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The Citizen. [volume] (American Fork, Utah) 1903-1912, December 08, 1906, Image 3

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I Recommends Legislation on
1 New and Important
M Subjects,
Ho Believes Such Laws Would Curb
Growth of Fortunes to Dan
gerous Proportions,
flit Views on Negro Question Asks
for Currency Reform, and Shipping
BUI Would Make Citizens of Japs
Many Other Important Subjects
i Discussed.
Washington. Dec 3 President House
velt's message to the avium! session of
the Fifty-ninth congress dcils with n
number of new mid Important subjects,
chief of which In the government prose
cution of thu trusts the nbiiso of Injunc
tions In labor trouble,), thu negro ques
tton, the preaching of class hatred
fcetween capital and lulior, additional lcgls
latlon for the control of large corpora
tions, a federal Inheritance nnd Income
tax law and currency reform
Tim message opens with a statement
ef what the lust congress left unllnlshed,
nd of this he says.
"I again recommend n law prohibiting
til corporations from contributing to the
campaign expenses tof any party. Hucli
a bill has already past onu house of eon
cress. Let Individuals contrlbuta im they
aostre; but let us prohibit In effective
fashion all corporations from making
contributions for any political purpose,
directly or Indirectly.
"Another bill which has Just past one
house of the congress and which Is ur
gently necessary should bo enacted Into
law Is that conferring upon tho govern
mont the right of appeal In erlmltml
cases on questions of law Tills rlKht
exists In many of tho states; It exists In
the District of Columbia by act of the
congress. It Is of course not proposed
that In any uno n verdict for thu de
fendant on the morlts should be set
aside. Ittccntty In ono district where
tho government had Indicted certain per
sons for conspiracy In cunmctlon with
rebates, tho court sustained tho defend
ant's demurrer: whllo In another Juris
diction an Indictment for conspiracy to
obtain rebates has been sustained by
the court, convictions obtained under It,
and two defendants sentenced to Impris
onment. The two cases referred to may
not be In real conlllct with each other,
out It Is unforlunato that there should
even be an apparent conlllct. At pres
ent thoro Is no way by which the gov
ernment can ruuso such a conlllct, when
It occurs, to bo solved by an upeii to
higher QOUrt: and the whirls of justice
are blocked without any real decision of
( N the question. I can not too strongly
urge thep.iss'igo of the bill In question.
A failure, to puss will result In sorlomly
hampering the government In Its effort
to obtain Justice, especially against
, wealthy Individuals or corporations who
do wrong: and may also prevent tho
government from obtaining Justlco for
wsgeworkers who are not thomsehes
able effectively to contest n case where
the Judgment of an Inferior court lius
been against them. 1 have specifically
In view a recent decision by u district
Judge leaving railway employees with-
I out remedy Mr violation of a certnln so-
culled labor statute. It seems an absurd
ity to permit a slnglo district Judge,
against uliiil may be thu Judgment of
the Imtnense majority nf his colleagues
on the bench, to derlare a law solemnly
enacted by the congress to be "uncon
stitutional," nnd then to deny to the
government the right to have tho su
preme court definitely decide the ques
tion "
Evasion by Technicalities.
"In connection with this matter, I would
like to call attention to the. very unsat
isfactory stutn of our criminal law, re
sulting In lurge part from the hult't of
1 setting aside the Judgment,, of Inferior
courts on technicalities nbolulely un
connected with the merits of the, case
and where theru Is no attempt tn show
tlmt there has been any failure of sub
slnntlal Justlco It would be well to en
act a law providing something to thu
effect that:
"No Judgment shall bn set aside or new
trial granted tn any ruuso. civil or crim
inal, on the ground nf misdirection of the
jury or tha lmprler udmlsslou or re
jection of evidence, or fur error ns to an)
matter of pleading or procedure unless.
In tha opinion of the court to which the
. application Is made, after an cxumluu-
I , tlon of the entire cause. It shall nltlriuu-
lively appear that the error complained
oi has lusultrtl In a mlscurrluga of
'"- Justice "
On the subject of tho abolition nf In
junctions In labor disputes, ha su)s
"In my lust message I suggested the en
actment of a law In connection with the
Issuance, of Injunctions, attention hav
ing linim sharply drawn to the mutter
by the demand that the right of uppli
Ing Injunctions In labor cases should be
wholl) ubollshed It Is nt leust doubtful
whether a luw nbolUhlng altogether the
use nf Injunction" In such runs would
stund tho test of the murls. In winch
rase of course the legislation would bn
Ineffective Moreover I lietlei'n It would
I bo wrong altogether to prohibit the use
of Injunctions 11 Is crliiiluut to permit
J sympathy with criminal" to vvtMktii uur
hands In upholding tho luw and If men
seek to destroy life or prnert by mob
violence theru should be no liupulrmeut
of the power of the courts to ileal with
them In the most suinmur) ami effective
way possible Hut so far us )osble the
abuse of the power should be Provided
against by some such law us I udvocult-d
last )ear
"In this matter of Injunctions theru Is
lodged In the hands nf tint Judlcfury u
necessary power whirl, I nevertheless
subject to the possibility or grave abuse
It Is a power that should be ukfiilsed
I with extreme cure and should be sub-
I Jsct to the Jealous scrutiny of all men,
I and condemnation should be meted out
I as much to the Judge who full- to uso
vW I It boldly when necessary us to the judge
aB" who uses It wantonly or nppresalvvl)
BJHBBB Of course, a Judge strong enough tn be
B v fit for his office will enjoin un) resort
to violence or Intimidation, especially by
conspiracy, no mutter what his opinion
may be of the rights of the original quar
rel. There must bo no hesitation In
dealing with disorder Hut there must
likewise be no such abuse of the in
junctive power as Is Implied In forbidding
laboring men to strive for their own bet
terment In peaceful and luw ful wii)s.
nor must the Injunction be used merely
to aid some big corporation In euro ing
!put schemes for Its own aggrandisement
It must be remembere l that a prelim
inary Injunction In labor rase If
granted without adequate proof (even
when authority can be lound to support
the conclusions of law on which It Is
rounded), may often settle the dlsputo
between the parties, and therefore If
Improperly grunted may do Irreparable
""Vv wrong Vet there are man) judges who
assume a matter-of-fact course gra- ting
or a preliminary Injunction to I thu
ordinary and proper judlclul dlswlon
of such cases, and there have midoubt- '
sdlr been lUgrant wrongs committed
by Judges In connection with labor ills
putes even within the lust few ears,
sltho I think much less often than In
former years Such Judges b) their un
wise action Immense!) strengthen the
nds o those nho ure uiv e i t)
i )
to do away with the power of Injunction;
nnd therefore such careless usj of tho
Injunctive process tends to threaten Its
very existence for If tho American peo
ple ever become convinced that this
process Is habitually abused, whether In
matters affecting labor or In matters Af
fecting corporation. It will be wcll-nlzh
Impossible to prevent Its abolition "
The Negro Problem.
