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a. nARKElt, Editor and Proprietor
I WOULD RATHKR EE RIGIIT TH AIT FRESIDENXnEtf b:V Cat. ' " ; '""'"' ' f "( '.. ) U'-i.ooiy ,ADy.v, c c. 1 VOLUME- 7. Elp$EIJRG;.m.; THIJRSDA;--JAIJAKY:4, 1866. 1 Att INTERESTING DOCUMENT. -Report of tr. Rotlirock, Sur . geon of . tbe Board of Enroll ment of tbe 171b Pa. District, to the" War Department. . , . . War Department, tENT, "I VBKAtT, J r 1, J865. J TnoTOST Marshal General's Bv Washington, D. C.", 3Iay Surgeon Board Enrollment Hh District State of Pennsylvania: Doctobi -.The Provost Marshal General 'directs that you carefully prepare and forward to this office a written report, giving, as the result of your experience, information upon he following subjects: 1. Your experience in the examination of yatri for military service, and number exam ined a3 near as can be ascertained. -j.'General geographical description of your District, with prevalent diseases and causes 'conducive thereto ; general character of its Inhabitants, their modes ot life and occupa tions. 3. Reasons why any particular diseases or disabilities have disqualified a greater ratio per thousand from military service. 4. Your views in reference to the different sections ofParagraph 85, Revised Regulations Provost Marshal General's Bureau, and what changes you would recommend. 5. State, in minute detail, your method of examining men. 6. The number of men that can be physi cally examined per day with accuracy. 7. Mention the fraads most to be guarded against which are practised by drafted and enrolled men to escape, and by substitutes and recruits to enter the service, and any other obstacles you htve had to contend with in the discharge of your duties, and makt any suggestions a; to the best method of avoiding or overcoming these difficulties in future. 8. What nationality presents the greatest i-hrsical aptitude for military service. 9. Your experience as to the physical qual ifications of the colored race for military ser vice. 10. Your views as to the operation of the Enrollment law as it now exists, with recom mendations and suggestions in reference thereto. The above queries are given as a general tfuide for the preparation of your "Report." Jt is not to be. supposed that they include all points of interest and value to this Bureau, ;md you will incorporate such other facts as ; ou may consider important, a.3 it is intended to publish such portions of your "Report" as uay be of special interest or value. This f ibject being one of much importance, the 'Report'' should be carefully prepared and f rwarded as soon as practicable. It not completed at the date of the termi nation of jour services as Surgeon of Board v f Enrollment, please complete and forward 2r, as soon thereafter as cor.vem.ent. 1 am, Doctor, very respectfully, Your obedient servant, " J. II. BAXTER, Surreon U. S. Vols, r.nd Brevet Lt.-Uol. Ueapqim?. Pr.o. Mar. 17th DurncT, 1 Hollidavsbiiuj, June 1, 1SGI. J. If. Baxter, Surgeon U. i. A. Doctor: la conforruity toinktructior:s in jour circular, dated at Washington, 1). C., 3Iaj 1st, 1SG5, I herewith forward written report, giving as the rtsult of y experience such information as I can f a the section3 therein contained. On the 17th of 'May, 1863, the Board f Enrollment convened at this place, or iraiiized and divided the district into sub u tricts, and proceeded from that time in the regular discharge of the duties of the u2ie. On tbo 17.th.cf August, 1SG3, we eom 7!i : need the first draft, and on the 7th of "September began to examine drafted men. During the first few days I was sme fhat embarrassed in. the examination, and was disposed to believe that drafted men would sometimes tell the truth ; but ray experience sooa taught rac that the declaration of every conscript under exam ination must be disregarded if the surgeon expect3 to do hi3 duty faithfully to the Government. My early impressions too, "vc:? that every soldier must enjoy perfect hcuUh, and be free from blemish on his Vcrson if he would endure the privations, hardships and long marches incident to ; rnny Vite; thi? impression led me to put a very liberal construction on the differ ent sections of par. 85. Consequently on the first day 1 found by reference to my record, that out of 52 men examined, -9 were exempt; and that too, from a lot of tolerably good men. I subsequently ecame more rigid as I grew familiar with ue duties of the office, and learned to distinguish more clearly between the real -d feigned disease. 1 held more men to etrvice, and grew every day more incred ulous as to the honesty of drafted and enrolled men when it is their interest to Jocsive the Board. There are. however, "onorablo exceptions which a practiced faargeon will readily detect. As nearly as I can ascertain I have ex amined up to this time of prafted men, 4.7 21 Kecruits and Substitutes, 3796 And enrolled men,.. 