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. - : 'THE STANDARD MAGAZINE SECTION OGOEN, UTAH, JUNE 27.1914 : .
WHEN WESTERN AMERICA SPITS FIRE I Cones of Great Peaks Covering a Territory 4,000 Miles Long and 500 Wide, Were Created by Former Remarkable Volcanic Activity, Which Once Filled West ern North America With Large Smoky Region BY ILXRRY I-. VI:lLS. A volcano in the United States: Lassen Peak In eruption' How It conjures up visions of fire and smoke a mile high, with great streams of lava overflowing the crater and laying waste, the ft It State of California. Stromholi. Ve BUVius, Aetna, Erebus, Mauna Loii, Pelee, all rush into our minds, and we p" the people of the r.olden State fleeing for their li es and their orchards , and vineyards. their orange groves and prune trees, consumed by the fervent heat. All this might have happened vears ag", many, many years BRo, for there Is a large blanket of lava rock over a large part of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Ne sfcln, showing volcanic activity on e scale more gigantic than is indi- the original height of this monster volcano from the circumference f this crater, it is declared by sclen tlsts lo have been o pproximate I . JO. 000 feet high. 'rater L'ikf is truly a marvelous body of water It is so deep down into the bowels of the earth that a sounding line 2.000 feet long gives ii" Indication of bottom. And the color of the water is so Intensely blue that no ,-irtist dares to paint It as it Is and endure the jeers of Titles. VOLCANOES ( : I it VAgT TERRITORY. Rut wnat a scene of terrific grandeur It must have been, when all these huge volcanoes were In act(on together, in conjunction with a multitude of smaller ones Mlihg the sky with lire and smoke over region 4,000 miles long and 500 wide Thp human mind can scarce ly grasp it. And at that time much of the land now covered with for- sulphur fumes aro quite pro nounced. Across the, Columbia to the north, and distant about forty miles, is Mottpt Ad mis. This mountain also hns h-!t at its summit. Just north of the highest point and at the base of a huge rocky wall, which was once a part of the crater wall, sulphur fumes escape, so dense that those who get them in their full strength by a shlll in the wind at . almost suffocated. It is believed that Hood and Ad:im.v are the most recently acme volcanoes in the en tire range. There are traditions of the activity of Hood, Adams and St. Helens, three mountains form ing a triangle In the Columbia uiv region. K.irly settlers back In the. 'forties- assert having seen smoke from all of them, but there Is no real evidence. "'loud effects, op tical Illusion and the blowing of snow about Ihe summit have all been advanced to account for these apparent eruptions. But that there was violent erup tion at some time since the Indians occupied the country B shown by their traditions. One of these says tb.it formerly Adams and Hood stood close to the river bank and were great friends. A bridge of rock: spanned the river between them, called the Bridge of the Cods." nut (.nee Upon a time or Whatever the Indian words are for that Idea these old friend? had a falling out, and began spitting lire at each other ThlH HO displeased the C.reat Spirit that he moved them farther apart and destroyed the bridgo. and the huge masses of rock lit the river at that place aro pointed to as proof of the storv. This choking of the channel at vh r Is known as the Cascades, about forty miles above Portland. Inter rupts navigation, and the govern ment haa built locks there at a cost 'slnh k ! ' I: - 1 I ; ' ; X yi'l'l I' limine ...! ' it Mt. Rainier. IM Center left, Mt. Adams from - - . it' i Trmii I . t k c . Center ijv. V& '''M l ower left, Cnv. iii.' ( ,i . L n Xjji ated In like limits anynherc else In the world. But spread over that lava blanket Is a deep stratum of earth, in which are growing tree, apt forests, renturles old, and other trees also centuries obi may have grown there and decayed I As time goes, the mountains of the Pacific Coast are the youngest In America. The real Infant is the Coast Range, rising to a height of 3,000 to 4,000 feet, with very few prominent peaks- The next is thj great Cascade Range, extending from Alaeka down through British Columbia, Washington. Oregon and California, where Its name is changed to