for his famllv for the latter was
rich and in favor with the King at
ersailles The relation prospered suf
liclentlv fcr M de la Pagerie to secure
a pace in the household of the gov
ernor for one of his daughters He
could have done nothing better for his
famllv This daughter was not long
in getting an Important influence over
both M and limp de Ueauharnais
and In winning as a husband M Re
naudin n excellent man and prosper
ous This for herself For her fnmi
1 she secured so manj favors from
the governor that it became a matter
of serious criticism and Anally added
To other indiscretions led to a divorce
between her and M Renaudln AH
this scandal did not Influence the gov
ernor however and when in 1761 he
left Martinique on account of the dis
satisfaction with his administration
there and hurried to France with his
wife to make his peace at Versailles
Mme Renaudln went too There she
prospered bujing a home and lajlng
aside money It was M de Ueauhar
nais money people said However
this m ij be it is certain that she ex
ercised grea influence over him that
for her he neglected his wife and that
after the latters death the friendship
or liaison continued until his death
Trom all this It will be seen that
Mme Renaudln was a clever woman
Intent on making the most out of the
one reaiij strong relation she had been
able to form In her life She was
clever enough to see when Alexander
was brought to France after his
mothers death that his love and grati
tude would be one of her strongest
cards with the father in the future
Pile set to work to win the boys heart
and she succeeded admlrablv In his
she took his mothers place and
her Influence over him was almost un
limited
The mirrlage then was made by this
aunt When the little Creole demoiselle
reached Paris she proved rather too
provincial for her husbands taste and
this Is the picture which her biographer
gives of the first winter she spent in
France
She seems to have made but a poor
Impression for In spite of the 200k
llvres that Mme Renaudln had spent
on her trousseau she had after all
a provincial air which Irritated her
husband accustomed as he was to the
ease and elegance of aristocratic Paris
What was worse In his ejes she seem
ed to have no desire to improve her
self on the models he laid down Poor
little Josephine had no head for the
exaggerated sentiment the line specu
lations and the chatter about libertj
nature and the social contract which
Mowed so from everj rren h
tongue In those davs She loved pretty
gowns and Jewels and childish amuse
mints above all she demandeel to be
loved exclusively and passionately ty
her handsome joung husband When
he scolded her she cried and when
he devoted himself to brighter wo
men she was Jealous and so before
the first sir months of ihctr ca
life were over Josephine was seeing
manj unhappy hours
The life of Josephine after the death of
her first husband does not indicate any
particular moral stamina It shows her
as the Trench Creole in cverj fibre In
dolent pleasure loving warm htartcd
and willing to do anj one a good turn
The author says
In all her efforts to repilr her for
tune and secure to her children the
estate of Ue iuh inials she enlisted
her friends especially Mme Talllent
who Just then was at the height of her
power The two became verj intimate
and the viscountess de Ueauharnais
was soon one of the women oftenest
seen at the functions given by the
members of the DIrecteiry as well as
at all the more intimate gatherings
of that socle tv She became as great
a favorite among the dissipated and
prodigal company as she had been
among the aristocratic ladles of the
Abbey de Pantlii mont or in the mot
Icy company at les Cannes It was to
be expected that she could not long be
an intimate of Mme Talljens salon
without finding n protector She found
him in Uarras a member of the Di
rectory its most influential member
in fact a prince of corruption but a
man of elegance and ability
ft Wflf attirlm MiT nlni -
C ivwuu in josepninc s
ii
life that Napoleon then a young Cor
slcan general for the first time entered
the atmosphere of fashion ible socicty
and m t her whom he must have con
sidered the perfect tvpc of the grand
uamc jir unratllng charm delighted
him her genuine Interest for Jos phlnes
power lay In the fact that her kindness
was not pretence flattered him and he
was soon furiously in love This is the
way In which Josenhinc took his offer of
marriage
I am urged fshe says In a letter to
a friend to marrv again by the ad
vice of all my friends 1 may almost
saj by the commands of my aunt
and tlie prayers of my chil
dren
Among my visitors you have seen
General Bonaparte lie Is the man who
wishes to Income a father to the or
phans of Alexander de Iip iniinrnni
and a hush ind to his widow
Do you love him7 Is naturally
joui first question
My answer Is Ierlnps no
Do jou dislike him
No again but tlie sentiments I
entertain toward him are of that
lukewarm kind which true devotees
think worst of all In matters of re
ligion Now love llng a sort of re
ligion mj feelings ought to be very
dlffennt from what thev really are
This is the point on whf Ji i tunnt
jour advice which would fix the wav
ering of my irresolute disposition To
come to a decision Ins alwajs been
too much for mj Creole nature and I
find it easier to obey th wishes of
others
The biographer adds
It is probable that If it had not
