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The Citizen. (American Fork, Utah) 1903-1912, August 31, 1912, Image 7

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H Beeped or Oversaturated Lands Caused
H by Watte From Irrigation or
BJ Leakage From Canal.
Tho cauBO of speed or ovcrsaturat
BJ ed land la tho waBto (rout irrigation
and lenkogo from canals mid lnternts
Bj The skillful Irrigator may Insist that
Bj It no more water Is applied than Is
Bj needed for growing and maturing
B crops, and that If tho ennuis nro so
B constructed that no substantial
amount of water escapes Into the
earth, no land will become too wot
B for farming purposes, says tho Den-
ver Field and Farm. It Is truo that
In many Instances Irrigators have
I btcn unduly prodigal In the use of
I water, particularly whea tho land is
I first subdued and watered. Tho art
I of economical irrigation Is usually
I learned only when scarcity of water
compels its less lavish uso.
I In any event, under present moth-
I ods eorao wasto of water will occur
under tho best of management, mak
8 Ing draining in many places essential
M to profltnblo farming;. Water which
I produces permanent saturation rises
from tho bottom of tho saturated soil
R toward tho surface. WaBto from Irri
gation first pnssos downward until a
hard stratum of earth Is reached. This
may be only a few feet, in which case
tho additions which accrue- from the
Irrigation of a few years will bring the
permanent ground water lovel to with
in two or thrco feet of tho surface, at
which tltno Injury to farm crops will
ensuo. It is not tho downward move
ment of water alono which occasions
boggy or wot areas, but tho lateral
hiovomcnt of ground water down a
Blope until a flat tract or surfaco de
pression checks tho flow and causes
an accumulation of water, which is
made known by its appearance, but
not until the lower parts of tho soil
havo been filled.
Such depressions or level areas re
ceive tho accumulated wnsto water
proceeding from adjoining lands,
which occupy a higher lovel. It will
bo seen that tho saturated condition
of the land which showB Injury Is not
duo to tho water which Is applied di
rectly to Irrigate it, hut to tho surplus
which percolates from tho higher
lands, sometimes through considerable
distances, until It reaches tho lower
flat or depression and Colorado now
has a law providing for tho organiza
tion of drainage districts In which the
expense of putting In the drains is
. borne by tho cntlro acreage. Drain
age has been carried on in tho west
to such an extent that certain meth
ods nre now practiced with reasonable
assurance of success. Tho develop
ment along tho last five yearB is most
I encouraging to holders of seeped land.
Most Practical Method Found la
Where Ditches Are Dug Just at
for Laying Tile.
(By W. H. LAT7CK, Irrigation Invi-stlR.
tlon. United Mate Department of Agri
culture.) Sub-Irrigation by means of tle will
bear Investigation under the different
conditions encountered In tho dry laud
districts. Tho Ideal conditions for
sub-Irrigation is where a hard-pan or
Impervious stratum Is found under
neath 18 to 3C Inches of soil, In which
capillary attraction Is good, and Just
to tho extent that the conditions ap
proach this Ideal Ib it a success for
growing annuals. The roots of peren
nial crops will eventually clog the tile '
In their search for moisture. A small
plot of one-half acre, with tile laid at I
different distances apart, viz.: 10, 1G, i
20, 25 and 30 feet apart, will, after a I
series of years determine the proper i
spacing of sub-Irrigation tllo systems
for the soil. The most practical meth
nd of eub-lrrlgatlon that tho writer has
found Is whero ditches were dug Just
as for laying tile, and filled In with
from three to six Inches of cinders
with a pleco of tile sot on end In the
ditch on the cinders for npplylng the
water, after which the soil was filled
in over the cinders. This is inexpen
sive, compared with other methods,
If a supply of cinders Is available.
Keep the best ewe lambs to Increase
tho flock.
Clover makes a first-class pasture,
and so docs orchard grass.
Don't neglect to castrate tho mole
pigs when thrco or four weeks old.