Sierra Nevada, to the Gulf of Lower California. This range is of purely volcanic origin. All along It, like a line of sentinels, stand peakB that have contributed to the great lava blan ket which covers so much of the country- Beginning at the north, the best known of 'hem are M Kin ley and St. Ellas In Alaska, Fair weather and Edgecomb In British Columbia. Baker, R.iinler, Adams and St Helens in W nshlngton Hood. Three Sisters, Jefferson, Pitt and Crater Mountain In Oregon, Bhasta. lessen and Whitney in California As these mountains now stand In their robes of perpetual snow, a beautiful, grand and Imposing sight as they raise their white masse above the green forests, it is dif ficult to conceive them as centers of Intense heat and sources of vast " streams of lava, such as the sur rounding country for many miles In all directions proves them to have been Apparently the great est of these volcanoes, and per haps the largest the world ever had saw would scarcely be the propt r 'ord to use, as probably not a hu man eye witnessed the magnificence nd terror of the eruption was the fne now contained In Crater Lake Park, tn Southern Oregon. The Whole upper half or more of this mountain has disappeared, yet It reaches a height of more than 10. 000 feet, ad In the rrater Is R mar velous lake exceeding ten miles In circumference. Presumably at some far distant Period the entire upper part of volcano fell Inward to unknown depths, to take the place of the im mense quantities of material it had for many centuries belched forth. This left a great hollow ten miles In circumference, which, in tho course of time, filled with water and gae us what we 1 all Crater Iake Thrust up from this Interior lake Is the cone of a second vol cano, also dead, mute testimony to the long lapee of time sin' e the huge ftttAuniAin collaDsed- Estimating cats aDd with fertile farms was part of the ocean or of vast inland seas. But the guest ion, hss Ixif-n Peak been in eruption, is not an swered by this description of what happened ages ago. it is possible there has been some emission of smoke. None of these huge an cient volcanoes Is entirely extinct, unless 11 be Crater Mountain. Heat is found on most of them near their summits (jflSSen is one of these. Shasta, which Is about forty miles from Lassen, and Is 14.443 high, has perpetual hot springs on the highest, of Its two peaks Boiling mud is found ther at all reasons of the year. A number of years ago Prof. John Muir aseended Shasta with a . om pan ion In April, a season entire ly too early for safety, and was caught In a storm. Only by lying all night In the hot mud were they able to save their lives. On Mount Hood a huge mass of rock framing In ihe lower, or southern, edge of the crater which fl half a mile in diameter and filled with snow is so heated that snow never covers It. Those who climb the mountain always make Crater Rock a resting place, some 500 feet below the summit, and heat their coffee by lowering it Into the crev ices In the mi k. or melt snow for drinking In the same way. And a little further along, under the over hang of the lower rim of the crater, . 1 f p ----- - . ' ' . J: of about $4,000,000 all because two od friends had .1 falling out and spit fire. MOl N 1 i li Kn I I .It I l Willi si iW All these mountains are cohered with snow. The timber line ceases at an eevatlon of a"bout 14). 300 feel, ami sbo'e that the peaks are bare of vegetation and covered-with per petpal SOOto 'or :i illstame of from 2.000 to 4.000 feet, some of them are fairly easy (0 climb and others i-ry diftb -ult. The trouble . 1 1 1 1 1 1 - -ers baVe had In trying to get to the top of Mount Mi Klnley Is an Illus tration of tho difficulty "m some cases. It is easier to write about climbing them than to climb, as our old friend Dr. Cook has demon strated. There is a mountain 1 limbing Olub called the Mazamas. with head quarters at Portland, whose mem bers must Qualify by climbing some peak of perpetual snow. Most of these mountains have been climb't d by memberx nf this club. Two of tho most easily accessible to tho traveling public are also among the easiest to 1 limb. Till'?'' are Shasta and Hood Shasta lies in Northern California, the road skirting its base. In the summer time one can rid'- a horse through the forest to the edge of the timber, and from there it Ij not very difficult to go to the sum mit. Many parties go up every year. Climbing Hood is more difficult. It is sixty miles from Portland, but an electric line Is being constructed which will make it a regular part of tourist travel, A road across the Cascade Mountains climbs as high as 8,500 feet, but from there on 11 is a foot Job to the timber line, 2. 