Tho negro problem Is given considera
ble attention, after calling attention to
tho fact that no section of the country
Is freo from faults, nnd that no section
has occasion to Jeer at the shortcomings
of any other section ho turns to the sub
ject of lynchlngs. and especially ns np
Piled to the negro of tho south Ho sa)s
the greatest existing cause for mob law
Is the perpetration 1 the blacks of the
crime of rape a crime which he terms
oven worse than murder lie quotes tho
admonitions to the while injoplo spoken
by Uov Candler of (leorgla, some vears
ago. and by Uov Jelks, of Alabama, re
cently, and then sa)s
"Kvory colored man should realize
that tho worst , ncmy of his race In the
negro criminal and above nil the ne
gro crlmlnil who commits the dread
ful crime or rnpe, nnd It should be felt
ns in the highest degrie nn offense
against the whole country nnd against
the colored race In particular Tor a
colored mm to roll to help the nlllcern
or the law In hunting down with nil
possible earnestness nnd zi nl ever)
such infamous offender Mori over In
my Jiiilgtnint the crime of rnpe should
nlwnys bo punished with death ns Is
tho rase with murder, nssnult with In
tent tii commit rape should be made n
ciipllnl crime nt leost In tho discretion
or the court and provision should be
made h which tho punishment may
follow Immediate!) upon the heels or
the offense while the Irlnl should lie
so conducted that the victim med not
be wiintoul) sliamei! while Riving tcs
tlmnti) anil that the least possible
publicity shall h, given to the details
T hi members of the white race on
tho other hand should undirstand that
every I) nihlhg represents li Just so
much a loosening ()r the bands or clv-
lUnllitii, Hint tho spirit or hitching
Inevitably throws Into prominence In
the communlt) nil the foul nnd evil
creatures who dwell therein No man
can take part In the torture or n hu
man being without having his own
moral nature permanent!) lowered
l.vcry hni'hlug means Just so much
moral deterioration in nil the children
who have ntiy knowledge or It. nnd
therefore Just so much additional
trouble for the next generation of
"Let Justice be both sure nnd swift
but let It he Justice undir the law
and not the wild and crooked savagery
or a mob
Need for Negro Education.
"There Is another matter vvhlrlt has
a direct bearing upon this matter or
lynching ami or thu brutal crime which
sometimes call It forth nnd at other
times merely furnishes the excusu for
Its existence It Is out of the question
for our people ns a whole permanently
to rlso b) trending down any of thilr
own number Kvett those who them
selves for the moment prollt by such
maltreitment of their Mlows will In
tho long run also suffer No more
shortsighted policy can bo Imagined
than In tho fancied Interest of one
class to prevent tho education of nn
other class The rreo public school, thu
chance tor each boy or girl to get n
good elementnry education lies nt tho
foundation of our whole polltlcnl situ
ation In every community thu poor
est citizens, those who need tha schools
most, would bo deprived of them If
they only received school facilities
proportionately to tho taxes they paid
This Is ns true of ono portion of our
country us of another. It Is ns true
.e0.riU".'..,",Kro " f'r tho white mnn.
Tha white man. If he Is wise, will de
cline to allow tho negroes In iv mass to
l"!?w ,0 'uanhnod nnd womanhood
without education, Unquestionably ed
ucation such ns Is obtained in our pub
He 'schools does not do everything to
wards making a mini a good citizen:
but It does much. Thu lowest and most
brutal criminals, thoso for Instnnce
win, commit the crime of rape, nre In.
thebtrent majority men who have had
either no education or very lltlo: Just
as they are almost Invariably men who
own no property, for the man who
liiilsj money by out of his earnings.
Ike the mail i who acquires education,
Is usually lifted above mero brum
criminality. Of course the best typo
of education for the colored mnn. ta
ken ns a whole, Is such education as
Is conferred In schools like Hampton
and Tuskrgee; where the boys nnd
girls, the )oung men and voting wo
men, nre trained Industrially us well
ns In the ordinary nublln .ei,,.i
branches The grnduntrs of these
schools turn out well In the great ma
Jorlly of cases and Imrdly uny of them
become criminals while what little
erlmlnntlt) there Is never lakes tin
form of that brutal violence which In
vltes lynch law Hvery graduate of
these schools nnd for the matter of
that every nher colored man or wo
manwho leads n lire so useful nnd
honorable m, to win tho good will nnd
respect of those whites whose neigh
bor hn or she Is thereby helps the
whole minted rnie us II .-an bn helped
In no nth, r wu) fur next to the negro
himself the man who ran do most to
help the negro Is his while neighbor
who lives near him, and our stead)
effort should he to belli r the relations
between the two (Ireat tho the bene
tit nf thesn schools has been to their
colored pupils and to the colored peo
ple. It insy well Im quistloneil whether
Ihn beuellt tins nut been nt least as
great to thu white people among whom
then colored pupils live nfter the)
Capital and Labor.
