Newspaper Page Text
2 \n\n FORMALITY WHEN
ASSEMBLE Sacred College Locked In Vatican During tHe Balloting. THE successor to Pope Pius X. will be chosen by the college of cardinals. The elections begin at least ten days after the pon tiff's death. The administration of the church during the interregnum be longs to the cardinals, who are to the church what the senate in this coun try is to the United States. They can undertake no important change in the affairs of the church. The dean of the sacred college is their president. The duty that devolves upon them is mere ly to elect the next successor to St. Peter. In the first session of the conclave each of the cardinals takes a solemn oath on the gospels to observe the can ons that refer to the election In the conclave. The bulls of the nine popes who legislated on the mode of pro cdtlure in the election of the pope by ballot in the conclave are read aloud to them. The Fisherman's ring, being part of the insignia of the holy father. Is now unsealed by the master of cere monies, and the first session of the conclave comes to a close. On the second day the various of ficers of the pontifical states come to pay their respects to the cardinals and receive confirmation in their various of fices. and the next three days are spent in elections to the different offices that are to be filled in the conclave. On the sixth day the cells that each car dinal is to occupy are allotted to him. where both the cardinal and his sec retary are to dwell during the whole, time of the conclave. Cardinals Live In "Pells." The Vatican palace, where the elec tion takes place, contains 1.100 rooms, and there is a very spacious hall set apart and fitted up for this special pur pose. Each cardinal is allowed two rooms, called cells, one for himself ami one for his secretary. During these days and up to this time the usual everyday official business of the cardinals' lives goes on. Finally a sermon is delivered in Latin on the solemn duties of the con clave, and the prelates go in proces sion to the place where the conclave is to meet. When the cardinals assemble In the chapel the bulls are once again read, and again the cardinals take the oath to conscientiously observe the canons regulating the election. An ad dress is delivered by the cardinal dean as an exhortation to do their duty. Up to this time the cardinals are in communication with the outside world, but at the stroke of the midnight bell the master of ceremonies rings a silver bell, and all who are not in the conclave retire. The doors are finally and sol- Dining With the Seminoles. When guests arrive at a Seminole camp in the Everglades of Florida, if they are permitted to land, they are taken to the dining hall. Women tim idly bring pots of steaming corn meal, turtle meat or venison and set them on the platform on which hosts and guests alike squat on their heels. If there are several guests the most im portant among them eats first, then the oldest Seminole, the second guest, then the second in rank or age among the Seminoles. and so on. like a game of battledore. Each one dips into the common kettle with the common spoon, usually a large wooden ladle.—lnde pendent Bathing the Eyes. The daily "eye bath" is an excellent means of preserving the sight and beauty of the eyes and is particularly valuable for persons who motor a good deal, for nothing is more inju rious to eyes than frequent contact with dust Dissolve one teaspoonful of boracic acid powder in one pint of rosewnter. Every night pour some of the lotion into a glass eye bath, add enough hot water to render it tepid and bathe each eye in turn by opening and shutting it in the lotion. COLLEGE OF CARDINALS IN SESSION. CARDINALS TO ELECT A POPE No Communication With Out side World Until the Election. emnly closed, and no one is allowed to pass in or out. Attendants In the Conclave. Each cardinal is allowed to have two members of his household in personal attendance upon him. These are call ed conclavists. A number of other at tendants are also allowed inside the conclave—namely, a carpenter, a ma son, a sacristan, a friar or monk to hear confessions, a number of barbers, eight or ten porters and several other domestics to do common service to the whole body of cardinals. The word "conclave" comes from the fact of closing the door with a key. "Clavis" in Latin means a key. The word conclave refers to the inclosure as well as to the body of cardinals in session. The cells in which the cardinals dwell during elections are twenty feet square and twenty feet high. When all are