QttBs and trreen feed aro what on-
ablo tho farmor to produco cheap
(live tho sows a fair trial and do
not mako tho sad mistake of dispos
ing of them too soon.
If tho cows or calves got lousy try
n application of strong brine thick
ened with soft soap.
To doublo tho amount of milk per
aero and cut tho cost of milk produc
tion In two build a silo,
Tho man with five cows and a sepa
rator Is better off than his neighbor
with eight cows and no machine,
Pigs nro scarce enough this year, so
r '.hat the man who has a few can of-
r" ford to toko mighty good care of
Mnny farmers mako a practice of
turning lambs into the cornfield In
the early fall to gather up all tho
Tho Poland-China breed Is noted for
Its One quality of flesh and tho breed
also belongs to the fat or lard typ
of swine.
A humane as well as effective way
f dealing with a kicking cow is to
fasten a strap about her body Jutt U
tront of the udder.
Success In Western States During the
Patt Few Years Has Attracted
Much Attention.
(By It. D, DEim, Agronomist In ChnrKS
of llnrlcy Investigation.' U. S. Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
narloy has generally not been con
sidered a dry land crop, but Its suc
cess In tho western states during the
past few years has attracted attention
to Its possibilities for that purpose In
tho northern great plains and Ilocky
mountain states, whero corn is an un
certain crop, barley will furnish an
cxcoltont feed for all kinds of .'arm
animals. This fact has already given
an Impetus to the growing of live
stock, -specially "hogs, throughout the
northwest. In the Hocky mountain
and Pacific coast Btatcs hooded, or
beardless, barley has long been grown
for hay, of which It furnishes on ex
cellent and highly palatablo crop, near
ly equal to alfalfa Jn feeding value.
In Utah, Idaho, eastern Colorado,
Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma and Tex
as farmers aro beginning to realize
tho advantages of winter barley over
spring sown barley as a grain crop.
Winter barley, being fall sown, has
.ho advantago of an early Btart in
tho sprlhg ami will frequently produce
a crop where spring sown barloy may
fall. At present there aro but two
forms of winter barloy grown In tho
west, tho square-hcadTcnnesBco winter
and tho round-head Utah winter. The
office of grain Investigations, bureau
of plant industry, department of ag
riculture has dovolopcd a number of
other winter forms which wero dis
tributed In 1911, and results will bo
watched with Interest.
No slnglo variety, either spring or
winter, seems to bo adapted to the
cntlro semi-arid region. Among tho
winter forms, Tennessco winter, a
beared six-rowed barley, has so far,
given best results, and Ilannchcn, a
beared two-rowed Bpring barley, leads
in yield In tho Dakotns. Among tho
six-rowed spring forms, Manchurln,
Calami and OdosBa nro tho best.
Among the hulless varieties Himalaya
(Guy Maylo), Illack hulless and No
pal ( White hulless), glvo tho best
With the exception of sandy and
very alkaline lond, barley enn be
grown on a variety of soils, but tho
best results aro genornlly secured on
tho prairie or alluvial loam soils liar
ley Is a more certain crop on alkaline
soils than I.s cither wheat or oats.
Tho crop requires a mellow seed
bed. If the land Is plowed it should bo
Immediately harrowed to conserve the
moisture. In many localities best re
sults aro obtnlned when the land Is
fall plowed and left rough until spring
and then disked and harrowed. Where
moro is n tendency to blowing or tno
soil, granular soil is prefcrablo to the
3ust"mulch generally advised.
Tho yield and quality of barley are
considerably .Influenced by the kind of
seed sown. Tho seed should bo thor
oughly cleaned and graded before sow
ing. Large, plump seed will produce
strong plants, which, In tho Rtrugulo
for existence that always follows seed
ing dry land crops, will be moro likely
to survive than will plants produced
from small, shrunken seeds.
Tho funning mill should bo found on
every farm, but when not available
a slmplo yet highly rCectlvo method
for cleaning nud grading the seed Is
to immerse It In a tub of water and
ttr thoroughly. All the light, chaffy
and diseased grains, as well as the
larger portion of wild oats and other
weed seeds, will como to the surfaco
: and can be sklnmed off and burned.