On the subject nf capital ami labor
the president takes lh agitators qf class
hatred to task and sus "to preach
hatred to the rich man. us such. .
to seek to mislead and liulame tn mad
ness honest men whose lives are hard
and who have not the kind or mental
training which will enult them tn up
prtclatu the danger In Urn doctrines
preached is tn commit n crime ngalnst
the body politic und to lie fa I so to ever)
worthy principle und tradition or Amur
lean national life" Continuing on this
subject he su)s
"The plain people who think the
mechanics, funnel merchants work
ers with head or hand the men tn
whom American traditions nre deur
who love their eoiiulr) nnd try tn net
decently by their neighbors nun It to
themselves In remember that the most
damaging blow that un be given pop
ular government Is to lei t un un
worth) and sinister agitator nn n
platform or violence and h)porrls
Whenever such un Issue Is raised In
this country nothing can be gulinil b
flinching from It for In such ease dem
ocracy Is Itself on Irlil popular self
government under republican forms is
Itself on trial The triumph nr the
molt Is Just ns evil it tl "ug as the tri
umph nf the Plutocracy nnd tn have
escaped mm danger mulls nothing
whatever If we siieiiumh to the nthir
In the end the honest man whether rich
nr poor who earns his own living and
tries tn deal Justly by his fellows lias
as much to fear from the Inslncer,
and unwo. thy demagog promising
much and performing nothing or else
performing nothing but evil who
would set nn the mob tn plunder the
rloli. as from the crafty corruption!"!
who for his own ends would permit
the common people to be exploited by
the very wealth) If we ever let this
government rail Into the hands nf men
of either of these two classis we shall
show ourselves raise to America a past
Moreover the demagog and corrup
tions! often work hand In hand There
are at this moment wealthy reaction
aries of sudi obtuse morality that they
regard the public servant who prose
cutes them when they violate the law
or who seeks to muke them bear their
proper share or the puldlc burdens as
being even more objectionable than
the violent agitator who hounds on
the mob to plunder the rich There Is
nothing tn choose between such n re
actionary and such an agitator funda
mentally they are alike In their selfish
disregard of the rights of others and
It Is natural that they should join In
opposition to an) movement of which
the aim Is fearlessl) to do exact and
even Justice to all "
Railroad Employees' Hours.
He asks for the passing of the bill lim
iting the number of hours of
employment af railroad empties ami
cUtssos the measure us verv moderate
one He sum tie .,1m ,,f all slio dd be
to steadily rtduce ti : number et hours
of labor, with as a gnat the general In
troduction of an eight-hour day. but In
slsti i that on the Isthmus of Panama ttie
conditions are so different from what
they are hero that the Introduction ot an
elgiit-hour clay on the mnal would be
absurd, nnd continues, "Just about as ab
surd as It Is, so fur ns the Isthmus Is
concerned, where while labor riinnot be
employed, to bother ns to whether the
work Is done by alien blnck men or alien
Jellow men"
Investigation of Disputes.
i'm'. Vr.K" ."10 mactiiient or it drastic
child labor law for the District of Co
lumbia und tho territories, and n federal
Investigation of tho subject or child and
female labor throughout tho country.
He rovlens the work ot the commission
nppolnted to Investigate labor conditions
In tho crnl nobis of J'eiinsjlvahlu In Mo2,
and rerors to the wish of the commission
that tho state and federal governments
should provide tho tunchlnerj- Tor what
may bo called tho compulsor) Investiga
tion of controversies between emplo)ers
and emplo)es when they arise" After
referring to tho fnct that a bill has nl
rendy been Introduced to this end he
"Jinny or those strikes nnd lockouts
would not hnvu occurred had tho parties
to tho dlsputo been required to appear
before nn unprejudiced body representing
tho nation anil, race to race, state the
reasons rnr their contention. In most
Instances tho dlsputo would doubtless be
round to be due to a misunderstanding
by each or the others rights, aggravated
by nn unwillingness ot either party to ac
cept as true the statements or tho other
is to tho Justice or Injustice, or the mat
t"rs In dispute Tho exercise or a Ju
dicial spirit by u disinterested body
representing the federal government,
such as would be provided by it commis
sion on conciliation nnd arbitration
y'i'Uld tend to create nn atmosphere of
friendliness and conciliation between con
tending parties, nnd tho giving each side
nn equal opportunity to present fully Its
enso In the presence of tho other would
prevent many disputes from developing
Into serious strikes or lockouts, and In
other cases, would enable the commis
sion to persuade the opposing parties to
como to terms
"In this iiM, or groat corporate nnd la
bor combinations, neither employers nor
emplo)ees should lie lott completely nt
tho mercy or the stronger pnrty to n dis
pute, regardless or the righteousness of
their respective claims The proposed
measure would be In the lino of securing
recognition or the ract that In many
strjkes tho public has Itself nn Interest
which cannot wisely to disregarded; an
Interest not merely or general conven
ience, Tor tho question or it Just nnd ,
proper public policy must also be con-J
sldered In all legislation or this klnfl
It Is well to advance cautiously, teitlnuTJ
each step by tha actual results: tho step!
proposed can surely be snrely taken, for
tho decisions of tho commission would
not bind tho parties In legal fashion, nnd
)et would glvo u cliancu for publlo opin
ion to exert Its full force for tho right."
Control of Corporations.
A considerable portion of tho messago
is unvoted to tho subject or fed crnl con
trol of corporations in what ho refers to
tho passage at tho last session of the
rate, meat Inspection und rooel laws, and
savs tint nil or these have already Justl
led their enactment, but recommends
tho amendment of tho mont Inspection
law so as to put dates on tho lnbels of
meat products, and also to placo tho
cost of Inspection on thu pickers rather
than on the government. Continuing on
this subject of thu control ot corioratlons
by tho federnl government he sa)s;
"It cannot too often be repeated that ex
perience has conclusively shown the Im
possibility or securing by thu notions of
near y half a hundred different statu
legislatures anything but Ineffective
chaos In the wny or dealing with tho
grout corporations which do not opornto
exclusively within tho limits or any one
stato. tn some method, whether by it
national license law or In other fashion,
wo must exercise, nnd that nt an early
date, n far moru complete control than
nt present over these great corpora-tlons-a
control that will among other
things prevent tho evils of excesslvn
overcnpltnllrntlon, and that will comil
tho disclosures by enoh big corporation
or Its stockholders jnmlgt Us Dropuilisk.