been for Uarras Josephine would not
have consented for many of her
friends advised against the marriage
lianas urgesl II however He says in
explanation with the brutal frank
ness for which his memoirs are dis
tinguished that he wns tired and
bored with her She no doubt felt
that Uarras protection was uncer
tain and that It vou be better for
her not to otfend him
And this was the marriage which In
the eyes of many moralists on this side of
the water was so essentially sacred a
compact that Napoleons character Is to
be utterly and everlastingly condemned
for having dissolved It The fiery pas
sionate ardent and exacting Corslcan a
man of the utmost honetj as regards ex-
TUB TIMES WASHINGTON SUNDAY MARCH 31 1901
pcndltures and compacts married a
woman of easy morals with no Ideals and
no training whose charm for him con
sisted solely In her great tact and genuine
warmth and kindness of heart and all of
whose traditions were those of the French
West Indies Ills motive for marrjing
her was intense and reckless love hers
in marrjing him a lukewarm regard a
half hearted belief In his abllltj and a
wish not to offend her former protector
It looks as If whatever Inequalltj there
was in the match was not Napoleons
fault Perhaps It was not anybodys
Josephines virtues were her own her
defects were mainlj due to temperament
heredltj and training
We tlnd Napoleon In the earlj vears of
their marriage urging her even begging
her with a humbleness which sts
strangelv on the all conquering military
genius to leave Paris nnd come to him
In Italy She refuses She was enjoying
his glory and the prestige which it gave
her in the socictj of Paris She does not
even write to him often She pleads the
dangers ind discomforts of the trip Fi
nally under protest she comes The dan
gers of her journej are so manj that Na
poleon does not plead with her to come
to him again All he asks is that she
write to him and wo find him sending
her letters like this
You do not w rite me any more
jou do not love jour husband You
know the pleasure that jour letters
give me and jet write me not more
than six lines and that bj chance
AY hat are jou doing all day long mad
ame Hut seriously I am verj much
disturbed mj denr at not hearing
from jou W rite me four pages quick
ly of those things which 111 my heart
with pleasure
The author adds
And so it went on through the en
tire summer and fall of use While
she received at Milan the honors due
the wife of a conqueror who held the
fate of Stales in his hands he in the
Held exhausted himself In a frenzied
struggle for victorj not for
himself so he told Josephine and so
for a time perhaps he persuaded him
self but victory because it pleased
her that he win It lienor because she
set store by it otherwise said he I
should leave all to throw myself at
jour feet
Finallj In 1797 we find Josephine leav
ing her husband for a tour in Italy and
coming back to Paris a month after his
arrival to find the whole city restless
and impatient because the general had
absolutely refused to Ije lionized until
she came to share the glory Even after
her arrival he openly declared that he
would rather staj at home w ith her than
go to the most brilliant reception and
this was after two years of marriage
After a winter of brilliant gayetj thor
oughly enjoyed bj the wife and accepted
somewhat under protest bj the husband
the Egyptian campaign called Napoleon
away and during his stay In Egypt he
was continually hearing rumors about his
wife and a young lieutenant called Hlp
poljte Charles The proofs of this affair
which were put Into Napoleons hands
by his brother Jcseph caused him to un
dergo a complete disillusion From this
point of view the storj of the man who
dominated Europe becomes in its domes
tic asjiect the saddest of tragedies As
the author puts It although finally recon
ciled to his wife he vvas thenceforth no
more the lover only the commonplace
bourgeois husband
The shock of learning his opinion of her
seems to have brought out whatever
strength and sense there was In Jose
phines nature and she Is henceforth Ir
reproachable In morality and unfailing
I In tact and affection It wasnot in her
to make definite resolves guided by the
light of reason and whatever she did was
done unconsciously from- pure feminine
Instinct This no doubt was one source
of her power over her husband who never
did anything unconsciously and all of
whose acts were due to logical convic
tion The author says of her at this
time
Josephine realized fully that If her
victorj over her brothers-in-law was
complete it could endure only durjng
her own good behavior that If she
ever apain gave them reison for com
plaining of her conduct she probably
would have to suffer the full penalty
of her wrongdoing She must have
realized too that the supreme power
she had once exercised over Napoleon
was at an end that he could get
along very well without her The ab
sorbing passion or tne Italian cam
paign had become the comfortable
unexactlng affection which would have
been so welcome to her in 17S5 The
change If more peaceable brought Its
dangers she well knew It meant that
if she kept him now she not only must
be Irreproachable In her life but she
must foster his affection by her de
votion amuse him stand bv him in
his ambition she must be the suitor
now There was no question In her
mind that he was wonh It If there
ever had been the wonderful enthu
