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The Ogden standard-examiner. (Ogden, Utah) 1920-current, December 18, 1920, LAST EDITION, Image 5

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I New Army Plans Call for Real Preparedness at Last H
I Country Divided Into
Corps Areas and Old
Departments Idea
By J MOSS IVES, Major fl. R C.
U. S. A.
NJi June 4, I 20. till Ooncrcss. for tt
1 1 first time in the history of the na
ion. passed a law which can be
called a definite and comprehensive plan of
national defence making for a real prepared
ress. It has taken us over a century and
quarter to heed the advice of Washington,
wh" told us that "to he prepared for war Is
one or tho most effective means of preserv
ing peace.' Washington's successor in (he
Presidency John Adams, in a message to
Congress, said: "An efficient preparation for
war can alrr.o secure peace.''
All the.se years we have persistently Os
jegarded the advlcr- o: these Fathers of the
Republic. We have entered every "var In
our history wholly unprepared and with, ul
any well defined military policy. W have
grne to war first and determine! our polli y
afterward. This has cost us dearly cnnuii,
but that It has not resulted more die1
trously Is due to our great good fortune I .
that, as Major-Gen Wood ha Raid "Ws
have never yet wacod wai j-lnsle handed
.'lth a first class nation prepared for war"
There are many who firmly believe thi
Germany's unrestricted submarine war far
and our consequent entry Into the WOrid
war were a direct result of our unprepared
ness. So great an authority us Gen Peyton
C. March, the Chief of Staff of the arm. la
his report for the e;r i!Mfi said:
" Had such a force nnri surh a system of
training a. la above outlined beeti In ex
istence In this country at the outbreak of
Iffl gy 11,0 " 19 Probnble that Germany would
HI not have dared, t the violation of the
i right" of this country under lnt i
HH law. to have brought the United States Into
HR Some llRht ou tills very question Is given
Map of the- United States showing how the old army departments have been abolished and the new corps areas created The shadrd
outlines indicate how the nine corps form themselves into three lull armies. The corps headquarters arc plainly indicated by the for'.s
located withu. live several areas This is the first publication of the ne-v army map.
(S i4KX r 4L Ww
v x y 1 1; I c- 40i?W f '
I r niTll x .
Hladi- a sA.-rTTr-f Oklahoma J 7 -jl- s caJv
b4i- I - p im
TO ft COWPt" AREA x L ' I 1
rp- T'V- .
I ,JfI) WA: pjrFJ & CCBP5 jcus irr irrr?2D niT:
Source of lufomUom Census Bureau n Office of The .lutaat nral.
1G-45 I r.;.-Dicll7 ?er cent of population
Por;latlon rerlatcred fit of Coroo Area
Cor; a 'a 1S.EQ for lrft effectives !.,.,.", be "!..ru
To. 5 7,331,8:9 I 1,847,946 1,373,749 EB5HBSBS3R4Cia525KEEIZIZ!3 'J
no,6 1,74,159 ,034,5f.O 2,404,51.'. afjnBt VJgigMaam1.
Ko.3 12,913,701 2,930,696 2,309.445 BHaHH&i3S?!an7ZZI3 ?3
NO. 6 B,S21,46T 1,818,333 1,469,636 IHHHHHHEE
a. Incluiea AlarKi.poculat Ion of 64,964, a3 sho ni ty Ooverrr-cat "c'lnate
for 1918.
b. Includes Porto .".lco, r.opul&t on of 1,297.772.
fus In the recent pu&llujuion oj' Mothlat Brn
berjer'e "EExperlaUoaa In Lhc V'rkt v.ir."