and' business, RhJlher owned directly oH
thru subsidiary or iitllllateel corporations
This will tetxl to put n stop to tho secur-1
ng of Inordinate prollts by favored 1
Individuals at tho expense whether of j
the goneral public, tho stockholders, or
the wage workers, Our effort should be
not so much to prevent consolidation as
such, but so to supervise and control It
us to sen Hint It results In no harm to
tho people. The ronctlonary or ultracon
servatlve apologists fur the misuse of
wealth ussill tho effort to secure such
control us n step toward socialism As n
mutter or ract It Is thesu reactionaries
and ultrnronscrvutlvrs who ure them
selves most potent In Increasing socialis
tic reeling One of the most e indent
methods of averting the consequences or
it dangerous agitation which Is SO per
cent wrong, Is to remedy tho 20 per cent,
ot evil as to which the agitation Is well
rounded The best wuy to nvert tho very
undesirable move for the governmental
ownership or rallwas Is to securu by
tho government on behnir or the people
us n whole such adequate control nnd
regulation of the gre at Interstate com
mon curriers as will do uwny with the
evils whli h give rise to the agitation
against them Ho the propii antidote,
to the daiigernus and wicked agitation
against the men of wealth us such Is to
si cum h) propel legislation nnd execu
tive, action the abolition or the grave
abuses which nttuullv do obtain In con
nection with thu business uso or wealth
under our present s)steui or ruthrr no
s) stein of failure! to exercise any ndc
iliiuln control nt nil Home persons speak
as If the exerclto or such governmental
loiilrnl would do away with Ihn freedom
of Individual Initiative, nnd dwarf Indi
vldual effort This Is not a fact It
would bo a verllublo inlumlty to fall tn
put it premium utsin Individual Initiative,
individual rapaclt" and effort, upon the
energy, rharuilir nnd foresight which
It Is so Important to encourage In the
Individual Hut us u mutter nf fact the
deadening anil degrading eff.it of puru
socialism, und ispenully or Its extreme
form communism, and tlm destruction of
Individual ihuraeter which they would
bring nbout, are lu part achieved by the
wholly unregulated competition which
results In it slnglo Individual or roriNir
utlon rising nt thu expense or ull others
until his nr Its rlsu effirttiull) checks nil
impellllon and ridiicis foriiu r competi
tors tn a iiosltlon or uttor Inferiority and
' In enacting nnd enforcing such legis
lation us this congress already has to lis
credit, we urn working nn a coherent
plan, with tho steudy endeavor to secure
Ihn neiMled reform b the Joint action of
thu moderate men. the plain men who
do not wish un) thing hysterical or
dungeious, but who do Intend to diul
lu resolute iiimmonsensn fashion with
the reul nnd groat evils or the pn sent
s)slem Die rem tlnnurlis nnd the vio
lent extremists show s)iuplnms or Join
ing hands ugmnst us lloth ussert. for
Instance that If logical, wn should go
to government ownership or rullrouds
und the like the reactionaries, because
on such nn Issue they think the people
would stand with them, while the ex
tremists care rather to pieach discontent
and ugltutlou than to achieve solid re
sults As u mutter or fnct, our position
Is us remote from that of the bourbon
reue tlonary us from that of the Imprac
ticable or sinister visionary Wn hold
that the government should not conduct
the business of the nutlon, but that It
should exerclsu such suervlslon us will
Insure Its being conducted In the Inter
est or the nation Our aim Is, so fur us
may be, to secure, for nil decent, hard
working men. equullt) or opportunity und
equality of burden
Combinations Are Neceuary.
'The actual working of our laws hat
shown that the effort to .irohlblt all com
bination, good or bad. Is noxious where
It Is not Ineffective, Combination or
capital like combination or labor Is r
necesstr) element or our present Indus
trial s)slum It Is not osslblu completely
to prevent It, and If It were possible,
such complete prevention would do dam
age to the body ixilltlc What wu need
Is not vainly to prevent all combination,
but to securu such rigorous and udequute
control and supervision or thu combina
tions as to prevent their Injuring the
public, or existing in such form us Inev
itably to threaten Injury Mr the mere
fact, that a combination has secured
practically complete control of a neces
sary or life would under any circum
stances show that such combination was
to bo presumed to be adverse to the pub
lic Interest It Is unfortunate that our
present laws should rorbld ull combina
tions, instead of sharply discriminating
between those combination, which do
evil He! rftes rr I Mine are ns often
due to ths pressure ui big shippers (as
w-as shown In the Investigation or tha
Standard Oil company nnd as has been
shown slneS by the Investigation or tho
tobacco and sugar trusts) ns to the Initi
ative or big railroads. Often railrouds
would llko to combine, for the purpose ot
preventing u big shipper trom maintain
ing Improper advantages nt the expense
of small shippers and or the general pub
lie. Huch a combination, Instcnd of being
forbidden by law, should be favond. In
other words, It should lie permitted to
railroads to make agreements, provided
these agreements were sanctioned by tho
Interstate commerce commission nnd
were published. Willi thesn two condi
tions compiled with It Is Impossible to
see what harm such n combination could
do to tho public nt large It Is it public
evil to hnvo on the statute books n law
Incnpnble ot full iiifnriemcnt because
both Judges and Juries realise that Its
full enforcement would destroy tho busi
ness of the country: tor the result Is to
maKn decent railroad men violators ot
tho law against their wilt, and to put it
premium on tho behavior of the wilful
wrongdoers, tiuch n result In turn tends
to throw the decent man and tho wilful
wrongdoer Into close association, and In
the end tn clrng down the former to the
latter's level, for the man who becomes
n lawbreaker In one way unhappily tends
to lose nil respect for law nnd to be
willing to brenk It In many vvnys. No
more scathing condemnation could be
visited upon n law than Is contained In
the words ot the Interstate commerce
commission when, lu commenting upon
the fnct that the numerous Joint trnttlc
nsschlatlons do technical!) violate tho
lnw.lthey say "The decision of tho
United States supreme court In the
Transmlsslsslppl case nnd the Joint
Traffic association rnse has produced no
practical effect upon the rallw ay opera
tions of the country Huch associations,
lu fact, exist now as thev did before
these decisions, and with the same gen
eral effect In Justice to all parties, we
ought probably to add thnt It is difficult
to see linw our Interstnte rnllwnvs could
bo oprrnted with due regard to tha Inter
est Of the shipper und the railway
without concerted action nf the kind nf
forded thru theso associations "
This means that tlm law ns construed
by the supremo court Is such that the
business of the country cannot be con
ducted without brenklng It. I recommend
that j ou glvo careful and ourly consider
ation to this subject, und If you find the
opinion of tho Interstnte commerce com
mission Justllled, thnt )ou amend tho
law so as to obvlnle tho evil disclosed
Brltance and Income Tax.