siasm of the people on his return from
Egypt would have dissipated the
doubt Her course vas evident and
she adopted It
immediately and ap
plied herself to It with more serious
ness than she ever had given to any
thing before in her life
At the Tuileries the Bonapartes were
in a Government houe at Malmaison
they were at home and thej never
anj where were so gay so busy and so
happy together Certainly in these two
years Josephine succeeded admirably
her purpose of repairing the mis
chief she had done by her past indis
cretion It was not alone her tact in
society and Its value to lilm which
had won Napoleon It was that she
had been to him an incessant delight
and comfort She yielded to his will
Incessantly and willingly and this pli
ability vvas the more welcome because
his own family were In Incessant op
position to his wishes she was nlwavs
on hand ready to walk to drive to go
with him where he would She was
tireless in her efforts to please the
people he wanted pleased to carrj off
successfully the burdensome functions
of official life to provide the entertain
ment he liked She studied his tastes
and foresaw his wants She tried to
please him In Ihe least detail Napo
leon loved to her In white hence
she wore nn other kind of gown ho
often He liked to hear her read and
no matter how tired she was she would
sit at his bedside by the hour If he
wished and read uncomplainingly
Little wonder that as the weeks went
Jos nhlne ulew dearer and ileree n
Napoleon or that she seeing her hold
watched carefully that nothing loosen
There is no reason to suppose on the
contrary there is every reason to deny
that this assiduity In Josephine was mere
policy and dictated by no genuine affec
tion She was not of the temperament to
be politic Her former frivolity was tlie
lightness of a thoughtless and pleasure
loving nature When she realized what
manner of man she had to deal with and
how severely he would look upon any lick
of faithfulness In her she ceased her co
quetries as Instinctively as she had taken
to them To the end of her days however
she never overcame her tendency to ex
travagance and it is not the least proof
of tlie essential generosity of her Impe
rial husbands nature that with all his
punctiliousness In sucli matters he always
forgave her financial Irregularities The
story of her extravagance Is an old one
but it Is picturesquely told by the present
author who says
She was allowed at the beginning
of her regime J7 a year for her
toilette and liter this was Increased
to S000 But there was never a jtar
during the time that she did not fur
overreach her allowance and oblige
the Emperor to come to her relief Ac
cording to tlie estimite Masson has
made Josephine spent on an average
iaiuiQ j early on her toilette during
her rrUn The effect on tho
Emperur of Josephines prodigality
can be imagined He appreciated as
she never could the lack of dignity
In her reckless spending and did his
utmost to persuade her to keep her
accounts In order Ho oven resorted
to severe measures turning out of
the palace tradespeople who lie knew
hung about her apartments watching
nn opportunity to show her a novelty
in modes oi In ornamentation a rare
Jewel or a rich shawl He ordered
that her expenses be regulated by n
Iiersun oijHripjuj niqioinica lor the
purpose and that Josephine herself be
not allowed to buy anything without
supervision rone or these means ef
fected anythlntr Annually there was
a great debt run up by her and when
the settlement could be pat off no
longer Josephine would confess She
alwajs put the amount far below
what it actually was and only after
much badgering could Napoleon get
at the real state of things Then there
wnc a scene ending always in tears
from Josephine Invariably they con
quered Napoleon Come come pet
dry jour tears he would beg dont
worry and ho paid the debts and
raised her Income In twelve months
the scene was repeated
The vexed question of the divorce an
action for which Napoleon has perhaps
been more severely censured than for his
endangering of the liberty of Europe is
put in a somewhat new light by the pres
ent biographer It appears in this work
that so far from being careless of Jose
phines happiness or Indifferent to the
suffering which such a step must cause
her the Emperor was Induced to take
it by a thorough conviction that only bj
the birth of an heir to his own name
could the permanence of the work which
he had done and the peace of France be
assured No one knew better than he the
Instability of the foundation upon which
his empire was built no one realized
more clearlj that without a competent
successor and one moreover with the
prestlgo of the name of Napoleon there
was little hope that It would last He
could not trust Ills brothers or anj of
his klnfolk or he might have adopted an
heir There was nothing for It but to
put asne his personal feelings and marry
again AH that the author tells of the
transactions attending the divorce goes
to prove Napoleons reluctance to per
ceive the necessity and his nnxlctj to
spare Josephine as much of the Inevi
table pain of the separation as possible
The view here adopted Is that Napoleon
wished Josephine to be considered and to
consider herself aH making the greatest
possible sacrifice voluntarily for the
good of France a sacrifice which he
shared She was still to be Empress still
to be assured of his love and friendship