assembled within the windows and all entrances to the conclave are closed. There is only one door to the conclave, and this is locked with a double key, one on the outside and one on the inside. The governor, who is a cardinal appointed by the sacred college, holds one key on the inside, and the marshal, who is a lay official, is the custodian of the key on the out side. No Communication Possible. There are four apertures in tlu> walls, called gates, through which all meals for the cardinals are passed and any thing else that is absolutely required All this is to- avoid any communica tion with the outer world and to pre vent fraud or political influence used on the cardinals in the casting of their votes. The outside halls are also locked. Papal troops are drawn up to guard the conclave from violence. Any man in the Catholic church is eligible to the office of pope, be lie car dinal or bishop, priest or layman, mar ried or single. The cardinals are free in this matter, but from the time of Urban VI. the custom has prevailed of electing a cardinal, and an Italian car dinal at that. Only a pagan, a heretic or an excommunicated person is ex cluded from election. Should a mar ried man be elected he would have to separate, like Peter of old. from his wife. The voting in the conclave takes place in the chapel twice a day. morn ing and evening. Each cardinal has a desk, decorated with his coat of arms, assigned to him. Immediately before the election begins an Augustiuian monk celebrates mass. When the mass is concluded all the attendants with draw, leaving the cardinals severely alone. They then prepare to cast their first ballot Two-thirds of the votes must be given by ballot to validly elect. Smoke Gives the News. When the ballots are counted and no one has received a two-thirds vote the voting papers are taken to a fire place and burned. The smoke ascend ing through a certain chimney is a sign to the immense concourse of peo ple assembled outside for news of the election that the cardinals have not yet decided on any one for pope. Then the cardinals retire to their apart ments to await the next ballot. This is repeated each day till a pope is elected. The largest conclave in the history of the Roman Catholic church assem bled in the Vatican on July 31. 1903. to elect a successor to Tope Leo XIII. The mass of the Holy Ghost was cele brated at 10 o'clock in the Pauline chapel by Cardinal Vannutelli. all the other cardinals being present. The tenth congregation followed at 11:45. Cardinal Oreglia distributed silver medals, issued as insignia of the tem poral power during the interregnum. The cardinals then went to their homes for the last time before the meeting of the conclave and reassem bled in the Pauline chapel at 4:30 p. m. preliminary to their entrance into the sealed quarters. mi*\ FOUR AMERICAN TO nap Three of Them Were Elevated to High Rank by Pope Pius X. WiIEN the college of cardinals assembles in Rome to elect a successor to Tope Pius X. there will he four members credited to the United States, though one of them. Cardinal Falcouio, is a resident of the Eternal City. However, he lived for many years in Washing ton and is a naturalized citizen of the United States. Cardinal Gibbons, who was for many years the only cardinal in the United States, helped elect Pope Pius X. The other wearers of the red hat. Cardinal Farley of New York and Cardinal O'Counell of Boston, were elevated at the same time as Cardinal Falconio in 1911. Cardinal Gibbons' Career. Cardinal Gibbons was born in Balti more July 23. 1834. At an early age be was taken by bis parents to tbeir for mer home in Ireland, where his educa- tion began. When he was seventeen years old he returned to his native city and after a brief experience as a clerk Photo copyright by American Press Association. CARDINAL GIBBONS AND CARDINAL FARLEY. euiereti r>t. diaries couege, Aiaryiana. In September. 1-557. he was transferred to St. Mary's seminary. Baltimore, and on June 30. lSdl. he was ordained priest in St. Mary's chapel. His first mission was that of assistant priest at St. Patrick's church, Baltimore, but in the course of a few months he was made pastor of St. Bridget's church at Canton, an eastern suburb of the city. While he was performing the duties of parish priest in that obscure [date Archbishop Spalding transferred him to the cathedral, made him his private secretary and appointed him to the im portant office of chancellor of the arch diocese. When the second plenary council of (lie American Iton m Catholic church assembled at Baltimore in October, IS(5<. he was assigned to the office of assistant chancellor of that body, which represented the entire hierarchy of the Tinted States. In IS3S he was made vicar apostolic of North Caro lina. with the rank and title of bishop, being consecrated in the cathedral of Baltimore by his friend Archbishop Spalding on Aug. 10. North Carolina then contained a population of 1.000.