H expected that the president
fer In some wuy tn his boiler
hesslty for the curbing or ennr
Hines, nnd he has dono so by
flng legislation tor both In
H an Inheritance Un be-
H government should Impose n
vPtnhorltnnro tux, und. It ihi-sI-lil,JJJ,BRruditcd
Income lax Ma savs-
"1 J'l welravvnro that such a subject
ns tlwj needs iong nnd fateful study In
order Unt thn people mil) become famil
iar wsf what Is proposed to bo done,
may cljrly see tho necessity of proceed
Ing nil, wisdom nnd solf-restralnt, nnd
may tiMso tin their minds Just how far
they willing to go lu tho mutter,
while Bdy trained legislators can work
out thilprojict lu necessur) detail Hut
I feel iBit In tho near rutin e our nation
al legl'fjtors should enact u law provid
ing foilu graduated luherllani n tax by
which steadily Increasing rntn or duly
should put upon nil monevs or other
vnlunblB loinlng by girt, bequest, or
devlso an) Indlvldtiil or corporation
It mnjlw welt to makn the tnx heavy
In proBtlon ns tho Indlvldunl benellted
la rcni'B of kin In uny event, In my
JudgmrH the pro rata of the tux should
IncrcasBnry henvll) with the Increase
of the Xctimt left to nny ono Individual
after nPertnln point has been reached.
It Is uliat desirable to encourage thrift
nnd ntilt'ltlon, nnd it potent source of
thnirx 'W ambition Is the desire on thn
part offci breadwinner to leave his chil
dren weHrr. This object can be attained
by makftthe tax very small on moder
nto nm.'ai ot property left: because
the prlnKect should bo to put a con
stantly Aslng burden nn tho Inher
itance iBt swollen fortunes which
It Is ceiJJKf no benellt to this coun-
J trrHte ,, ,., , , .
mmmm rrcrvjtieskietii err the eth-
Hof thn government thus do-
Mcondltlons upon which nny
Htnnce should bn received.
m far the Inheritance tax
R Incident, have the effect or
V' transmission by devise or
voajVeWrmous fortunes In question
ps miessary nt present to discuss.
IT is Kjfut progress In this direction
should Vend.""1- At first u permnnent
intloiudJWulierltanrn tnx. while It might
bn mnnVsuhstnutlnl than nny such tax
has hill. 'to been, need not approximate,
either InBtniount or In the extent of thn
Increase By graduation, to what such a
tux shQknV ultimately be
Inheritance Tax Constitutional.
"Tills species of tax has again and ugnln
been Imposed, ultho old) temporarily, by
tho national government It was first
Imposed by the act of July . 17W, when
thn makers or the Constitution were
nllve mid ut the hend nt affairs It was
it graduated tax: tho small In amount,
the rata was Increased with the amount
left to any Indlvldiitl, oxciptlons being
made lu the casn af certain close kin A
similar tax was again Imixistd by the
act or July I, 1W2. u minimum sum of
JI.OuO In iiersoual properly being excepted
from taxation, the tux then becoming
progressive according tn Hie remoteness
of kin The war-rev enui, uct of Junn IS,
IK, provided for nil Inheritance tax on
nny stun exceeding Hie vnlun of HO.OeO
thn rnte'of'iox liter, using both In accord
ivtirn with tho nmnunls left nnd In nc
Wdunce with the legatee's remoteness
Air kin The supreme court has held that
the succession tax Imputed ut thn limn
(V thn civil war whs not it dlricl tax but
mi Impose of excise which wus both con
stitutional and valid Jlon, recently tho
court. In nn opinion delivered by Jlr
Justice While, which euntulned an ,-x-inodlngly
able nnd elaborate discussion
of thu towers or tho congress to impose
denth duties, sustained thn constitution
ality of the Inheritunin tux feuturu of the
war-revenue act of IMS.
It Income Tax Constitutional?
"In Its Incidents, und a purl from the
main purpose of raising revinue an
Income tax stands on un entirely differ
ent footing from nn Inheritance tux. be
cause it Involves no question ot thu per
Initiation of fortunes swollen to un un
healthy size. The question Is In Its
essence a question of Ihn proper adjust
ment of burdens to benefits As the
luw now stands It Is undoubtedly dim
cult to devise a national Income tux
which shall be constitutional Hut
whether It Is absolutely Impossible Is an
other question: nnd If possible It Is most
certainly desirable Thn first purely In
come tax luw was past by the congress
In ll!. but the most Important luw deal
lug with the subject was thnt or UK I
This the court held to bn unconstltu
"The question Is undoubtedly very In
tricate, delicate, und troublesome 'I he
decision of tho court was only reached
by one majority. It Is Ihn law or the
land, and, or course. Is excepted as such
and loyally obeyed by nil good citizens
Nevertheless, the hcsltnllon evidently
felt by the court as n whole In coming
to n conclusion, when considered to
gether with the previous decisions on
the subject, may perhaps Indicate the
possibility of devising a constitutional
income-tax law which shall substan
tially acccompllsh tlm results aimed
nt. Tha difficulty of amending the con
stitution Is co great that only real ne
cessity can Justify a tesort thereto
Kvrry effort should be made In dealing
with this subject, as with the subject
of the proper control by the national
government over the uso nr corporate
wealth In Interstate business to di vise
legislation which without such action
shall attain the desired end, but If this
falls, there will ultimately bo no al
ternative tn a constitutional amend
ment." He makes a strong plea for technical
and Industrial education for the masses,
and while the federal government can do
but little In this line, he asks that
schools of this character be established
In the District or Columbia as an ex
ample to the various states.