It is an anomalous even an Impossible
situation from the point of view of the
conventional but taking into account the
Intense idealism and determination of Na
poleon and the temper of the French peo
ple the explanation offered bj the pres
ent author seems likelv to be the true
one There is in her life of Napoleon
nothing to prove that he was moved by
personal ambition nnd not by sincere de
sires for the good and tiie glory of
France Were It not so it would be hard
to see why the French people should hav e
gone mad over him why they should
even to this day regard him not only
with admiration and awe but with affec
tion Truly the story of this romance
excels In strangeness nny which roman
ticism ever Invented The book would be
well worth buying only for the biography
of Josephine but the two together make
a complete history which should not be
separated Into Its component parts One
biography is the public life of the two
the other is their private life
Not the least interesting feature of the
book is the Illustration which comprises
copies of almost every portrait of either
tlie Emperor oc the Empress now exist
ing and portraits of many famous men
and women of the time It would be more
attractive however if the engraver had
done his work better Some of the pic
tures are too blurred nnd slipshod to be
pleasing New York McCIure Phillips
Co
vliscellflneoiis ltool
The Free Trade Movement by G
Armitage Smith is a little book which
contains a great deal of Interesting In
formation The author takes up this
movement at the very beginning and fol
lows It up to the present time discussing
also Its results His views are of course
confined mainly to English affairs since
he is writing for an English public but
he covers that field very thoroughly
The beginning of the chapter on Pro
tection contains two or three interesting
paragraphs which are worth quoting as
snowing tne authors general argument
and Ids style of Ttrltlng He says of this
system
Regarded historically and In its or
lg Jrotcctlon ls not he outcome of
a deliberate policy adopted after care
ful weighing of economic arguments
It grew out of the restrictions inciden
tal to early forms of society and the
restraints upon Individuals Inevitable
in tlie unsettled conditions existing
long prior to the modern lndustrlii
era the Jealousy of States during the
period of their formation and consoli
dation the growth bf the sentiment of
nationality the need for resources
treasure to carry- on war and the
creation bv means of tariffs of class
es Interested In the maintenance of
restraints upon commerce all helped
to develop it Tacts came before
theory and the principle of Protection
as a beneficent Institution was formu
lated to explain and suDonrt the nu
toms and practices which had grown
up Until late in the eighteenth cen
tury Protection was scarcely question
ed as a guiding principle of states
men objections were raised to special
restraints on commerce or on free
dom of Individual action rather than
to the general principle The belief
that It furthered the material inter
ests of communities sustained the pro
tective doctrine until Adam Smith
changed the standpoint by maintain
ing that the enlightened pursuit of in
dividual interests harmonized with
the national well being
In modern times the defence of pro
tection Is undertaken either upon eco
nomic or more broadly upon politi
cal grounds Protection Is advocated
either as promoting some existing
branch of national Industry and so se
curing employ ment for laborers or as
fostcrng some new trade which Is ex
pected ultimately to be a source of
wealth although it may involve a tem
poiary loss to corsumers and tax
pavers or It Is demanded upon pitrl
otie grounds as necessary to make
the nition Independent of foreigners
that It may be self supporting in the
event of war Both lines of defence
are open to the charge that they are
based upon Imperfect observation of
the whole of the circumstances and
that the conclusions deducid are
equally fallacious In examining more
nt length some of the current argu
ments for Protection we shall find
that they do not form a harmonious
system that some of them contradict
others and that nobody can consis
tentlj uphold them all For example
It is urged that a protective tariff will
support the home Industry bj exclud
ing the foreign article and yet raise
revenue tint it will keep up pricee
benefit the 1 iborlng classes whose
leil wages It would by tint means re
duce that it will prevent fluctuations
In trade and prices by excluding for
eign competition although it thereby
creates monopoly whicli is it fre
quent cause of fluctuations and high
prices that while It Is desirable to
encourage Invention In the Interests
of cheapners It is also beneficial to
keep up prices by tariffs These and
other ptradoxes appear on a survey
of the different arguments In favor of
Protection
The last chapter in the book tint on
Imperial Te deration is most Interesting
nnd should receive the attention of every
student of tlie economic problems of the
duj since It deals with a problem which
In a lift le nt form Is also confronting
tlie rnlttil States and whoe solution
In any form must affect the general com
merclil condition of the world Chicago
Herberts Stone Co I 23
Women of the Bible Is a sumptiiuusly
bound and Illustrated book containing
contributions fiom twelve eminent clergy