If the seed wns smutted, adding form
Inlln at tho rate of one pound to 40
' gallons of water will be fyind offec-
live In preventing Its further propagation.
Haltering the Colt.
"When traveling on tho road with
the mare, halter tho colt to her sldo,"
and so any I, but chango the side
each time, for If led In this manner
often and always on tho same side,
the colt Is very apt to get to going
slightly sideways, says a writer In an
exchange. I knew n valuablo colt
ruined In this manner.
Franklin Was Dry Fanner.
Ien Franklin wob a dry farmer, for
he wrote: "Plow deep while sluggardB
Treat the herd boar with kindness
and also with considerable caution.
Ven tho hogs like a variety of feed
and will do better If thoy can get It.
Ulgld culling Is absolutely necossary
If you would keep tho flock In tho
Tho turkoy hon, hnvlng hatched out
her brood, will provo herself tho best
of mothers.
Thero Is no animal that rcBpnnda so
quickly to good feed and treatment
as the pig.
Tho best time to cut tho tails, as
well as to costrute, Is when tho lamb is
a week old,
During this month and tho next
fowls start molting, and they should
havo some special attention until the
period, which generally lasts about
ilx woeks, Is ovor with.
A plant of Swiss chard sown adjoin
ing tho poultry yard will supply
preens all summer, provided the
fowls aro not allowed to cat It more
than an hour a day. v
HaB a neighbor or friend a choice
variety of fruit of which you would
llko a tree? During August you can
bud it on to stocks of your own. Get
Urn to give you r. few "bud stlcl V
"" . i
It chanced that once upon a time remote.
The weary giant, known as Labor, smote
His thitrh a sounding whack and cried, "I'm blest,
But I have toiled enough and tibw I'll rest.
I'll let the world wag onward as it may,
While I go home and have rnv holiday? '
So, Labor laid aside his tools and crept
Deep in his cavern, where he promptly slept.
An hour went by, 'an hour without a sound,
The shops were stilled, no more their wheels went round,
The mills were fastened close with bolt and lock,
The steamship idly rubbed against her dock,
The engine moveless slept, the anvil stood
As silent as, a gravestone in a wood.
While Mankind, startled by the awful still,
Together whispered, awed, "Is Labor ill?"
And as the moments passed o'er town and farm,
And all was still, there 'rose a great alarm,
Went forth the giant Commerce, Joud to shout,
Deep into Labor's cavern, "Frjend, come out,
You're needed by us needed in a trice.
Please come at once! We' 11 pay you any price.
Tou've "slept an hour already all your Jill.
Come forth at once. The world is standing still. ' '
And Labor, wakened by the other's cries,
Stretched forth his brawny arms and rubbed his eyes,
And mused a bit, then with good-natured smile,
Said, "Yes, I'll come, but make it worth my while.
One day each year you 11 give vie, privilege free,
One day each year you'll consecrate to me,
While one day I will consecrate to play,
And (chuckling, said), we'll call it Labor Day."
Tho ulttmato aim of the labor move
ment is to establish a condition of so
ciety, first, that will lnsuro to each
head of a family equal and amplo op
portunity to securo a livelihood, which
will be sufficient to provldo his fam
ily with the samo necessities and
luxuries of llfo enjoyed by any other
citizen; second, that will cnablo him
to glvo his chldren an education In
whatovor direction thoy may docjdo
to follow, equal to that received by
tho children of every other member of
To cnlargo the opportunity to se
curo employment, tho trado unions
roadvocutlng nnd establishing a short
or workday for IIh members. To In
Buro equal education, tho trndo unions
aro endeavoring to secure tho enact
ment of compulsory education laws
and child labor laws in every state,
territory and provlnco In America,
thus withdrawing tho children from
tho factories, mines nnd workshops.