Agricultural Interests.
He appeals for every encouragement
that the congress can give to the agri
cultural Interests of thn countr) He
points to the good that Is being done by
the various forms of grange organiza
tions, and says;
"Several factors must ronpsrate In the
Improvement of the farmer's condition
Ho must I ive the r'mie e to be educated
In tho wld st poK-il'le s nse n the sense
which ktV cwr in w the Intimate
relationship bstween the theory of edu
cation unci thn facts ot life. In all
education wo should widen our alms It
Is a good thing to produce a certain num
ber at trained scholars nnd students;
but the education superintended by the
stnte must seek rather to produce u hun
dred good citizens than merely one
scholar, and It must bo turned now nnd
then from the clnss book to the stodv
of the great book or nature Itself, This
Is especially true ot tho runner, as has
been pointed out ngalu and again by nil
observers most competent to pass iirnc
tlcnl Judgment on the problems or our
country lire. All students now reallzo
thnt education must seek to trnln tho
executive powers or )oung peoplo nnd to
confer mom rent significance upon tha
phrase "dignity of labor," and to pre
pare the pupils so that In addition to
ench elev eloping In the highest degree
his Individual cap icily for work, they
may together help create a right public
opinion, und show In many ways social
nnd cooperative spirit. Organization has
become necessary In the business world,
and It has accomplished much for good
In tho world or Inbor. It Is no loss neces
sary ror farmers Such a movement ns
tho grunge movement Is good In Itself
nnd Is cupihln or n well-nigh Infinite fur
ther extension tor good so lung nr It Is
kept to Its own legitimate business. Tho
benefits to bo derived by the association
of runners for mutunf advantage, nre
pnrtly economic nnd pirtly sociological
"Jloreover, while In the long run volun
tary effort will prove morn elllrncloils
than government usslstnnre, while thn
farmers must prlmnrll) do most for
themselves, yet the government can nlso
do much The department of ngrlcutturo
has broken new ground In many direc
tions, ond )oar by jear It llnds how It
ran Improve Its methods nnd develop
tresh userulness Its constant effort Is
to give the governmental usslstunco lu
the most effective wn), thnt Is. thru as
soclatlotis of farmers rather than to or
thru Indlvldunl farmers It Is nlso striv
ing to coordlnnto Its work with the ngrl
cultural departments of thn several
state s, und so rnr us Us own work Is
educational, to coordinate it with thn
work or other educational authorities
Agricultural education Is necessarily
based upon general education, but our
agricultural educational Institutions ure
wisely spec lallxlng themselves, making
their course relate to the aitunl teaching
of tho agricultural nnd kindred sciences
to young country people or )oung rlt)
people who wish to llvo In thn country
"(Ireat progress has already been made
among farmers by the creation of
farmers' Institutes of dairy associa
tions, of breed, rs' associations horti
cultural associations, and the like A
striking example or bow thn govern
ment Mini the farmers can cnoperatn Is
shown lu connection with the menace
offered tn the cotton growers of the
southern states by tho ndvnnce of the
boll weevil Thn ilipnrtmcnt Is doing
nil It cun tn organize the farmers In
the threatened districts. Just nn It linn
been doing all It can tn organize them
In aid of Its Work to t radicate thn cat
tle rover tick lu thn south Tho depart
ment can nml will cooperate with nil
such associations nnd It must have
their help If Its own work Is to tie
done In the most efficient st)le"
Hn urges Ihn extension of the Irriga
tion nnd forest preservation system, nnd
asks for nn n proprlntlnu for building n
memorial theater ut Arlington.
Marriage and Divorce,
As a means or bringing about national
regulation of marriage unit divorce he
suggests n constitutional amendment, nnd
says It Is not safe tn leavn these ques
tions to be dealt with by the various
states Continuing on tills subject he
When homo ties nrn loosened; when
men nnd women cense to regard n
worthy family life, with nil Its duties
fully performed, nnd nil Its responsi
bilities lived mi to, ns the life best
worth living: then evil days for the
commonwealth are nt hnnd. There nre
regions In our land, nnd classes nt our
population, whom tho birth rate has
sunk below the denth rate, Hurely It
should need nn demonstration to show
thnt wilful sterility Is. from the
standpoint of thn nation, from inn
standpoint of thn human race, the onn
sin for whlph thn prnnlty Is natlnnnl
death, race death! a alii for which
there Is nn atonement: n sin which I
thn morn drendfut exnetly In propor
tion nn the men nnd women guilty
Ihereor nrn In other respects. In char
acter, nnd bodily nnd mental powers,
thoso whom for thn snkn of tlm slate
It would bn well tn see the father
nnd mothers of mnny healthy children,
well brought up In homes inadn happy
by their presence No mnn, no wninnn,
cun shirk the primary duties nt lire,
whether for Inve or ease und pleasure,
or for any other cause, nnd retain Ills
or her seir-respeet
Thn president asks for the enactment
Into law or u shipping bill that will place
American Interests on thn seas nn a par
with those or other louulrles, and urges
especially that something be done that
will establish direct steamship commu
nication with Houth Amrrlran ports
Currency Reform.
Amendments to thn present currency
laws arn asked for, nnd after showing
that present Inws arn Inadequate because
of thn wldn fluctuation nf Interest
charges, he says
"Thn mere statement or thesn fads
shows that our prisent system Is seri
ously ilef, ctlve There Is need of n
change l'liforlunnlel) however man)
nr the proposed changes must bn ruled
from consideration because they nrn
complicated nre not ins) of compre
hension and tend to disturb existing
rights nnd Inter, sis Wo must also
ruin out any plan which would ma
terially Impair the value or tlm I'nltrd
Htuton two percent bonds nnwplidgcd
to s, curn circulation the Issue of
which was made under conditions pe
culiarly creditable tn the treasury I
do not priss uny special plan Various
plans have recently hi en proposed by
expert committees of bankers Among
Hie pluns which urn possibly feasible
and which certainly should receive
our consideration Is that repeatedly
brought tn your nttrnllnn liy the pres
nit secretary of tlm tri usury the is
s, iitlul finturis of which have hern
approved by many prominent hankers
snd business men According to this
plan national bunks should bn per
muted to issue u spec Hied, proportion
of their capital In nohs bf a given
kind thn Issue to be taxed at so high
it ratn as tn drive thn notes back when
not wanted In legitimate trade This
plan would not permit thn Issue of
urrency to glvn banks nildillnnnl
profits but to meet the emergency pre
sented by times of stringency
Need of Automatic 8yilem.