men namely Dr John V Chadwlck
Rabbi Gustav Gotlheil Dr Lymin Ab
bott Dr Henry Van Dyke Dr W II P
Faunce Prof Itlehanl Green Moulton
Bishop Hurst Dr Edward II Cue Bishop
Doane Dr Newell Dwlght Hulls Bishop
Potter and Ordinal Gibbons The Bibli
cal cliaractets successively discussed are
Eve Sarah Rebekah Miriam Deborah
Ruth Hamuli Jezebel Esther Mary
Mugdalen Mary and Martha and the
Virgin Mary
The stvle of each chapter necessarily
varies Willi the spirit of the commenta
tor but It may be said that the selection
of the blogiupher chosen for each heroine
la lrtn evtremelv wise Ihe imetl
I Van Dyke the sympathetic Dr Abbott
the race feeling of Gotthell the Hebrew
all are suited to the subjects with which
they have to do
The Illustrations are possibly the most
attractive feature of the book each Is a
gem and the cover design is one of the
most charming of the season The book
is sure to please those who are fond of
literature discussing and commenting
upon Riblical legends and for such a
one no more ilelightfil gift book can be
found Acw York Harper Brothers
The latest volume In a series of biog
raphies of Great Comm inders is John
Paul Jones Cjrus Townsend Brady
It Is a brief and well written story of the
great commanders life without any pre
tence about it and the stylo Is simple
and graphic It will be an excellent ad
dition to any school library and a good
reference book New York D Appleton
i Co Jl 50
Ad Astra by Charles Whltwortli
Wj nne is a book of verse consisting of
but one poem There are fine stanzas In
It but owing to its length and serious
ness It Is- scarcely likely to become popu
lar New York John Lane
April lliitrnzlnes
The April number of the Atlantic
Monthly contains as its leading article
Politics and the Public Schools by G
W Anderson Other features of Interest
are The Anthracite Coal Crisis by Tai
cott Williams The State of Washing
ton by W D Lyman Dantes Quest
of Liberty by Charles A Dinsmore
Tho Renaissance of the Tragic Stage
by Martha Anstice Harris The Foun
tains and Streams of the Yosemlte bj
John Muir nnd The Next Step In Mu
nicipal Reform bj Edwin Burritt Smith
Roswell Field contributes a whimsical
sketch entitled The Passing of Moth
ers Portrait and there are two stories
The Weaker Sex by F J Stimson
An Unfinished Portrait by Jcnnette
Lee The poems are by John Burroughs
Henry Johnstone and Grace Richardson
The Contributors Club contains a re
markably clever and appreciative cri
tique of Mrs Minnie Maddern Tiskes act
ing
Scribncrs Magazine for April begins
with the first of a series of articles on
The Southern Mountaineer by John
Fox Jr r nnd no one is more competent
to write on this subject than he Two
Centres of -Moorish Art is a paper by
Edwin Lord Weeks illustrated by the au
thor Waller A Wyckoff contributes a
paper on the hobo problem which he calls
A Day with a Tramp Possibly the
cleverest bit of work in the magazine Is
The Marvels of Science by George Hlb
bard which Is much better than Its title
being a dialogue between a young woman
and a phonograph The poems are by
Marguerite Merington Charles Henry
Webb John Badmus and II ArthurFow
ell
The April number of the Popular Sci
ence Monthly contains seven articles of
nearly equal Interest They are Mal
plghl Swammerdam and Leeuwenhoek
by Prof William A Ixicy Two Con
temporary Problems in Education by
Prof Paul II JIanus A Study in Brit
ish Genius by Havelock Ellis Suicide
nnd the Weather Pror Edwin G
Dexter Recent Progress In Aerial Nav
igation Charles H Cochrane The
Foreign Trade of the United States by
Frederic Emory and The Planet Eros
by Prof Solon I Bailey Among tlie sub
jects discussed in the editorial depart
ments are Chicago University the origin
of men of genius Kant and the Nebular
Hypothesis and Stunford University
Harpers Magazine for April contains
an unusual numtier of Interesting things
particularly In the line of fiction There
are descriptive articles and historical ar
ticles as well Serpent Worshippers of
India by Walter II Tribe The Austra
lian Squatter by II C Mclhaine The
Rise of Berlin by Whitman and
Colonics and Nation the fourth of a
series of papers by Woodrow Wilson
Mark Twain contributes an amusing bit
of funcy which he calls Extracts from
Adams Diary and which lives up to
its name There are two particularly
clever stories or rather character stud
ies Druce Fearing by Marie Van
Vorst and A Friend of His Youth bj
Gelett Burgess George Bird Grinnell
contributes an Indian folk tale which he
entitle The Medicine Grizzly Bear E
W Demlng is responsible for the illustra
tions which are good There are poems
by John FInlev Hiideganle Hawthorne
and Elizabeth W King There is also a
story The Chohan Bride by A Saxath
Kumar Ghosh the scene of which It mav
be explained Is Rajputana
The Easter number of Alnslees Maga
zine contains several good stories two of
the best of which are The Elopement
an amusing sketch of rural life by Eu
gene Wood and Before the Fact a cu
rious stuely In statistics and psychology
by Rodrigues Ottolengui By all odds the
most Interesting of the other featus
is Chinese Childrens Blocks by Isaac
Tnjlor Headland
The World s Work for April con
tains as Its leading feature an article on
Andrew Carnegie with a full page por
trait There Is also an article on Iier
pont Morgan with portrait Among the
other public dnracters discussed in this
Issue are Archbishop Ireland Prince Iro