In n debnle in the Reichstag, he tvlls us
how Tlrpltz's BUOCeaaor, 'nn C;ipol rr
clared that if Ameilca did enter the Wrtr
aa a result Of unf-st rleted L'-I'oat uai f u -her
contribution would he "equal la icro
Sceptical ICi-zberger i-rlod out in obloction
to this, but Von Capollc repeated more ve
hemently: "Equal to zero to zero1' TJie
German war lords to be sure reckoned
"without their host," for we did end a
wonderful army of l 000,000 men overseas
and nearly as many more on this si le Were
ready to so. but. while we were orgnn being
trnlnlns and equipping these mm. our alllet
flghtln? with their hacks to the wall wire
keeping the enemy from us while we pre
pared This not likely to happen again
Japan's Atuludc Indicate Thi..
Preparedness Often Se tire Deace
Over tn Japan the other day a ma:, meet
lng of atudr-nts waft debating whether .lapan
should SO to war with Amcrh a because of
the recent legislation In California. Accord
ing to an Associated Press despatch from
Tokln. It ftc-emed to be the consensus of
opinion or these young debaters thai while
the. legislation furnished sufficient provoca
tion for hostilities, yet as America was now
tetter prepared for war than was Japan it
would not be advisable for the latter to start
hostilities The leaders of both nation" n '
trying and no doubt will lUCceed In bring ng
-bout a satisfactory and peaceful nolution
of the question at Ifisne. Now I the lngOa
and hotheads of Japan can be kept within
proper restraints by the realization of Amer
ica's present preparedness, and force no pre
cipitate and Ill-advised action, while dlpl.
malic means of settling the controversy arc
being employed It can be said thai pre
parcdneas Is really a factor for peace ahd
that "peace through preparedness" Im no Idle
At a session of the League cf Notions at
Geneva, h few weeks ago. Senator Henri La
Fontaine one of the Peltrlnn atlegatet, made
tho declaration that the world was net jret
readv for disarmament. "It Is necessary to
Py frankly to t r people." he said, "that
the time for disarmament has not yet come.-'
I J ' Before the world could disarm, ha added.
"entirely different Ideas from those that t'i r-
valled before the war must be inculcated and
Holds Lack of Preparedness
Is Equivalent to Disarmament
The world has had enough of war and
would be glad to reel that war was over for
all time. But It docs not feel so. and how
can It in view of present clay conditions? On
the Kast war, although on a reduced scale,
is atlll In progress, and conditions are such
that it may spread at any moment to alarm
ing proportions 1 the West. r,y r :n Japan
mass meetings have been held which seri
ously debate the question of "War with
Surely in the face of this altuatlon no
-me man can advocate disarmament for
this country, and lack of adequate prepared
ness in these- days would be equivalent to
disarmament. In theac uncertain day 1 pre
paredness makes for peace and not for war.
and Washington, after all, waj right.
The most important provision in the Act
of June 4 Is the first aection Immediately
following the preamble, which provide):
"That the Arm the (Jjplted Suites shall
consist of the Regular Army, the National
Guard; while in the service f the United
Suites and tin- Organized Reserve. Includ;
; . : the Officers' Ileser vo Corps and the Kri
lis'.ed Reserve Corvs."
This act Is an nendment to the Act rf
June 3. 1916. which Is Known as the "Na
tional Defence Act.'" At that time O'ligres"
came very neur hitting the mark, but Just
ni .-.--il A 'comparison between the first
sections of the twi acts will show !-.iw far
the Act of June a. if:'0. 1- in advance f the
Act of June 3 I91C. Slid BOW It makes for
a definite military plan, whlrh the Act of
June 3, 1 ft 1 G. lacked The first section of
the National Defence Act reads as follows
"That tbe Army of the United Stat -s shall
consist of the Regular Army, the Volunteer
Army, the Officers Reserve Corps, the En
listed Reserve "orp. the National Guard
while In the service of the Unl ed States and
tUCh nlltrr Innrl lorcrs (is are HOf cr turfy l.r
hereafter authorized inn ."
The words in Italics show Jusl Wherein
tlu provision failed to establish a definite
plan of military organization, for it leaves
the whole mtll'ary extsbliphmcnt open to
future legislation Such other forces "as
ma hereafter he authorised by law" may
mean anything U is Just this leaving the
composition of the army Open to future
action and future p llcles. to be determined
after the arising of emergencies calling; for
ni Increase In the army that has found Ul
u .prepared for every war we have ever en
tered. Wc have never known just what our
amy was to be and of what It should be
composed, how raised and how organized
until after war has bee. declared.