"I do lint say that this Is thn right
system I only advance it tn empha
size my belief that there Is need for
the adoption of somn system which
"hall In, automatic nnd open to all
sound bunks, so as to avoid all pos
slblllty or discrimination and fuvorit
ism Huch a plan would tend tn pre
vent thn spasms of high money and
speculation which now obtain In the
New York market, for ut present
there Is too much currency at certain
seasons or the year nnd its areuinu
lutlon ut New Vork tempts bunkers
tn lend It nt low rates tor speculative!
purposes whereas at other times when
thn crops are hlng moved there Is
urgent need for n large but temporary
Increase In the currency supply It
must nsver be fnrgrtten that this
question concerns business men gen
erally quite ns much ns bankers es
pecially Is this true of stockmen
runners and business men In the wtst,
for at present nt certain seasons of
the year the difference In Interest
rates between the east and thn west is
from six to ten per cent when as in
Canada the corresponding dlffeniuo Is
but two per cent Any plan must nf
course guard the Interests or west
ern and southern bunkers aseiirefully
as It guards the Interests of New York
or Chicago bunkirs, and must be
drawn from the standpoints or the
farmer and the merchant no less than
from thn standpoints ot tlm city
banker and the country banker
The law should be mnendrd so as to
specifically to provide that the funds de
rived from customs duties may be treat
ed by the secretary t the treasury as
he treats funds obtained under the In
ternal revenue laws There should bn
a considerable Increase In bills or small
denominations I'ermlsslon should be
given banks, If necessary under settled
restrictions, to retire their circulation to
a larger amount than IJom.oOA a month"
He again usks for free trade with this
country for the Philippines and In the
same e miner lion reviews the work done
by this couiitev u tie Is'ands and sa)s
if we huve or. i n the Philippines it
bus been in 1 1 i i , iju rapidly la
the direction 'of granting a large mesa- H
ure of self-government." H
American citizenship should be eon- H
ferred on thn citizens of Torto Itfeo. )H
The harbor or 8an Juan In Porto Illco jjH
should bo dredged and Improved The IH
expenses or tho federal court or Porfo H
Itlco should bo met from the federal LH
treasury The administration of the af- H
'I1 "UP."0. HIc0- together with those H
of the Philippines, Hawaii nnd our other )H
Insular possessions, should nil bn direct- H
ed under onn executive department: by H
preference thn deptrtment ot stnte or the il
department or war H
Naturalization of Japs. IH
President llnosevclt scores Han Fran- xaxaxaxfl
Cisco and other Pacific coast cities for iH
liirlr.t!;r",".,e,I,'t ,of ,l"' -Hpanese, and LH
makes the following recommendations' aH
Our nation fronts on the Pacinc, Just LH
ns It fronts nn the Atlantic We hope llH
to piny n constnntlv growing part In ialiH
tho Brent ocenn or the orient We llH
wish, ns we ought to uls'i, ror n great axaxaxsfl
commercial development In our deal- iH
Ings with Asia nnd It Is nut or the LH
question that we should permanently laliH
bnve such development unless wn rree- iH
I) nnd gladly extend to other nations LlLlB
tho snme measure of justice and good IJH
frji.'V.'." w.,,rh we "P'Ct to receive H
?t r,l!,n. '., " 'Vnlv n rr small body H
of our citizens that net bnilly Where jH
the feileral government has power It iJalslH
will ileal summarily with nny such. jH
JNhere thn several states havn power zHIHB
wisely and promptly with such con- IkH
duct, or else thin small body of wrong- LiLiB
ITJT !!,ny. ,r nK "''"' 'Pn tho great H
mass of their Innocent und right- iliB
thinking; fellows-. that Is upon our iH
!?,'. ?,". ."" ,l , ,y,IO,,, . '"l manners H
shnuld be an International no less thnn kH
nn Individual attribute I ask fair H
treatment for tlm Japanese as I would 1
nsk fair treatment for Oermans or iizH
Kngllshmen frenchmen Itusslnns ot H
11? i -IT, ii1 .n,"k lt,"" ''."o to hurmnlty J
and civ Miration l nsk It ns due to zslH
ourselves because wo must net up- iH
rightly toward nil men, .zlslsH
"I recommend to the congress that IH
an net be passed specifically provdlug for aH
the naturalliatlnn of Japanese who come azasH
here Intending to become American clt- H
liens One of tlm great embarrassments H
attending the performance of uur In- iH
ternallonal obligations Is the fact that iiLS
thn stnttltes or the I'nlled Htntes gov- xH
eminent are entirely Inadequate. They H
fall to give to the national government aH
sufficiently ample power, through llnlted, H
Htntes courts and by the Use or the kxaxaxH
army nnd navy to protect aliens In the H
rights secured tn them under solemn iH
treaties which arn the law ot ths land itH
I thererore earnestly recommend that' aH
..". lm!nl,, I"'1 civil statutes ot the IJH
United Htntes bo so amended nnd nil led B
to as to enable tho president, acting ror, H
Hie United Htutes government, which U
responsible in our International rela- axaxaxafl
tlons. to enforce the right- of aliens uh-' H
drr treaties Kven ns the taw now lei LH
something ran bn dona by the federal
government toward this end, and in the LH
matter now before me affecting the Jap- H
anesc, everything that It Is lu my powsr
to do will bn clone, nnd all ot the forces,'1 axaxaxM
miliary und civil, of the United Htalsi, ijH
which I may law rally employ will bel axaxaxfl
so emploved There should, however, be! al
no particle or doubt as to the power oti aH
the national government completely to H
perform und enforce Its own obligations H
to other nations. The mob of a singlet ijH
rlly may nt nny time perform acts or llH
lawless violence ngalnst some class of V
foreigners width would plungn us Into axaxaxM