7,261 Making in all- ...15,778 or in rouiid numbers, sixteen thousand; for many recruits aud substitutes presen ted themselves for examination so mani festly unfit for military duty that I dis missed them without wasting time or X-aper to make their record. The 17th District of Pennsylvania, comprises the counties of Cambria, Blair, Huntingdon and Mifflin ; in a direct line due east and west: It is 135 miles long, aad 35 wide, bounded on the west by Indiana and Westmoreland ; south by Somerset, Bedford and Franklin ; east, by luniata and Snyder; and north by Cen tre and Clearfield. The .Pennsylvania Central Railroad rrns direct through the long diameter of this District, making the headquarters easily accessible from the remotest sub district : aud in this respect, perhaps the most, convenient and desirable of any onei in the State, except those in populous cities. . This District is. traversed north und south by the. Allegheny, anoe, Brush, Stone and Jack's mountains, averagings from lOCKTto 1500 feet in heighVover the level of the valleys at their respective bases. These mountains run parallel with each" other, with beautiful and fertile val leys between. Cambria county lies several hundred feet higher than Blair, Hunting don or Mif3in, aud contributes by her springs," to the waters' of th'o "Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. At Bradley's station, on the farm of Reea Lloyd, Esq., on Ebensburg and Cresson Railroad, two pprings arise 14 yards from each other, one on the north, the other on the SQftth side of the Railroad. The nortfcrn spring runs into the West Branch of the Susquehanna river, and through the Ches apeake Bay to the Atlantic Ocean; while the southern spring flows into the Cone maugh and through the Kiskimineta, Allegheny and Mississippi river3, finally reaches the Gulf of Mexico. The whole surface of Cambria county, being so elevated, is of mountainous character ; the surface is rolling, with high bluffs and deep ravines ; the soil is naturally sterile and unproductive 6f cereals, but fair crops of oats, potatoes and grass grow. The Allegheny mountain divides Cam bria from Blair county. On the western fclope it may be said to be a map of mine ral wealth. Bituminous coal, and several varieties of iron ore of a superior quality, as well as hydraulic cement lie there iu juxtaposition and are inexhaustible. The hiU3 throughout this county, contain large quantities of the above minerals. Along the streams flowing through the ravines, there are strong indications of Petroleum, which is now the object of attention by the enterprising men of that county. The Cambria Iron Company have erect ed works at Johnstown, on the P. R. R., yielding one hundred and fifty tons of Railroad iron per day, and affording em ployment to 2700 hands. This company are now enlarging their works with the view of doubling their capacity. They get all their raw materials within a few hundred yards of their works, and al though they own several thousand of acres of mineral lacd3 here, the area occupied in their present operation including mines docs not exceed 50 acre. Creon, the delightful Summer retreat on tho Allegheny mountain, too well knewn from Maine to Mexico to require description, ii in this county. The surface of Cambria county is covered with dense forests of Pine, Hem lock:, Popiar and Oak timber, where the land h.i3 not already been cleared. The eastern slope of the Allegheny mountain , in Biair county, furnishes the headwaters of two principal branches ot the Juniata. This river passes with a rapid current in ai easterly direction, through Huntingdon and Mifflin counties, receiving tributaries every few miles in its descent towards the Susquehanua river, with which it unites in Dauphin county. Blair ,and Huntingdon counties being supplied with inexhaustible beds of Iron ore and Bituminous coal, also dense for ests of timber, yield large quantities of iron: the former probably more in pro portion to its size than any county "in the State: In Blair cottnty" near Birmingham, there are extensive Lead and Zinc mines now being developed, whi3h will be made productive during the coming year, as an enterprising company are about erecting a furnace for this purpose. These mines were opened previous to the revolution, and for many years the inhabitants of this country resorted thither to obtain their lead. Tuckyhoc valley, in Blair county, at tho base of the Allegheny mountain, has since the erection of the P. R. R. furnish ed the eastern markets with very large quantities of shingles, boards and differ ent varieties of lumber of superior quality for building purposes. Mifflin county, lying out of the"range of coal deposits, with but a limited amount of iron ore. furnishes a small quantity of iron, compared with other parts of this District. Freedom Forge, however, re quires special notice. This establishment is the property of the P. R. R., is worked on a magnificent scale, and the company manufactures the tiro for the large driving wheels of locomotives, and the axles, and all parts ot their rolling stock on the road, requiring the best quality of charcoal iron. They obtain their ore principally from the Greenwood Bank in this county. For many years the U. S. Government purchased the Juniata Iron which was made from this ore, to manufacture into gun barrels at Harper's Ferry, before the P. R. R. Company got possession of the works.. All of this district lying east of the Allegheny mountain has a strong lime stone soil with but tew exceptions, conse quently, the fields yield heavy crops