United Stat' Peace Time Armies
Never Adequate to Meet Emergency
We h.ive never had a complete army or
ganization In time nf peace that was capable
of expansion in lime "f war. In each recur
ring occasion of war we have had to prac
tically create a new army In the civil war
wo relied at first upon the various Slate
militia forces then lirpe volunteer force
and linally conscription was resorted to In
the war with Spain the first thing we did
was to call for volunteers, and the National
Guard organizations which came Into the
Federal service came In as United States
volunteers the Government then having no
lower to draft the National Guard Into Fed
eral service. These volunteer forces were
temporary expedients and not part of any
regularly or permane-tiy organised military
establishment. Therefore much time and
money were expended in placing the i-onntrv
on a war footing We entered the world
war not knowing Just what our army was
to be, whether It was to t-c created by volun
tary enlistment alot-.e or bv voluntary enlist
ment and the draft. Neither was It known
definitely Just what part the National
Guard was to take In the war; whether It
was to be a part of the expeditionary or first
line forces or not. and the National Guard
iiad to be practically reorganized before it
could be made a part of the expeditionary
forces. Congress wisely declared Itself In
favor 'f the onl Just und democratic method
of raising an army In time of war, that of
compulsory military service or the aelectivo
So satisfactory were the results and so
. i
renml la now the feeling that the selective1
draft Is the only Just and equitable method
of raisins an army In time of war that it
can be said that the countrj is to-day com
mitted t.. the policy of th" selective draft.
Compulsory Military Service
Now One of Our Unwritten L ws
This fjci entered into the present plan if
national defence and while Congress unfor
tunately failed at the eleventh hour b
enact a law prosldiiuc that Immediately upon
a declaration of war selective conacrJptlou
should become operative, yet It Is apparent
that this method will be followed in ex
panding the present army to ar strength
at '. completing the Initial mobilisation con
templated by the act of June a. 1930. Indeed
It is not golns too far t eay that "com
pulatrry military service In time of war" is
now one of the unwritten laws f our lant
and necessarily enters lnt all plans and
policies having to do with the defence of
ihe nation
In section 3 of the a-'l of June 4 Ik another
Important prov ision for in t is section Con
grcas has provided that the orgajilzed peace
eatahllshnicnt of the army x-hall include all
of those divisions and other military organ
izations "necceearj 10 form the basis for a
complete and Immediate mobilisation for the
national defence in the event of a national
( merger. cy declared bv Corujrre'aa" Here Is
another forward tep. a distinct advance
toward .1 f'.etinite military policy. At last we
are gettiut; away from expediency to n
Comprehensive and settled plan of organiza
tion Here we have at J?st a framework of
n xomplet army organization capable of
expansion 111 lime of war t an effective
fihtine fOrcs
The tnsk of perfecting the organisation of
the new in my of the Jnlted States has de
volved upon the Wat Department General
Starr. ;t is until only comparatively re
cently that WS have had n General Staff
Here again for over n century we failed to
Ke the advice of Washington, for he said
that a General Starr wos "all important to
the well )elng of an army and essential con
sequently to its Commander in Chief." it
as not until 1003 upon recommendation of
Sei retsry of War Bllpu RMt. that the Gen
eral Staft' Corps was created
The Country Has Been Divided Into
Nine Corps Areas to Function as r War
One ot the duties devolving upon the
General Staff by the act of June IM0
wafti the prep.iratlon of plans "for ttu
mobilization of the manhood of the nation"
in ihe event of an emerdency. The plai -of
the General ;taff contemplate the nlobt'i
ration of a force that will meet the re
quirement of the approved "mon power
curve" ut the end of sixty days In a war
Involving maximum effort. This force will
permit of the organization of field armies
with necessary auxiliary and special troop
and leplaccment In a war of any magni
tude addition echelons similarly organized
W ill ho dev eloped
For purposes of administration, iratnin
and tactical control liie continental area of
the United States has been divided Into nine
corps areas, as shown by the imp These
corps areaa 11 ie to be organized to function
:i.n such in time of war as well as In time
of peace, r.nch corps area will contain
normally all elements of one or moro army
corps complete in all details and in certain
Cases army troops and troops for special ser
vices. Each corps area will maintain a train
ing centre which shall Include organizations
and personnel sufficient to provide all ele
ments ncesary to procure and train re
cruit and replacement, to establish and
maintain all training camps and to carry
on such other activities as t lie corps area
commander may direct.