war 'I ho city by Itself would bn power- aH
less to make defense ngalnst the for- xaxaxaxai
clgn power thus assaulted, und If Inde- xaxaxaxai
pendent of this government It would) .H
haver venture to perfonn or permit the, BBLal
performance of thn acts complained of? tH
Tho nntlra power nnd the whole duty to eH
protect thn offending city or the offend- eH
Ing community lies In the hands of tha llH
''H,c' .States government. It Is un- Laxaxaxal
thlnknbln that we should continue a pel- H
ley under which a given locality may be- aH
allowed to commit n crime atalnst as aiaH
friendly nation, nnd the United Htntsr tH
government limited, not to provsntlngi H
thn commission or tlm crime, but. In the H
Inst resort, to defending the people who- aH
have committed It against thu conse- H
quence hfiUialriwn.wrongeUlng." - H
Cuban Intervention. H
The rebellion In Cuba and tha Incl-
donts lea ling up to the establishment oti M
the provisional government Is reviewed,' al
and thn president says: H
"When tha election has been held and, H
tha new government Inaugurated Inl H
peaceful and orderly fashion of the provl- saH
slonal government will come to nn end. H
I tnkn this opiortunlty of expressing-
upon behalf of the American people,' H
with all possible solemnity, our most H
earnest hope that the people of Cuba H
will reallzn the Imsmratlva need of pre- H
serving Jiisticn und keeping order In the jjH
Island. Thn I'nlted Htitlos wishes noth- H
Ing of Cuba exrept that It shall prosper H
morally and materially, and wishes noth- H
Ing of the Cubans aavn that they shall iH
bn nblei to preservn order among them- H
selves nnd therefore to preserve their aaai
Independence, ir the elections become a
farce, nnd If thn Insurrectionary habit H
becomes ronllrmad In the Island, It la ab- .H
solutely out of Ihn question that tha M
Island should continue Independent: and H
the United Htntes, which liss unsummt .H
the sponsorship before the civilized world H
for Cuba's rureer us a nutlon, would H
iigulu havn In Intervene und to see that H
the government wna mnnuged in sueti
orderly fashion as to secure thn safety H
of life und proper!) Thn pulh to be H
trodden by those who exercise solf.gov- H
eminent Is iiIhids hard, and we should
huve uwry charity and patience with the H
t'ubuiis us they tread tills illlllcult parth H
I havn thn utmost sympathy with, and H
leguid for, them, but I most earnestly H
ndjurn them sol, mnl) In weigh their re- ITB
"poinlbllltles und to we thut when their aaH
new government Is started It shall run H
smoothly, and with freedom from fla- H
grunt denial or right on tho onn hand, nH
and from Insurrecllonuiy disturbances on H
thn other "H
Considerable spurn Is devoted lo tha H
Inlernallousl rnnfi rencu of American re- H
publics und Ihn visit of Hecretury Hoot H
lo Houth America, nnd points to ths fact H
that our efforts In behalf or the nations M
at thut country urn appreciated by them. H
On the subject or tho I'aimmu canal he H
promises u special timssagu In the near ITH
future B
The Army and Navy. M
The message closes with u. plei for aH
tho maintenance or the navy at Its pres- B
cut standard, to do which ha sa)s would aH
mean Hm building or onn battleship each M
year ur thn piesenl efficiency or the B
army and uuvy he sa)s H
'"Ihn readiness und , lib lency of both the H
urni) und navy lu ibuhng with the re- bVJD
cent sudden crisis lu Cuba Illustrates
afresh their value to the nutlon This aH
readiness and etllileni) would have been M
very lum h less had It not been for tha H
existence of the general stuff lu the army M
and tin, general hoard lu the navy, both H
are essential to the proper development H
and use or our in Ittury forces afloat unit H
ushore The troops that were sent to H
Cuba were handled (lawlessly H was H
thn swiftest mobilization und dispatch ol
troops over set ever accomplished by H
our government Thn expedition landed M
completely equipped and reudy for lm al
medium servl. several or Its argunlza, ffB
lions hiiidlj i onlnliig In llavuna oval
night before splitting up Into detach, EC
incuts uml going to their several posts. BrJ
It was u line di muiistrutlon of tha vulol h
ami elllilemv or the general staff Him, FBI
Hurl), It wus owing lu lurgn part to tha
general hoard that the nuvv was able M
ut the outset to meet tho Cuban crisis H
with such Inalunt elthlenc). ship alter H
ship uppeurlug un the shortest notice at M
uny thieutuind point, while the murine
corps in particular i-erfouned Indlspens- M
able service. The army und navy was M
colleges urn or Incalculable value to ths M
two services, and they cooperate with H
constantly Increasing iltlclruiy and im- B
parlance H
"The congress has most vvlsel) provided B
for u national boa id for thn promotion
or rifles practise Km client icsilis tuve "
already come from this law but it dses
not go fur enough our legular ary 1
Is so small that in uny grout war sen BJ
should huve to trust malnl) to vol- BJ
unteers, uml In such event thesn volun- BJ
lers should ulreudy know haw to shoot; BJ
for If u soldb r bus thn lighting edgs. BJ
and ability to take rare nf himself In
the open his illliiiucy on tho Hue of BJ
battle Is almost due, tl proportionate te BJ
excellence In marksinaiishlp We should BJ
establish shooting galleries In nil ths
large public and military schools, shooh1 BJ
inaliituln nutlon il target ranges In differ- B
ent lurt" of the country, and should In v B
every way rmmiruge tho formation ot X'm
rltle clubs thruout ull parts of the land. & B
The little republic or Hwltzerland offer 3
us un excellent exuinplo In all matters ; B
I connr. ted with building up an efficient fl
CllllCII soldier)

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