potkln and Stephen Phillips and there
Is an Interesting paper on The Ilioe of
the Russlau Jew
McCIure s Mig izlne for April con
tains many good things among them an
article on New York by Josiah Fiynt
which is likely to startle some of the re
formers in tint city anil elsewhere There
are also several good stories among them
a clever little sketch called Limitations
by Edith Wyatt who is doing some of the
best work yet done In the line of realis
tic fiction Her especial held Is Chicago
and her heroes and heroines are drawn
from its greit middle class
Industrlil topics are prominent In the
edltoriul discussion which occupies tlie
opening p igi s of the April Review of
Itcvlews The eelltoi s comments em the
formation of the lillllon dollar steel
company and on the threatened strike
of the anthracite eoil miners are pointed
and Instructive There are also several
suggestive paragraphs on the recent rail
road consult latfons the question of gov
ernment ownership In Canada nnd mod
ern transportation problems In general
Including in exposition of the American
canal policy
vv ItoeilM Ileeelved
hlvrs 1 NT lit Mice llrnivn Tloton lloneli
lim Vfifflin i n si 7
SllHlTl VI hNOWIMi OH llllll 1 NIIIVE
Ill Thnidiri I seuanl tu Jerk- Iunk
i W an ills imipam
UUOlD vMl IN l1l V TicjUm ef the
GeiffTJh Nateiril llrfcourcc and Ililorv
of the Uland linbraiin an Vet omit of e
cent ami lrccnt Lurjri Material Vloeenientb
finely illuMldfe tl with mjn and hdMcute
rngratlns Nc hill Tlie smith Iaibhah
ir ntiipan
Till IM M1HI Hr IfarnOTi Ilulurlvn Nee
JorL dialler siriliterie tm i ifl
lllr I Hill I Oh nil Woltlll Hi Herbert I
Ward ILMon Untight MllTlitiln 1
TDK flHIOl s ClRhhli OK ItODI Ulfh
IIHU ll lean Vliflnnlth lloton
llouKhtim Milflln ik Lo -1 Jt
DOe u vTellhs VT h V m -mi II kimr
Illlislnled Hoi tun lloiiglilun Milflin V
fo CI 0
VIVSTFIts 01 hill M II I IT IMTIl ill
rurc McLean llarier lnfes or in Irinceton
I rifversily re oiL tlurle t Nribncrs
con JI ii
Oils rl iTFTs V f old i ork
Ily Imegen t lark ev Jerk Charles
nere Snp si fto
V Mil Illhll 01 IH0II V Tale ef Cohnil
Washington and HiatMHkt iMrat B Kur
il n I gbert Steve niin Ituatun Houghton
ihlllin Co H Oi
CURRENT VERSE
The Sepulchre In thr Garden
What though tlie Fkmtri inJepli Cirden
ffrcw
Of rarnt perfume and ol aire hoe
That morn wheat Jagilalcnc lMrnrd throush
Its fragrant silent ruths
She caught no scent of budding almond tree
Her eyes tcar blinded stdlfreart Caltary
Saw neither hly nor anemone
Naught ute the Sepulchre
Rut when the JIatrr whispered VfarT lol
Tlie Tomb was hid the Garden all ablow
And burt in bloom the Rom of Jcrielio
rrom that day Jfarvj Hower
John Hnley In Harpers JUgazinc
Toller Cnnt Thou Dream
Toiler caest thou dream
At the seam at the flour
Higher herltaze than Icings
Hast thou
Camt thou read in star or weed
nswer to thy hearts deep err
Cold nor gem nor Lutes own crown
So Batitfy
Tinier canst thou wait
Through the storm black hour elate
Ruler of thy recreant wdl
Dominant of Fate
Toiler canst tiou trut
rnm the dtiit itaml and tell
Though the tears come streaming all
All is well I
Inlu JhtchcII
The Tvo OtiekeOi
Theres a leaden casket down in my heart
That Is heaping with heart things
The stones I hare gathered alomc the wav
The thorns I have plucked from clay to clay
And the hearts own broken strings
Hut Ive hidden that casket low anil deep
From the guess of day and the reach o sleep
And snapped the lock on the somber keepT
And thrown the key away
Theres a golden casket down in my heart
That is full of a treasure glow
The smiles that have greeted me on the way
The roses that bloomed and sweeter stay
In a scented afterblcw
nd the treasures break from this golden keen
Through the rHk of clay and the guess of 6lccp
And 1 slip the lock and I spy and peep
For its open night and day
vlojsnu Call in Munseys Magazine
Gretclieii
O love he said and laid on mine his hand
And I beheld the yearning of his eyes
Nor aught beside beheld yet no surprise
Caught at my heart well could I understand
Half spoken wordsruy but unspoken sighs
Surely it was not words my cheek that fanned
This waa the way to God Himself had planned
Tlie way to Cod Him If through Paradise
What trtit hatb mortal heart but that Creat
Jeamel
So he who ralleth npon Love no whit
Of terror feels nor doubt begot of It
Do I speak truly Answer ye who sit
At lifes full board rose crowned and without
blame
These were the steps by which I hither came
bcribners Magazine
The Lady or Lit JcnnrMe
Quern of your Ihantae jou find me fair
With your young soul you do desire me
With your young poets heart attire me
Create my gems and garnishfngs with care
I am arrareil in all you Lnng to me
In reveries that clothe and cling to me
Your broidered dreams I ore my boon wear
J our smiles in solitude like- fleck roe
nun eireameii pearls you royally bedeck me
V ith all a bovie minil hath of sweet and rare
Tliiw walk I still through gardens airy
With womans eyes and feet of faerie
Your visionary flowers in my hair
Clothed in your thoughts I seek yon fond and
fair
What is the moonlight or thc TIn for mc
When in the evening you ar Tain for me
And n your heart arc fires too big to bear
O Neill Latham in the Cosmopolitan
The Lost Garden
Somewhere in tlie distant southland
Bloom a garden Io t to me
Warm with poppies burning fragrant
Drowsy fires I may not see
Subtle shadows flit and beckon