of wheat, .rye, corn, barley, oats and grass. Lime is burned in large quantities in jiair county unu iy i juouui which is'used in'the manufacture cf glass, on account of its superior quality. ' ' ' ' : The headwaters of ; the Juniata, river, rising in Blair, Huntingdon and Mifflin counties, rush with a rapid descent thro' this part of the District, and afford great facilities for the erection of water-power. There arVtaao'y furnaces, forges, flouring mills and other factories erected thereon. Among , the principal of these is Mann's axe factory, which ( is built on tho Kisha co'quillas creek) four miles above Lewis town, where, the creek breaks through a gorge in Jack's mountain with peaks one thousand feet high,' overhanging, almost perpendicularly, the stream as it flows in torrents over its rocky bed beneath. The celebrity of Mann axes ha?'givi afcfliris factory a wide spread notoriety. Altoona, situated at the base of the Allegheny mountain, on the eastern slope, on the P. R. R., is ODe of our principal manufacturing towns. It contains 8,000 inhabitants, most of whom are employees of the P. R. R. company, Here the com pany have extensive machine shops and foundaries, in which are made everything pertaining to rolling stock for their road, from a car wheel to a first class locomo tive. The P. R. R. in its passage through this District, pierces the Allegheny moun tain by a funnel three-quarters of a mile in length. The company built, and still own, the Logan House, in Altoona, (one of the best in Pennsylvania) for the ac commodation of the traveling community over the road. Every train stops here long enough to accommodate the passen gers with a meal. The eastern portion of the 17th District, through which the Juniata river flows, was, so far back as tho memory of man runneth, until about the year 1800, sub ject to malarial diseases, in, the form of bilious, intermittent, remittent and con tinued or pernicious fever, frequently of severe grade This intermittent type was so prevalent here that pneumonia, pleurisy, rheumatism and all other acute diseases assumed its livery, and persisted not only during the Autumnal season, but the year through; and such was the impression made on the subject of disease by malaria, that apparent recovery was frequently not the case : for no matter what attention was paid to prophylactic?, or what system of regimen was adopted, relapse after relapse occurred iu the intermittent formV producing functional and organic disease of the liver, spleen, and other viscera which often terminated fatally in dropsy or other cachexia. When scrofulous diathesis ex isted, tubercles were frequently developed by this, as an exciting cause. Such was the poisonous influence of malaria, that premature old age marked our citizens, and it was rare to see an individual among us over 70 years of age. Premature decay of teeth was also apparent, attributable, as wb think, to this cause. Here quinine wa3 indispensable in the treatment of every disease before a cure was effected, and this article could frequently be used in the early stage of the disease with advantage. About the autumn of 1S58, bilious fe vers in their several forms grew less for midable, and in 1800 they disappeared altogether. At the present time, no epidemic pre vails in any part of this district. Typhoid fever for several years past has been the predominant disease, and this in some lo calities has broken out with, considerable violence. Erysipelas, diphtheria, scarla tina, and kindred diseases have prevaile'd to as great an extent, perhaps, as any class r Dysentery and diarrhoea are by no means uncommon. -Among returned soldiers, we find moro suffering from diarrhoea than from any other cause. - , In the large blacksmith shop in Al toona, where there are many fires, and where the P. R. R. company manufacture and repair the rolling stock for this di vision of their road, the predominant dis ease is developed tuberculosis. I found many men in every stage, from the earliest symptoms of tuberculosis de posite to the last stage of the disease. Many suffer also from bronchitis, with or without tuberculosis. Tn one Fub-district, of all the men draft ed and examined, I fouud scarcely a good, sound man. Upon inquiry, I learned that in the early settlement of this country two families of Scotch Irish birth located there, who were intelligent, . healthy, thorough-going people, possessing strong vitality and great endurance. Their children commenced marrving and inter marrying, until now in the fourth and fifth generation, there is not really a sound adult known in all that extensive connec tion ; proving, bo far as it goes, the evil of the intermarriage of relatives. xne lnnnoitants 01 tnis district aro in telligent; every man is a reading man The public schools are becoming the ob ject ot great solicitude, and the pride of many of our leading men. The best men that can be obtained are employed as School Superintendents. School districts vie with each other in procuring the best teachers, aud schools are visited regularly by the Directors. Every pupil has his am bition stimulated, and "spelling matches'' are a regular institution in every school Two or more schools .meet in full repre sentation