Tho trado unlotiB assert that all ben
efits accruing from tho inauguration
of labor-saving devices or cheap forms
of distribution Bhould bo enjoyed
equally by all tho people, Instead of
being diverted to the boneflt of tho
Tho labor movement holds that all
pcoplo arn entitled to partake equally
of tho Joy of living; that a condition
thnt permits pnrt of our pcoplo to llvo
In nfllucnco, whllo another part Is com
pelled to work long houra for meager
wages, should bo abolished; that a
condition that furnishes work to only
a fraction of tho pcoplo and leaves
another fraction without employment,
nnd helpless for long periods, should
bo eliminated from our civilization,
Mnny claim that efforts nlong that
direction aro an Iridescent dream and
cannot bo realized for ycara to como.
In my opinion It will como. It is now
opproachlng. It will como with tho
full awakening of tho consciousness of
our pcoplo; a consciousness which Is
rapidly growing in strength nnd pow
er, and is now In abeyance, awaiting
tho psychological moment when tho
great vibrating will of all tho pcoplo
has been crystallized Into an active
and intelligent force that will sweep
r.sldo nil obstacles that resist its pur
poso to meto out Justlco to all man
kind nnd establish among all tho peo
ples of tho earth tho Brotherhood of
A Trophy of Victory.
Tho annual holiday of labor Is not a
bit of driftwood picked up by acci
dent. It is ono of tho trophies of bat
tle and victory. Its message Ib of la
bor's rights and struggles and tri
umphs, not of labor's play spells or
of gifts received from any source.
Tho only demand tho 250,000 shop
men In tho Federation of Federations
are making Is for recognition of the
federation as tho only contract mak
ing organization In tho railroad Indus
try between the shopmen and the cum-sanies.
ArTArThual Holiday That Is More
Than Just a Play Time
Tho first Monday In September
brings an annual reminder of tho fact
that onu of tho holidays which aro
now practically nation-wldo Is so now
and so vital that It Is growing visibly
and rapidly In prostlgoand usofulnesB.
Labor day was an experiment so re
cently that men still young remember ,
its beginnings; now it U ono of tho j
firmly estnjrlluhed and much-valued .
rest and recreation days of tho year.
Hut tho day Is moro than that. It
Is n holiday which Is not a moro play i
day. Nor is it only a celebration of i
somo groat event of tho past. It looks
ahead qulto as much aa It looks back
ward. It Is filled with tho spirit of
advancing, confident, buoyant life. It
Is oven a militant day, with a strong
suggestion of willingness nnd ability
to battlo for rights denied or prin
ciples assailed.
It la well for tho country thnt La
bor day Ib bo thoroughly alive. It In
a good thing for American pcoplo that '
such a holiday comes around every i
fall to remind all classes and con ill-1
tlona of men nnd women of tho vital i
and fundamental part which tho labor
of tho hands plays and muBt always
play In tho progress of tho world and '
tho very existence of mankind. It Is
too easy to forget, at times, that ev-'
crythlng rests on hard phyalcal toll
and that without It all of the boasted
floworlng of civilization would bo Im
possible. I
Labor day is broad enough, In its
nnmn and in tho bronk which It makes
In tho regular grind of trndo and In
dustry nnd In nil of tho productive
activities of tho country to cover all
kinds of work, but It In tho especial
property of manual labor and moro
particularly of manual labor so organ
ized, so awako and so atrotig thnt It
enn speak nH a vast body of men
trained to net together nnd work for ,
tho same ends. I
Thnt Is to Hay, thn annual holiday
of labor It) taken as a right, not ns a
gift. It 1h n demonstration of strength
ready for uso, not a day of recreation
and fun without a serious thought.
Hut tho stronger labor becomes tho
less danger thero Ih of needless nnd
I destructive labor wars. With power
comes responsibility, nnd tho moro
thero Is that has been won tho moro
thpro Is, bIbo, to hazard In strife. Tho
lnbor organizations which aro most
thoroughly developed and united aro
tho ones which got nlong best with
employers and aro most roasonnblo
nnd businesslike In tho negotiations
which thoy carry on. Tho strong and
successful do not lightly risk tho
frulto of tholr past triumphs, and tho
samo qualities that mado them suc
ceed keep thorn safo and sound.