There hos always btcn more or less com
plaint about an alleged overabundance of
red tape at Washington and It can readily
he seen how much of this so-called red tape
or paper work nt tho War Department can
he eliminated by the establishment of these
varloys corps areas and having them func
tion as administrative units. For purposes
of inspection, of manoeuvres and of plans
of war the nine corps areas are grouped
Into three army areas, which ore also shown
on the map When considered deahable
army area commanders and .staffs may be
assigned to these nrruy areas.
For tho requited initial mobilization It Is
planned to have in each corps area one
Infantry division of the Regular Army, two
i v-
Major-Gen. W G Haan. U. S. A., who
has had in important part in working out
the new army plans.
dlvlions of the Notional Guard and three
divisions ot the Organised Reserve, together
with the nSOeSSary number of corps troop
and balanced percentages of tlcld army and
general headquarters rsssrvS Hoops. The
new tables of organisation have reduced the
peaco strength of an infantry division to
about 11,000 enlisted men. The total war
enlisted strength will be about 18.000.
The new tables of organization bring to
tin surface many of the lessons of the vsmld
war Noteworthy among the changes in or
ganization is the change in the regtmi p
Infantry frcm twalVi rifle companies to nine
rifle companies and three machine ;Un com
panies In eacli regiment of infantry Is a
3"mm. howitzer company The war strength
ot a rifle company will now be five officers
and two hundred enlisted men. while the
peace strength of the same units will be
three officers and one hundred enlisted men
These now tables afford a subject for Inter
etlng discussion which cannot be gone Into
The General Staff has proceeded upon the
JilBUfleA assumption that the military pottcy
rontemplatcd by Congress Involved the or
ganization of our military forces into "one
h.'.rmonlous and effective army, the Army of
the. United States," composed of three com
ponent and well balanced parts, the Regular
Army the National Guard and the Organized
Regular Army of 180.000 to Function
As Nucleus of a Larger Army
A has always been true of our military
organization In tlmo of peace and in time
of war. our efficient regular army Is tho
first line force and the nucleus of the larger
army organization In the new Army of the
United States the mission of the Regular
Army will be to provide adequate garrisons
for our overseas possessions and the coast
defences of the United States; to provide
adequate personnel nr the development and
training of the National Guard und Organ
ized Reserves and for the overhead of the
army ,' ate to ttri"i u . ...ti
peditlonery force available for emergences
and which will serve as a model for the or
ganisation discipline and training of the
Vatini 1 1 Guard and Orftnntzed Resi n 1 s The
need of maintaining complete division
of the Regular Army as a model tactical
unit and school of practice for officers. ha
long been apparent. lut has never before
been possible The Second Division Of the
Regular Army, p,,w In Texas, is to be re
cTUityh m .u.i strengin in oroer to become
niqdel division and this sreat need In our
army organization and tralnlnc will be met.
1 ne peace strength of the R irUlar Arm'.
Is to be 18.000 officers and 280.000 enUateO
men larger than It has ever been before
but yet so small In proportion to our physi
cal!) nr military population as to completely
calm the fears f the most ardent pacifist.
a regular army of this size Will i-ar no
resemblance to a large standlmr army, so
much feared by the pacifist, and wli not
savor In the slightest degree of militarism.