- 000. of whom only 1.000 were Roman Catholics. But Bishop Gibbons was equal to the duties of the office, and in a few years schools were opened, asy lums built, churches erected and the number of priests increased from five to fifteen. When in 1877 the health of Arch bishop Bailey of Baltimore began to decline he asked Pope Pius IX. to give him a coadjutor, at the same time sug gesting Bishop Gibbons for the office, flis request was granted, and on May 20. 1877. Pr. Gibbons was apiKiinted co adjutor. with the right of succession to the see of Baltimore. On Oct. 3 of the same year, on the death of Archbishop Bailey, he succeeded to the vacant see. and thus at the early age of forty-three attained to the highest ecclesiastical dignity of his church in the United States, for Baltimore being the oldest is therefore the primary American see. Made a Cardinal In 1886. In ISS3 Archbishop Gibbons was summoned to Rome, with other Amer ican archbishops, to confer upon the affairs of the church in the United States. During this visit he was the recipient of several marked favors from Pope Leo XIII. He was appoint ed to preside over the thi:d plenary THE PATRIOT CARDINALS ELECT NEXT POPE Each of Them Has Long Been Identified With the Church. council of Baltimore, which assembled in that city iu November. ISS-L The success of the council was due in a great measure to the zeal, energy and executive ability of Archbishop Gib bons. When the acts and decrees of the council were transmitted to Rome they were after mature deliberation ap proved by the ecclesiastical authori ties. Leo XIII. at the same time ex pressed his appreciation of Archbishop Gibbons' services and shortly after ward nominated him for cardinal. Archbishop Gibbons selected June 30. 1880, the day of his "silver jubilee" as a priest, as the occasion on which he would be invested with the insignia of his rank as a prince of the church. Farley Born In Ireland. Cardinal Farley was born in County Armagh. Ireland. April 20. 1842. His father was Philip Parley and his moth er Catherine Murphy Parley. ' As a child Parley attended mass in the church at Newtown. Hamilton. County Armagh, Ireland, where be spent his boyhood. The county of his birth is distin guished historically, and the waters of Lough Neagh in the north and of Slievegulliou invest it with pic-turesque ness. From the out of the way corner of Ireland came many of the early teachers of Christianity in England. Europe knew the fame of the colleges of Armagh, where foreign students along with native were gratuitously furnished with lodging, diet, clothing and books. Through both parents he is descend ed from two of Erin's oldest families. The Parleys, firm adherents to tile faith, were merchants noted for indus try and thrift. The Murphys on the maternal side are distinguished in Irish history for patriotism and brav ery. "God and honor" being the watch word of the clan through centuries of oppression. Came to America When Seventeen. When he was seventeen years old he came to New York and entered St. John's college. Fordham. but left after a few months and went to St. Joseph's seminary. Troy. N. Y. While he was a student at Troy his brilliancy attract ed the aUention of Cardinal MeClos key. whirlcnt him to the American col lege at Home, where he justified the high expectations of his sponsor. He was ordained a priest in Rome on June 11. 1870. and said his first mass there. Returning to New York, he was assign ed to St. Peter's parish at New Brigh ton. Staten Island. While Father Far ley was in the pastorate he was made secretary to the -ardinal. succeeding Mgr. M- Neirny. who was consecrated bishop of Albany. His reputation as an able executive who liked plenty of work grew and in ISS4, on the recommendation of the cardinal. Pope Leo XIII. named Fa ther Farley as one of his private cham berlains. with the title of monsignor. In the same year he was unanimous ly elected rector of the American col lege in Rome, where, not many years before, be bad been a student. But his services were so important to Cardinal McCloskey in the adminis tration of the archdiocese of New York that Father Farley declined the post. Instead, be became pastor of St Gabri el parish, where he remained for seven years. The school beside that church Is a monument to him He was ar>- pointed vicar general of the archdio cese of New York. Associate of Corrigan. In this position he was thrown much with Archbishop Corrigan. who was so impressed by his zeal and personality that in 1805 he wrote to Rome asking that Mgr. Farley be elevated to the episcopate as auxiliary to himself. Upon the death of Archbishop Oe.r.