Labor day Is filled with such les
sons. It Is stimulating, thought-corn
pulling and Instructive as n holiday,
and then are few days In tho year
which do moro to mako Americans
give attention to tho largo problems
of their country and tho times.
Timbers Attached Prevent Capsizing
and May Be Constructed by
Any Handy Boy.
A boat that any handy hoy enn
easily innko ts constructed of n bar
rel which Is kept with tho opening
cut In ono sldo up by two 4 by C-ln,
timbers and two tie pieces, 2 by 4,
snys tho Popular Mechanics, Tho
lengths of theso pieces will depend
on tho slzo of tho bnrrel.
A good watertight barrol should bo
solccted nnd an opening cut In tho
center between tho hoops, of such a
size as to allow tho body of tho oc
cupant room for handling nn oar. Tho
timbers aro attached to tho barrel
with Iron straps pieces of old hoops
A Barret Boat.
will do, Tho two tlo pieces are put
across tho timbers nt tho ends of tho
barrel and spiked In placo.
Tho boat Is to bo propelled with a
slnglo, double-cud pnddlo. Thero Is
no danger of tho boat capsizing or tho
wutcr splashing Into tho barrel.
Convenient Article for Use In Any,
Play Room May Be Made of Or
dinary Piece of Pine.
Uso plno three-quarters of an Inch
thick. You should havo a pleco 7 Vi
Inches by 12 Inches for a cutting
Hound tho corners by making them
onc-qunrter of a clrclo whoso radius
Is three-quarters of nn Inch. Hound
with tho grntn of tho wood, ns shown
L . A
A Cutting Board.
In tho figure Do not go quite to tho
lino with tho chisel, and finish with
tho piano.
Next drill the hole. Drill until the
point of tho drill begins to come
through tho wood and then tnko It out
and put the xjnt In on tho other sldo
of tho board. When tho tole Is fin
ished, piano the tides of tho bourd nnd
finish It with sandpaper.
Exercise Is Not Given Attention It
Should Receive In Far East Colleges
Much Superstition.
Tho llfo of the Chinese collcga stu
dent Is different In many ways from
Hint of students In our own universi
ties. Tho Chinese student Is not very
sttong physically. Ilo has stooped
shoulders and a palo complexion, lilt
llfo Is not wholesome, for lie sleeps In
a Btnall room which Is nut ventilated,
and ho does not cut very wholeaome
Kxerclso Is not given tho attention
it should havo In tho Chinese college.
Tho Intercollegiate sports lucludo a
100-yard dash, tho high Jump, pole
vault, 200-yard run und n football
gnmc In the Imperial tiulveislty at Pe
kin the teachers are gathered from all
parts of tho world. The Chinese be
llevo thnt topics that aro foreign to
them should bo taught by foreigners.
Tho students uccept practically all of
the foreign teachings except medi
cine. Tho medlcluo which Is taught
Is lurgoly Chinese and Is made ill of
mnny superstitions. The Chlneso be
lieve thut u man has nlno pulses and
two hearts. They do not believe In
cutting up dead human bodies for tho
puron or stud) ing their parts, ns wo
do. Thoy would not do this becauso
thoy think tho disembodied spirit
might return to punish them through
Why Tommy Was Glad
Small Tommy's futber luiil i,.(-n
elected commaudor nf the (1. A. It
post, and the little fellow could nut
conceal his Joy when he heard Hie
"Oh, papa!' exclaimed: "I'm Just
awful glud you got elected."
"Thank yo-j "my son," said the fa
ther, "but why nre you so glad?"
"Ilecausp now jon'll have all the
soldiers at your funeral," answered
Willing to Please Again.
Llttlo James while at n neighbor's
was given a pleco of bread uml but
ter, and politely said. "Thank you."