Down dim pathwars bound with jew
Where a white wraith wanders lonely
Twist the darkness and the dew
In the mined walls that echoed
Once to luppy heirted moods
Xow tlie stealthy Hghtfuot lizards
Cnmole ted rear their broods
And beneath the oleanders
No clear voice sings as of old
Cut the fleet eareMnir iintems
Wlu iper secrets to their mold
Though I follpw as the soutliwind
Fares hia way throush wood and plain
Though I nucotton hill and valley
I hall never find again
Mr lost gaulen where he hurled
Joys that swift the glad hours sped
Only one could bid me enter
Onlt Love and Love is dead
Cliarlottc Becker in Vlndee s Magazine
The lllvuunc et the Drnil
The muffled drums sad roll lias beat
The soldiers last tattoo
No more on lifes parade shall meet
That brave and fallen few
On fames eternal camping ground
Their silent tents are siread
And glory guards with solemn round
The bivouac of the dead
No rumor of the foes adrance
Now swells ution the wind
No troubled thoughts at midnight haunts
Of loved ones left behind
Vo vision of the morrows strife
Tlie warriors drranl planus
No braving horn nor screaming fife
At dawn t hall call to arms
Their sliivercl sword are red with rust
Their plumed heads are bowed
Their baughtv liaihier trailed In dust
I now their martial i hroud
aid plente ous funeral tears have washed
Tlie red stains from each brow
And the proud forms bv battle gashed
Are free from anguish now
Tlie neighing troop ihe flashing blade
The bugles stirring blast
Tlie charge the dnadful cannonade
The dm and shout are passed
Nor wars wild note nor glorys peal
hall thrill with fierce delight
Those bn asfs that nevermore may feel
ThSTnpturc of the 6ght
Like the fierce northern hurricane
That sweeps his great plateau
Flushed with the triumph vet to gain
Came d iwn tlie serried foe
Who heard the thunder of the fray
Break oer the field Ifriuath
Knew well the watchword of that day
Was Victory or death
long had the doubtful conflict raged
Oer all the stricken plain
lor nerer fiercer fight hid waged
The veiiieful bood of Sjain
And still tho storm of battle blew
Mill swelled the gory tide
Not long our stout old chieftain knew
buch odL his strcnnth could bide
Tw is in that hour bis steil command
Called to a martyrs grave
The flower of his beloved land
The natiuns flag to save
Be rivers of their fathers gore
Ills first laurels grew
And well he deemed the sons vrould pour
Their lives for glory too
I till lnanv a northers breath has swept
O er ngosturaV lain
Vnd long the pitying i ky has wept
bovt its moulderid siin
Tlie ravins stream or eagles flight
Or shepherd s pensive lay
Vlone awakes each sUHen height
That trownnl oer that dread frar
S ns of the dark an 1 bloody ground
c must not slumber there
Where itranter steps and tongues resound
Vlong the heeelles lir
Jour own proud lands heroic soil
Hiall be your litter grave
the claims fnun war his richest spoil
The ashes of her brave
Tims neath their parent turf they rest
har floni Hie gory held
Home to a spartan mothers breast
On mane u Moo shtell
The sunshine of their native sky
fcrndes Siidli on them here
nd kindred eees and hearts watch by
Tlie heris i sepulchre
Best en embalmesl and sainted dead
Dear as the Mood ve gave
No impuiu footsteps here ihal tread
The herbage of your grave
Nor shall your glory be forgot
While fame lur record keepv
Or honor paints the hallowed siiot
Where valor proudly tleeps
Jon marble nuiistrils voiceless stone
In eleathlca s m lig sluU tell
When many t vanished ac hath floivn
Tlie story how ve fell
Nor ivreek nor change nor winters blight
Aor times rcniorseleiis doom
Mial dim cue ray of glorys light
That gilds lour deathlesi tomb
Theodore O Hara 1st
iRet Tinted by Keiniest
e - -
NOTES AND QUERIES
Oa what day of the week did December IS
fall in 16t j 0 if
Tuesdav
What were the total receipt of the Govern
ment ior January and February 1001 J X E
January J17KH2S7 Fcbntary l3t01
hen and where did Patrick Henry deliw
hl celebrated speech that ha been in our school
readers erer since ej
In the Virginia House of Burgesses la
1T6S the occasion being the Introduction
of his resolutions against the Stamp Act
Wh carried Nebraska In the list Presiden
tial election and what was the plurality
EFO
The State went for McKinley by a
plurality of gja and the Republican
State ticket was elected by pluralities of
from SSI for Governor Dietrich to 4771
for Auditor Griess
re both of llraham Lincoln son lirinij If
so are they In the United States Army J T
Ills sons were four Edward Baker died
In infancy William Wallace died at the
age of twelve Thomas died when eighteen
years old and Robert Todd lives in Chi
cago
What became of Queen Vfrnn half brother
and rJ the rnuvr s Ieodorowna
marrv and when did she die D T
The half brother Charles Frederick
William Ernest died In IS5e The half
sister Anne Feodorowna Augusta Char
lotte Wllhelmina married in lfCS Ernest
Christian Charles Prnce of Hoheniohe
Langenburg and dies In 1J72
Where and In what manner does black pepper
crow j
It Is the fruit of a climbing shrub whose
stem grows from twee to twenty feet
long and has opposite each leaf a spike
of flowers with fruit the size of a pea
It is a native of the East Indies but now
ls cultivated In most tropical countries
What is monaiitc and where can it be ob
tained j jj jr
A rare mineral described chemically as
a phosphate of the cerium metals and