at least once every year, to test the qualifications of the other, and strive for the palm in correct spelling. Old and young take an interest in, and witness thc contest with much anxiety and good feel- mcr. . Jvery adult reader m this district is supposed to be well versed in English Grammar, History, Geography and Arith metic; those who are not are the excep tion, not the rule.. The yeriest vagabond that walks the street is able to keep his own accounts and transact business. The moral character of our inhabitants will compare favorably with those of any um?r in xrcnnsyivania. The predominant sentiment ; is decidedly a religious one. rresbytenan, Methodist, Lutheran, Bap tist, Catholic, United Brethren and Enls- copaliari church e3 are most numerous, with a fair representation of others. : intemperance prevails to some extent. and produces its consequent evils, but public sentiment frowns so decidedly on this iniquity that only those who are lost to a sense of shame are among its votaries. A few men were drafted who were exempt from permanent physical disability a3 the result ot Habitual drinking. As a general thing the wealth i3 fairly distributed among the inhabitants. There are; however a large number of operators and laboring men without means employ ed by corporate companies and farmers. But little calculation can be made on the operations in our mines in support of our military force. At least ninetecn-twenti- eths of this class are foreigners, who have no settled home, and who are ever ready to take their budget and travel. When it is their pleasure or interest to become naturalizeu citizens, they can produce the necessary documents and vote at an elec tion, but when enrolled and drafted they have gone to " parts unknown." Or if they are perchance caught up, they have no difficulty in avoiding military service by swearing alienage. The principal occupation of men in this district is that of farmers, laborers and mechanics, most numerous in the order represented. The mode of life is simple, the fare wholesome and substantial. The dress is not extravagant but plain, calcu lated more for comfort than show. There are of course deviations in both extremes from the rule here presented. The in habitants are frugal, industrious and so cial. ith exception of one or two lo-- calities, we are a law abiding people. In the ""place "alluded to, deserters from the army and draitea men who tailed to re port, congregated and resisted by force of arms all attempts to take them. In due tune, however, these lawless bands were dispersed by the capture of some and routine: of the balance. In assigning reasons why any particular diseases have disqualified a greater ratio per thousand from military service, I first notice the malarial influence prevalent in part of this district as ?bove adverted to. Although it is now several long years since this agent ceased to exerciso a- con trolling influence over every form of dis ease on the Juniata river, its baneful ef fects are yet perceptible. Men who were prostrated by a recurrence ot bilious fevers, several years in succession, suffered constitutionally, and a larg2 proportion of drafted men taken from localities thus in fected were exempt, sec. 9, from P. P. disability, 4he consequence of functional or organic disease of the liver, spleen or kidneys. Tuberculosis 13 developed sometimes under the prostrating influence of bilious fever, although it is by no means confined to the malarial portion of this district, for it prerai'.s in the mountain ranges and in the valleys, and is cause for many exemp tions. he only fruitful source of tuber culosi3 worthy of special notice is in the blacksmith shops in Altoona, to which J have already adverted, also the sub-dis tnct iu which intermarriages of relatives have been practised for several generations successively, as above stated. In the lU33bcrinr parts 01 the 1 th JJistrict, a greater proportion of hernia prevails than in other localities, which is readily ac counted for by the fact that men engaged in clearing the land and removing heavy timber must necessarily do much hard liftinir, thus exposing them to the drinker of this disability. In trie same localities, and in the neighborhood of charcoal fur naces, a large proportion of men are dis abled on account of extensive, deep and adherent cicatrices on the lower extremi ties, the result of deep incised wounds from the ase, in cutting timber. Sawyers working on sawmills frequently have their hands mutilated or "fingers removed by the saw, thus disqualifying them for mill tarv service. On the railroad many are disabled on account of severe injuries by collision of o.ars. exdosion of boilers, cars running off the track and other mishaps incident to the working of the road. These accidents produced almost every variety of injury in the lorm 01 tractures, dislocations, mu tilation of limbs, contusions, burns, scalds &-3. Among this class of injuries we find many men who have lost a leg or loot arm or hand, or who have hands so mutil ated that they are proper subjects for cx emption. Among our large rolling mills, forges furnaces; foundries and axo factories where heavy machinery -is used, the Fame class of injuries are found, produced by