National Guard's Future 4sr ed
With Praire for Its Fine Past pecord
The National Guard by Its record In the
world war fuuy Justified Its continued ex
latejice and earned a place for Itself In any
well considered .plan of national defence.
Iii the world war the National Guard fur
nished seventeen combat divisions, nearly
(101. cum officer and men Of the first five
divisions sent to France In 1917 three were
tfatlonal Guard: of the twerity-fpur Ameri
can divisions engaged In the ArgOIHia offen
sive or participating in British and French
operations al the time eleven were National
Another departure from ceir past lullltaty
policy was the provision In the act of June
t 1020. that nil policies and regulations af
fect, nr the organization distribution and
training of the National Guard should be
prepared and determined by " General Staff
comm)ttee, composed of an equal number of
Regular and National Guard officers, the
latter being made uddltiotuif members of the
Qeneral Staff for the time being.
For two months these committers have
been diligently nt work on the task allotted
tO them by law twelve officers from the
operations 'and War TMans divisions of the
War Department General Staff, working
with twelve Natinnnl Guard offleen holding
Reserve commissions and representing the
States of New York. Connecticut. Pennsyl
vania, Maryland. Ohio. Michigan. Mlnnesot.i.
Colorado, Missouri. Oregon. Alabama and
These officers have been placed on the
s.ime footing as the Regular Army officer, anl
not only am they participating to the full
In the solution or everv question and prob
lem which arrets directly or Indirectly the
policy of the War Department with relation
to the National Guard and Organised Re
serve forces, but they have been authorised
I y the War Department to Initiate, as mem
bers of the War Department General Staff,
questions of policy affecting Ihe tactlent
Strength as well as the general administra
tion of the soml -active components of the
Rut beyond nil this has been the c.oordl
natlnt Influence of actual contact with
representative orTWr. of the army The
gtvSt influence of this experience which thev
will carry hick to the States from which
they come tOWSrd coordination of the
army and the National Guard will be the
greatest result of this far seeing policy
written Into the act-
It has been deemed advisable by the War
Department to begin the reorganization of
the National Guard Immediately and B table
of tentative allotments has been prepared
ahowlng the number of troops to be organ -I:.'
In each Stale. The national defence
act requires a proportion of 200 men for
each Senator and Representative In Con
cif, and a number to be determined by the
President for each Territory and the District
of Columbia, with a proportionate annual
Increase until BOO men per Senator and Rep
resentative has been reached, whlc'i mini
mum la required by Juno no. 19SI if the
provisions of this law are fulfilled, a total
enlisted strength of approximately -127. "00
men wil be provided n- the peace organiza
tion of the National Guard
Whetbor this ambitious plan can be en;
ried out will depend a great clii not only
on the response to the call for National
Guard recruits by Ihe young men of the
Trained Nucleus Cn- I
pable of Immense t
Expansion at Mo-
ment's Notice '
land but on the future policies of the H
various state Legislatures The Federal ' H
Government has cartaldly done its part to- H
the proposed reorganisation of the H
In offering 10 furnish the necessary H
ipmcnl and ordnance for tho units of a -B
ln and well balanced army, in glvinc
pay to the officers and enlisted teen for at- I
tendance upon drill, In furnlrshlnp Regular (
Arm officers .ts instructors and In placing I gH
National Guard officers on the General Staff I H
purpose of determining National f
policies about all -hnt the Btatss I
are asked to do to furnish adequate I fgggggggl
Third Line of Our New Army
Will Cons. st of Organiz--i R'seres
(lie new plan of organization the Reg J- I H
1. 11 Army will be the first, line Increment.