- gan Bishop Farley was the choice ot the bishops of New York province and the irremovable rectors for the succes sion. He lecauie in 1902 the fourth archbishop of New York by appoint ment of the pone. Cardinal Farley is a good preacher and a diligent scholar, a man of broad learning, courtly and distinguished of manner, exceedingly |opular with the laity and as a financier successful. Cardinal O'Connell's Career. Cardinal O'Counell was born in Low ell. Mass.. Dec. 8. 1559. the youugest of eleven children in a family com paratively poor. He studied iu the public schools of Lowell. graduated from its high school ami went to St. Ctiar'es" college. Ellirott City. Md.. re turning later to Boston, where he en tered Boston college and received an A. B. degree in 1881. Archbishop Williams sent him to the American college at Rome in ISNI for a few years of hard idudy. He was ordained in 18S5 and took another year before returning to America. From 188H to 1895 he was a < urate iu the Boston archdiocese, the lirst t-'*b years in Medford and the rest at 9t Joseph's church. West End. His ri._ when he was selected in 180.% to become rector of the American college at Koine. Honored by the Vatican. Cardinal Satolli was a frequent caller at the college and became a close and Influential friend of Pather O'Couneli. lie also became acquainted with Merry del Val. A mark of favor came from the Vatican in the elevation of Pather O'Connell to the mousignori. The see of Portland. Me . fell empty, and the rector of the American college was selected for it. lie was conse crated in Koine May IS). 1901. by Cardi nal Satolli and on the following July 4 was installed in tlie cathedral at Port land. Following the close of the Russo- Japanese war the Vatican determined to send a personal representative to the court of the mikado on a diplo matic mission. The pope selected Bish op O'Connell for that task. Honored by Mikado. His mission was successful. He w: entertained cordially by the mikado, aml among the honors conferred on him by the Japanese court was that of the grand cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure. He returned to Home by Asia and the Mediterranean and readied Rome in January. 1900. The appointment to the coadjutor ship of the Boston archdiocese came a few days later. The death of Arch bishop Williams Aug. 30. 1907. made the coadjutor the official head as he had been the actual head of the arch diocese. The soiemn ceremony of con ferring the pallium was held in the cathedral Jan. 29. HHIS. One of his first steps was to ar range for Ihe growth of the Catholie federation. lie labored earnestly to make it a power and added to its growth the impetus of having a na tional convention of the federation. Parishes have increased in number. The archbishop declared for uumer- CAUDIXAJL O'CONXELL. / ous small churches in preference to stately, magnificent and expensive edi fices. He has expressed the intention to have a church within a short dis tance of every Catholic family. Falconio Born |n Italy. Cardinal Falconio was born in Italy, but came to the United States in 181*5, He did not speak the English language at the time, but be set about learning it while studying in the Franciscan college of St. Bona venture, near Olenn. N. Y.. where he was ordained a priest. He afterward became president of the college and in 1872 was naturalized as an American citizen in Little Valley. N. Y. He was then sent to Winsted. Conn., and later was transferred to Newfoundland, where he remained for ten years. He was next assigned to New York, where he worked a few months and then received permission to visit his father in Italy. He expected to be absent but a few weeks, but was kept in Italy until 1902. when he was sent to Washington as successor to Mgr. Satolli as papal delegate to the United States. Immediately after he was made a cardinal he was transferred to Rome. FOUR SAVED BY DOG Kaylor, Pa., Family Aroused and E* cape From Burning Home. A family of four were saved by the' timely barking of a coach dog in a destrictuve tire started in the livery barn of Baruhart & Vensell at Kay lor, near