000 feet higher. Only good climb ers can reach the summit from the timber line on the south side. There ' ; is another route to the top "n tbe mirth side which Is still more diffi cult. I'robnl.lv more people have Climbed Hood than any oh r of the snow mountains ttf tjae West, and the electric line will largely Increase this number. Adams and St. Helens are seldom limbed tend are somewhat more difficult. Rainier, higher than any of these, is fur more difficult of as cent, two days usually being taken to go from the base' tc the top. Several climbers have lost thlr lives on these mountains, and oth ers have hud very narrow escapes. There are huge glaciers and deep ' ' ' crevasses, steep Icy clliTs and long slopes of treacherous snow, with many lava ridges and masses of 6oaa rock, sometimes exposed and sometimes covered with snow, ah these make mountain climbing dan gerous, and an experlen. e, m,,,. should acepmpan . vers party of climbers. Anyone who love's coasting can get his fill while coming down the long fields of snow. If he is skill- I ful he merely stands in the snow with his knees bent, like a man Standing in a moving wagon, and H sti ftdies and guides himself with H his alpenstock under his arm ex- tending Into the snow behind htm J like a rudder. But If he Is a hegin ner he simply sits down In the snow H and scoots, trusting to the quality H of the .loth in his trousers for 9 satisfactory journey. I Bnrcnes.s Introduces Tro Rings. "Rings on her fingers and bells J on her H "W i ll, on' r perhaps but not any more That Is, the bells are linger rings, of course, still The trou Is w-ith the bells seems have been that some difficulty rose in our Northern - lime when attempts were made to put on shoes Over the hells It made the wear er s feet too large. But now, owing to the startllriB innovation of Baroness de Guestre 01 Paris, the sandal Is comfng back H into Resultr? Why, toe rings, of course. Toe rings are going to he ' all the rage in Paris this summer, and ca ble dispatches from the city of mirth and laughter and fashions say the jewelers are laying in stocks ot beautiful circlets. ' These rings are made in vastly varying sizes, since rings for each toe are in order, and. as everyone knows, the sizes of the toes differ NOW if the cry were for bells, :il that would t.e necessarv would tie bells of the same size, for rib bons could be used to fasten them, to the toes, but with rings It's dif ferent. and rings are the thing. The originator of the sandal foot gear and the toe ring at bast In modern times Is one or he most harming women in Paris. Baroness de Guestre is a noted beauty and an artist withal, for she designs her own charming gowns and all Pails raVfS OVei them. This winter the Baroness went to the Theater de. champs Blyeees at tired in a loose Creek robe with Her appearance in the audience in sui h a costume attracted a great deal nf attention, hut so harmonious was the effect of the dress and the sandalled feet In the 'heater that society took the cue. H And now It will he worth while keeping an eye out on Fifth ave nue in New York because Fifth avenue goes in for the very latest. Incidentally there is going to b a large number of women whof mu. h abused feet win appreciate aH their temporary freedom. Ferj Badlj Bifre.l! Courtenay Billions kicked himself sH as he walked out of the courtroom isilfl Here, on his first appearance as a 'lsiifl barrister, he h,,d been beaten by a iflH third-rate lawyer. I "The little tin was too smart for ! you. sir." said his humble client U1 a disappointed tone. Trickery trickery!- he replied "Ah, that may be; but he could H Jaw well enough!" tH Eater in the afternoon Ibi.ion? jH vn, "int. re the lawyer comfortably iM sunning himself in the smokeroom "' fiote) Aulnj,, h,a WJ Spt6 rose within him.. sr," he said, "is there anv case that Is too dirty foi you to torn h or criming so lo that you won't him?" "No," came the quiet replv. W hy, what have c 1 been doing now, my