the National Guard the second line and th l H
Organised Reserves the third line. As con- ( H
StltUted, the Organized Reserves will be I H
somponent While the Regu- I H
lar Armv and N'ationai Guard will be or- A
gantsed as completely s possible lo peace K H
time, recruiting their units to full Strength H H
In time of war. the units of the Organized llH
, Reserves w ill be maintained SS c adres only. I gggga
in ca ii cadre the officer personnel will n -
nr complete practicable and the enlisted K tgggS
pi rsonnel will he maintained at a strengt:i gVaggggl
Which will be sufllcient to develop the re- fPH
iuh ecl of non-. omm!s-ind offl.-et a ! H
There, are about 70.000 officers of the Re- H
eerve Corps in tlie army to-day and with the 1
addition of reserve officers who served in the ll
world war who can be apnointed in the lg
Present Statqa of Wn with
Military Training j
Orgsvnized 7orce j
i 437,300
jm Unorganized I
Ifgg L 3,139700
Total - 3,577,000 I
eat grade held oj theru during the war. ggga
but who have not yet accepted reserve com- ! J
missions, and the graduates of the Reserve
Officers' Training Corps, maintained In the I H
various schools aud colleges under the provi- H
slons of th national defence act. It I j- JH
pected that a sufficient number of reser.-e H
officers will be available for all the reserve
units which it is planned to organize, leaving H
eni number 1 ted who i'l be
ivallable foi Special duty in the various staff H
depirtments j H
Three akelotonlaed Infantry, division of H
Organised Reserves will be organized in each flH
,.r.- area and reserve officers will be as- jH
. gncd to .1 unit In the loealltj of their place
I nee In time ol war each reaerve
ntn, - whom to re - H
port for duty and to whal organization he aS
Is assigned. This will greatly facilitate n H
affective moblliaatton. In time of war th
1 Its of ihe Organised Reserve will be raised M
t r, wa. strength by the draft.
II orz.it. itMtion of :he ' -Ti. er Res-rv I
.,,rris. ihe enlisted Reserve Corps, the pro- 1 Igga
,l establishment of training camps and J
t'.e Reserve fticcrs' Training Corps afford m"h
a subject for Inierestlns study. Regulations h H
governing the Organised Reserve are now j, I
icing prepared b. committee of the Gen- III B
pih) Staff, composed of an co."! number of K
rczvilor and reserve officers IB
Peace Time Otgam ation
Capable of Ratud Expansion
The salient feature of the new- Army of HC H
the bolted Stcitee Is this "A peace time or- R BH
ganjsstlon capable in major emergency of 19 H
quick ami orderly expansion to the strength gBskal
required for the Initial mobilisation for war.
h it without the addition of a single tactical H
The framework of n new and expanding H
army has now bean erected, it remains for
Congress and for the Governors, i.egisia- H
Snd loyal citizens of all the States o H
the Union in- proper action and cooperatloa H
iq get behind this new plan of national de- H
fence and make It the established policy of a
tin- nation for while there are "wars and 'tkafl
rumors of wars" we will do well to remem- IgB
her the words of "Llghl Horse Marry'' Lett IgKgs
tbii! i ; trnment iini. doss not ink -H
fr.n.ei i i i vi-.-i
foi war "lhc murdi ei o( Ita own eitl fl
Rare Fruits in Philippines
A MONG the productions of the Philip- gl
, pine Islands are two delicious fruits Cgklgi
almost unknown In the rest of the I ta
wot Id One of these Is the durian w hose gtRgggi
remarkable qualities were descanted upon by a 'ggfl
Alfred Rubael Wallace during his explore I JggH
Hons in the Malay Aichlpelago. Kgea
It grows on a lofty tree somewhat rsm-
bling an elm, Is about as large as a cocoanut. t
has a shiny shell, and contains a creamy
pulp which combines some of the flavor of I
delicious c ustard with (hose of a fine chess.
To eat durlgn. we ate told by those who lH
know. Is a new eenaatlon worth a voyag to 'Lagfl
ihe Kast to experience Americans In Ihe ' '
Islands call the durian "the vegotoblc i.im- .
burger cheese." I;
Tiie other rare fruit spoken of la the man- II
gosteen, said to be the Ollll fruit that the U
Governor-General of the islands ii- never !j
:pnted The exqulsltsly flavored liquid It
contains cannot b preserved for shipping
abroad. j
i ii 5t

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