usually containing some thorium silicate
It Is found In North Cat ilina at Norwich
Conn in the Ural MuuntLirs and else
where It is wasled frim gravels result
ing from the dlslLtegr on of granitic
rocks of which It Is a oistltuent
Wliich was the larger velwl the Kaiser W1I
hebn der Cros c or the Croat Tastern WiCEIi
The Great Eastern It was tSO feet long
S3 1 2 feet beam and 5S feet depth of hold
The corresponding dimensions of the Kai
ser W Ilhelm are 626 66 and Z3 The Great
Eastern was larger than the Oceanic tho
mggest vessel now afloat though the lat
ter Is 701 feet long
Can sound waves be concentrated hy a re
flector in a similar manner to light say in a
searchlight reflector T W
In some degree jes but not so marked
ly as is the case with light the effect be
ing dissipated gradually as the distance
from the reflector Increases Experi
ments with rz gr ae shown that
the reflection Is far more effective with
moderate sounds than with very loud
ones
How far Is Xeptune from the Sun i Hot
long does it take the light of the sun to reach
us 1 How much greater Is the mass of the
sun than of all the planets that revolve about it
RM a
Its mean distance is about 2TT0000fXl
miles 2 Eight minutes and eighteen sec
onds when at mean distance from us 3
Betw een TOO and S00 times as great
What is the difference between sheathed and
unsheathed warships W J p
A cov erlng of sheet copper for the out
side of so much of the hull as Is under
water As used on wooden vessels the
copper was a protection against teredos
and other borers and to a large extent
prevented foulins with sea weeds bar
nacles and the like On steel vessels It
tends to decrease the fouling but wheth
er or not It Is a preventive of corrosion
of the steel Is still a disputed point
Will you give the names of all the Chief Jus
tices of the United States with their tenure In
office since the organization of the court BD
John Jay 17S9 1793 John Rutledge ap
poInted In July 1793 presided at the Au
gust term but soon afterward lost his
reason and failed of confirmation by the
Senate Oliver Jilisworth 1791SOO John
Marshall 1S01 1K3 Roger B Taney 1836
1S61 Salmon P Chase 1S6I 1S73 Morrison
R Walte 1S74 1SS8 Melville W Fuller
the present Chief Justice was appointed
April 30 1SSS
How did o many different surnames origi
nate F K
The cause of the great number was the
need of and desire for distinguishing the
individual from his fellows Many of
them were significant of occupation as
Smith and Fowler of localitj as Atte
well at the w ell of personal peculiarity
as Longfellow or of descent The last
vvas very plentiful Instances are names
beginning with Mac son or ending
with ing born of The topic Is a
large one for treatment In this depart
ment In an encyclopaedia under Name
or Surname jouH find much about it
and there are many books on it
Will you tell me something of the first pro
IKiunder of phrenology if he is known
KKD
This was Trans Joseph Gall who was
born in Baden Germanj Mnrch 9 1753
From childhood he had taken much In
terest in the differences in the shapes of
mens heads and by 1785 when he had
received his medical degree at Vienna he
had become convinced that they afforded
an indet to mental ard moral character
istics In 1795 he began lecturing In
Vienna on his theorj bu was met with
ridicule and censure anil in 1SP5 this
Austrian Government Interdicted his
lectures as threatening religion This
prohibition helped his cause and In Ber
lin immediately afterward his lectures
had manj Interested listeners In 1507 h
went te Paris whre he practiced medi
cine and became a French citizen Near
there he il August 22 Vi2
How can I nrepare a lawn tennis court so it
will stay smooth and not grow soft and dusty
I wish to make two one on a lawn covered witk
gras tlie other on a place without grass The
soil is black loam Jf J C
A lawn may easily be put Into good
condition sprinkling nnel rolling re
peating this as often ns neceisary Good
thick turf is of course highly desirable
to start with The other sort will be a
big job The soil of the entire court will
have to be replaced to a depth of not
much less than a foot with gravel coarse
sand or ahes which ver is most easilj
obtalnable and there should be a top
course of clay A deil of rolling will be
necessary and more of it will have to
be done to keep It In good order than
will be the case with tho grass court As
a last resort ashes may be used for top
dres ing but in that case a fall by a
1 layer results in distressing cuts and
scratches on the hands
Will you tell me something of the career of
V II arlandf l g
He was born in Tipton county Ten
nessee June 11 1S32 vvas educated at
Mary s College Lebanon Ky and at St
Josephs College Bardtown Ky went
to Arkansas and soon became prominent
He opposed the policy of secession fntll
his State withdrew from the Union whet
he cast his fortune with hers Ho
served in tho Provisional Congress of tho
Confederate btates In 1S41 was elected to
the House of the First Confederate Con
gress In lSe nnd at the end of the v ar
was in the Confederate Senate In 1S7
he was elected to the United States Sen
ate but w ts not seuted nnd in ST was
made Governor of Arkansas He was
United Stites Senator from 1S77 to lil 5
and was Attorney General until 1SS9
Afterward he practiced law In
ton where he died January K Ifcitt

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