East Brady, Pa. Six valuable horses were burued to death. The fire spread to the residence of Howanß Vensell and later to the home of John Rolls, destroying them and entailing a loss of over $6,000. Vensell, his wife and two children, sleeping in their residence near the barn, were awakened by a coach dog which scratched on their bedroom door and barked loudly until Vensell awak ened and discovered flames and smoke leaping past the windows of the house. He hurriedly awakened his wife and children and assisted them in leaving the burning building. The Rolls fam ily was awakened before the flames communicated to their home. ADVISES CANNING FRUIT Prices Will Be Much Higher by Fall, Says Surface. "The price of peaches and other fruits, so abundant in the fruit-raising counties of southern Pennsylvania this year, may be low now, but there will be a jump in price before long, due to the failure of the crop in the northern, part of the state and in New York and to the further fact that Europe will be demanding our canned fruits before the year is out." This was the way State Zoologist H. A. Surface summed up the situatiou in regard to truit prices. The southern part of Pennsylvania has such great crops of fruits, espe cially peaches, that some growers are not picking because of their inability to get prices they consider worth, while, says Dr. Surface. Boy Saved by Farmer. A farmer cutting a live wire with a scythe is all that saved Walter Gro shime, aged eight, of New Kensington, Pa., from being killed. The boy was walking the Freeport road there and he picked up the wire. He was thrown to the ground and the wire wrapped about him. The farmer observed the plight of the lad and in his effort to free him was badly shocked. Anothe! man went to the rescue of the boy and. he was shocked. The farmer finally succeeded in cutting the wire with a scythe. The boy is in a serious con dition. Aged Woman Gives Heirloom. Relics and heirlooms are being re ceived by Mrs. S. D. King, chairman oi the Blair county (Pa.) branch of the Woman Suffrage association as contri butions to "self-sacrifice day." A wom an seventy-six years old gave a gold pin, an heirloom in her family many years. An old coin, dated 1802, lias also been received. All told she has been the recipient of fifty articles, including gold rings, gold spectacle rims, gold watch chains and silver spoons. Talk of Striking. The general grievance boards of al! Philadelphia & Reading Coal and Iron company collieries in the Northum berland (Pa.) district, employing about 5,000 men and boys, have noti fied officials of the United Mine Work ers of America that the latter should order all district men to go on strike this week unless the grievances of the miners at the Alaska collieries are settled. Tanneries Affected by Conflict. Sheffield. Pa., is among the first tc feel the effects of the war. The three large tanneries there owned by the Elk Tanning company started operat ing on half time owing to the scarcity of hides caused by the placing of ac embargo upon foreign shipments Word also was received of an advance of 2 cents a pound on sole leather. Vandals Work Destruction. Vandals wrought havoc at Woodlea the summer home of John W. Herron of Pittsburgh, near Radebaugh, Pa They entered the garage and hacked all the tires on Mr. Herron's automo bile. The cattle were then turned into the garden and the gate locked so they could not get out. The gar den was practically ruined. Bumper Crop in Pennsylvania. A tremendous wheat crop has beec harvested in Pennsylvania, according to the national department of agri culture today. The crop amounted tc almost 24,000,000 bushels valued al eighty-five cents a bushel, making the crop worth more than $20,000,000. Altoona Newspapers Merge. The Altoona (Pa.) Gazette, a Repul> lican evening paper, has suspended publication. It will be merged with the Altoona Tribune, a morning Re publican paper, but as soon as busi ness warrants an evening edition will be issued from the Tribune office. Three Men Kilted by Train. Thre foreigners were killed and a fourth narrowly escaped a similar fate at Sugar run, near Laceyville. Pa. The men were getting out of the way of a freight train and were run down by a passenger train. Rat Gnaws Child's Nose. Mr. and . -s. Joseph Sarpeli of neaj; New Castle, Pa., were attracted to the crib of their two-year-old son Ernest and found that the child had been, badly gnawed on the nose by a rat. Business Man Missing. F. L. Arnold, a prominent church worker and business man of Mones sen, baa been missing for thiit? days.