similar causes. In paragraph 85, revised army regula tions, there is in my opinion but little that is liable to objection. If, however. I were to specify any section" on which amendment couid be made advantageously 10 government, 1 would mention number six. This section gives developed tubercul osa alone as sufiicieut cause for exetnn- tion, and has been to me, in Borne cases, cause of embarrassment. Drafted men aboring under evident symptoms of in cipient tuberculosis, with no complica- tion,were so manifestly unfit for militarv duty, that it would be absolute Ios3 to Government, and cruel to the men to hold them to service, and yet pection G requires that tuberculosis must be '-develoned to authorize the; surgeon to exenint."2 Mr experience has been tliat in consigning men thus situated to the army, in most cases they have broken down, and gone into the hospital before they were accli mated to their new location or accustomed to camp life. In carrying out instructions in this section, we must either violate occasion ally our own convictions of duty to the Uovernment and the men, bv holding such to service, or violate instructions in this section by exempting. In section lo, Chronic Purulent Otor- rhoca is given as a cause for exemnMnn. During the progress of examinationssinee our organization as a Board, I have seen many cases of this infirmity, and, although the disease undoubtedly unfitted some for military duty, by the offensiveness and abundance ot the discharge, a majority of well markeu cases were by no means dis qualified from this cause. I would sug gest that Chronic Purulent Otorrhcea be regarded as cause for exemption only when the purulent diseh is very offensive and abundant and the disease inveterate. In section 33, Jjoss of Ungual Phalanx ;Of Right Thumb is given as cause for ex emption. This, in my opinion, should not be regarded as of sufficient: importance to exempt a man otherwise able-bodied. In our lumber districts, several men were drafted who had lost this phalanx by the accidental cutting of the circular saw in saw-mills, yet the full use of the thumb was not in any appreciable manner im paired, and there is no duty of the soldier that could not be readily performed by them. The mode of examining, as practised by myself, is, iu the main," as follows ! " J. ho man being stripped and presented before me, I take a hasty glance over his A - C 1 ' I.' 1" pursuu, ij see 11 any aisquaniying.cODai tion presents itself which would make further examination unnecessary, such as loss of right eye, large hernia, unreduced dislocation of large joint, or other infirmi ty readily detected. It a rapid survey does not reveal cau?e for exemption, I or- dei-Jfhim to stand erect, facing mc ; I measure his inspiration and expiration ; I examine his lungs, by auscultation and percussion ; if respiration is healthy all over the chest, I apnly my ear over the region of the heart, and a?certain if any disease exists there. In ordinary ca'03 I apply the car to the cheat, having a clean napkin thrown over the skin to protect my senses from the filth of his ocrson, but if any obscurity exists, I use the stethoscope to the axil:c and other parts of the chest inaccessible to tho ear by immediate aus cultation ; I then examine his finger.-?, hands, wnsts, elbows, and .shoulders : I direct him to extend his arms at full length, horizontally, with palms of hands together; then separate the hands, ma nipulate all the fingers, closing the fist and extending all tho fingers alternative ly, shake the bands up and down, so as to ascertain the mobility of the wrist; then supinate and pronate the bauds alterna tively, giving to each motion as irce lati tude as the joints are capable of making ; then order him to flex the forearm ol the arm, extend the arm again to lull length, circumduct the arm to test the motion of shoulder joint ; I then direct him to place the back cf his hanas togeth er above his head ; while he is in this attitude, I place rrfy fingers over the in guinal and femoral regions respectively, and direct him to cough again and again, until I ascertain whether any hornia ex ists ; I then examine his teeth and eyes. Finding him all sound thus far, and seeing no blemish on his person in front view, I order him to turn his back to me ; I then examine him by a general survey of his person in this attitude; then order him to walk fast up and down the room, then hop first on right -foot, then on left, then to kneel first right and then left, "and fi nally to stand with his back towards the window, to place . his hands on the floor, with rump elevated, while I examine for hemorrhoids, fistula, fissures, or oilier dis eases of the anus demanding exemption. If I detect no good cause for exemption, I ask him if he has any reason why he should not be passed into the service; if he presents any claim worthy of re-examination, I turn my attention to the disa bility he may designate, and then decide whether I accept or reject him. In examinations of drafted men with a full day's work on hand, there is necessa rily considerable noise by walking through the room, promiscuous talking, and by ex amination of aliens and others who claim exemption on causes independent of phys ical