"That's right, James," said the lady,
"1 like to heur little boys say "I'tanc
you.' "
"Well," rejoined James, "If ymi
want to hear mo say it again you
might put some Jam on It "
wiinhSFana md to H
very guy. H
fan bravely itVvtVd M
oftft one day. Vfl
Artd whejf he 4v M
e!on$' 1h , Wavy i H
L I cannot -tAy .J
Truckling the Trencher Is Played by
Children Sitting or Kneeling BH
on Floor In Ring. BJ
Truckling tho trencher this ts an H
old Kngllsh gamu. Tho children Bit H
en tho floor or kneel In a ring. A M
person In tho center holds tho trench- M
cr (n plu tin will servo) and when H
all aro ready ho truckles, or spins M
It, nt tho samo tlmo calling the name M
of somo ono In tho ring. Tho ono M
named must spring quickly and try to M
catch tho pinto between both hands t
before It stops spinning. If ho sue- H
reeds, he takes tho place In tho cen- H
tor, and tho first truckler goes In Q
tho ring. If ho does not catch tho H
plate between both hands before It M
stops spinning ho pays a forfeit and M
Is counted out. M
Then thero Is the piny of 'Twos H
and threes." Tho company Is grouped
In twos and throes, usually only one H
odd one, and tho fun consists In not M
being caught us the third. This keeps H
each child looking ovor her1, shauldor, H
for when two aro behind the fore- M
most must slip nway and find another
plnco to bo tapped, M
After a Btand-up game, a rather M
funny game, whero nil the company H
may sit, Is to havo ono person chosen H
to call and the rest to repont: One M
good fnt hen; two ducka; three plump H
pnrtrldgos; four squawking wild H
geese; five felicitous oysters; six sbbbsj
pairs of Homnn-strlpud hose; seven H
thouynnd Spanish soldlora; eight H
cages of llcllogabuluN paroquets; nine H
sympathetic, npathetlc, didactic, prop- H
osltlons; cloven superstitious astrono- .JH
mors viewing Venus In Veulco; twelve H
Hiirniienn dnnrlnn masters teaching W
Kgyptlon mummies to dance at Her-
alios' wedding. If nny one laughs H
In tho courso of this bo must pay a.
forfeit, Tho ono who repeats most B
smoothly and solemnly must be the B
caller out and begin gibberish over HJ
again. B
Trick Is Comparatively Easy of Ex- HJ
cutlon If Instructions Given
Are Followed.
Can you balance a dinner plate on JJ
n M
Knsy enough, If you do it this way: HI
Drlvo a pin Into a cork In n bottle. Bl
Take four forks and four other corks HJ
The Plate and the Pin. BJ
and Ktlck each fork Into a cork, nenr BJ
Its end. Then, by bunging thu forks fBJ
about tho edgo of tho pinto us shown WM
In tho picture )ou can balance tbo BJ
plate on tho pin flj
When Roller 8katet Came. VJ
Holler skating, which so many boys M
and girls enjoy, Is of loiiipiinillvely H
recent origin. It l said iliat wheel- B
ed skates wera known as far luck mi
as tlio eighteenth centuiy, but tho BJ
Ifour wheeled skuto. us we know It to- BJ
,day, was tbo Invention of a New York- BJ
'er. who Introduced It In IStf'l Kupld BJ
'improvement wus modn In wheels und BJ
bearings The lollers were first mado H
of turned boxwood, but these wero BJ
lorn so quickly that substitutes of a H
hnrdcr composition were Invented. BJ
Hard rubber or paper wheels served BJ
for soturnl years, but finally gavo way JBJ
to lion and steel, whlrh, with bull H
bearings, havo mude tho nuiusenieiit BJ
ery popular with tho younger genera-
Nice Little Lamps. H
I.lttlti Kva I wonder what Hie BJ
twinkling stars really ure? BJ
Utile Olgn Oh, 1 guess they are BJ
good llttlo night lamps that nuvo died H
aud gouo to heaen. H

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