disability. This produced difficulty in determining the fitness or unfitness of men when close discrimination was requi- red to distinguish the normal from abnor mal sounds of the heart. Oa thea&:occa-f-ions, my uniform practice was to hold doubtful cases over until the regular business of the day was disposed of, then, when., the room was comparatively quiet' re-examine and dispose of them. I would here suggest the propriety of ordering the Provost Marshals of Districts, should another draft ever be required, to purchase a cheap quality of carpet or matting to lay on the ofHc-s floor, to pre vent the noise occasioned by tramping about, which is unavoidable when a num-" ber of men are in the same apartment. The cost would be nothing compared with the great advantage, resulting from th expenditure. " " " Tho number of nien a surgeon can ex amtno per day with accuracy varies much under different circumstances. A surgeon accustomed to the work can nxamine twice as mauy a day as " one who is not familiar with the routine, and he will decide too with more accuracy. When there is a run of good sound men, cither volunteers or conscripts, examinations can be made with more facility than when the reverse occurs. One who ha3 become familiar with the duties of the oUiee can without an assistant examine eighty men per day, aud not feel that he is imposed upen. I did myself the whole duty required of Surgeons of the Board until the last draft was ordered, when Dr. Crawford Irvine, of Hollidaysburg, was appointed assistant, from whom I derived much val uable aid. - Tho frauds resorted to by drafted and enrolled men to escape service are, iu our experience, very numerous. Everv species ot falsehood and misrepresentation is in dulged in to feign disease, when nono exists. Rheumatism, weak back, etitch in the side, hemorrhoides, soreness from old fractures, old sprains, loss of sight, in ono or both eyes, disease of heart, consump tion, hemorrhage from lungs, disease from kidneys, anehylosed joints, and deafness do not form even the tythe of disease feigned by those who wish to escape ser vice. Less of sight of right eye is very often claimed without; cause. During the first draft conscripts frequently came with the pupil so dilated that the eye presented the appearance of organic change. . After examining several, who first came with this disability, I suspected fraud. We arre.-tel two from one nuh-diftriet, had them brought before the Board, and I rc-ex-amiued them and found the eyes both sound, held them both to service, received commutation aud dismissed them. With in one year afterwards one of these men enlisted for a bounty, and entered tho service with a pair of sound eyes. I had reason often afterwards to suspect the application of belladonna to the eye. Under these circumstances, we examined tho pockets of the man, and placed him rapidly under guard until the nature of the case was clearly revealed. Irritating substances, such as sand or dirt, are thrown into the eyes by con scripts, for the purpose of producing con junitivitis, preparatory to examination. When a man claims exemption for total loss of-right of right eye, if I can see no evidence of disease, before I decide his case I close the left oyo perfectly, quietly stand little t3 one side, and order him in a peremptory manner and sharp tone to look at me. If the sight is totally gone, the right eyo is motionless, but if any. sight remains, before he is aware, the eye involuntarily turns with its axis towards me, which satisfies mo that he attempts deception. Men frequently purge themselrea, prer paratory to examination, with drastic ar ticles of the aloetic class, to bring on hem orrhoids. These cases can generally bo detected by an erythematous discoloration of the skin, radiating from the anus one, two or three inches, connected with al ternate contraction and relaxation of the sphinater aui. A great many men otherwise healthy and sound have had all their teeth extrac ted from the upper jaw. A considerable proportion ot these, I have no doubt, re sorted to extraction to avoid service. Some came with gums lacerated and swollen from having had their teeth re moved within a few days of the examina tion, while others had them extracted perhaps several months previous. When we had reason to suspect that drafted men had their teeth extracted to defraud the Government, we invariably held them lo service, if they were other wise sound, and assigned reasons for so doing to accompany them to the rendez vous. . Drafted men frequently came in for examination with one or more fingers, or a-great toe cut square off, and bone pro truding, "with a very sore stump. These meu were also held to service, and reasons sent forward why they were held. When a farmer, mechanic or laboring man claimed exemption, and I could not fiud sufficient cause to dismiss him, the appearance of his hands sometimes indi- catea wnetner lie was truiuiui in nis declaration of disability. If his hands were covered with thick, hardened skin, j well sunburned, tho presumption was, clear that he could at least mako a good" hand at home and vice versa. In examination of enrolled men, vrv any doubt whatever existed as tn tb ci&ims for exemption, -an s - re.