Newspaper Page Text
Wf JBRP JBbI"" " One of the Most Durable Silos Is Made of Cement Block. By J, E. DORMAN. If a dairy farmer were told that lie could roll silver dollars down a hill and then pick vip two dollars for ev z ery one he rolled down, and this state ment as verified by pome of his neighbors and hundreds of other dairy farmers in the country, that farmer would sta up nights to roll the dollars. But when told that he could double the profits by the use of tne k silo he becomes very indifferent and keeps on In the same old rut, feeding dry feed, wasting nearly half of his corn crop and doing a lot of unneces sary work. In these days of close competition, dairymen should be ready to take ad vantage of every opportunity to re duce the cost of production, and It will be found that it is easier, if the than to raise the selling price of the dairy products. The results are the same, a large net profit. In the corn plant about 40 per cent of the feeding value is in the stalk, and 60 per cent In the ear. When the ear alone Is fed, nearly half of the corn crop Is wasted When the stalks are fed, at least half of them remain uneaten, while If stored in the silo the loss is almost nothing Every dairyman knows that cows wiil do their best on fresh June pas ture. The grass is succulent and pal atable, and the conditions for a maxi mum milk flow are ideal These con ditions, however, do not last very long The silo comes as near to supplying the ideal conditions as anything that can be found and It is available every (iav in tltf vpar It nrnvfrlari n uni form feed for every one of the 12 months. Highly sensitive dairy cows resent any sudden or violent change In feed, and will show it b;. a decreased milk flow. The change from fall pasture to dry feed is always followed by a shrinkage in the milk. In changing from the pasture to thp Bilage, the change Is not so great, and ; often the cows increase the flow of ! milk when started on silage. Several dairymen have recently made the statement that the increased profits paid for the silo the first year. Silage Is not a complete ration for a dairy cow. Silage Is high in carbo ; hydrates, and some concentrates or ( roughage with a "nigh protein content ; should be fed with it, such as wheat can be grown so easily, and In every section of the country, it stands at the head of the list of forage crops for this purpose. The yield in feeding value and the convenience of handling make It the best silage crop. The yield will rango from ten to twenty tons per acre on good soil, and even higher yields have been re ported. At 16 tons per acre, one acre will furnish enough roughage for two cows for every day in the year, or four cows during a feeding period of six months. What other crop will do that9 Other crops can be used, such as sorghum or cowpeas, in combination with either sorghum or corn. The cowpeas improve the silage, for it adds protein, but the yield is 6mall and difficult tt( harvest. In selecting a variety of corn for ; silage, always use one that will ma ture its grain. Other things being equal, select a variety that produces a large fodder, as the yield will bo greater. Corn can he planted somewhat i thicker than generally used in grow ing grain, but not thick enough to prevent the good-ear development. One dairyman, who has had good Buccess in growing corn for the silo, and puts up about one thousand tons a year, says that he plants one-third I mors seed for the silage corn than for ' the corn grown for grain. The amount, however, depends much upon the variety, and the condition of the soil. The size of the silo, of course, de pends upon the number of cattle to bo fed. It should never be less than 20 feet high, because pressure Is neces sary to preserve the silage. The high er the better. A good rule is to have It twice as high as the diameter. Of course, a silo vs ill cost some thing all farm buildings do but there is no building that can be erect- I III Filling a Silo. nran, oil meal, cotton seed meat or alfalfa or clover hay. Every dairyman should make an ef j fort to grow alfalfa and put up silage. It is a groat combination, and all home grown. Thi3 conr.tant buying j of milk feed is what cuts dov. n the profits, and should be eliminated as I far as possible. When it is considered that corn i t THE FARM AUTOMOBILE Off to Town. The automobile is no longer regarded as a luxury on the farm, but one of the most economical and useful things in farm use. It saves the use of horses in busy times, nnd all times, eats nothing when not in use, pulls as much as a double team, can in a pinch turn any implement from a grindstone to the silage cutter, will carry the family to town in one quarter the lime a team will do it, and with less care than a pair of horses require, will last ten yearn. The work of the woman on the farm is so confining that she rarely gets to town, and then she spends most of her time on the road. With an auto mobile she can finish her tasks in the morning, jump into the car with one of the boys to drive, and run off to town or on an errand, or to visit a neigh bor, and be back at her pleasure. ea on me iarm mat win paj ueuei A barn that will shelter the same amount of roughage, and containing as much feeding value a:i a 100-ton silo, will have to have a storage ca pacity of S00 tons. Figure this out, and sc-o which would he the cheapest. There are many kinds of silo, and made of different, materials. Con crete, cement, brick, tile and several kinds of wooden silo. The wood silo is cheapest, of course, but it 1b not so durable as the concrete or tile. The different styles range from three to five dollars per ton capacity, for the concrete and the tilo silo, while the wooden stave silo will cost from two to three dollars per ton ca pacity. When one considers that the crop can be grown and put In the silo at a cost that should not exceed two dollars per ton, and that it is worth at least twice that much for feed, and the large part of that food is practically lost without the ueo of the silo, the value of this method of preserving the forage crop i3 very apparent. A feed cutter with a blower or ele vator Is necessary for filling the silo. A good cutter, with a capacity of forty to fifty tons a day will cost about one hundred and thirty-five dollars. The power to run it may be a gas or a steam engine. This can usually be hired for a few days during the filling process. Or, where several dairymen on adjoining farms have silos. It Is economy to own the cutter and power in partnership. THE SMALL FARMER It is no mean commendation to man age a small farm He is a good farm er who can make money on a small farm. To live on a small farm and support his family well, requires an able farmer. Study well how to make good use of a few acres, rather than go Into debt for a large farm. The farni-fatled steer has taken the place of the range animal; and he Is being produced on the farms which have taken the place of the boundless open range of the not far distant past. Surely "the world do move." A FEW THINGS TO REMEMBER To see that the harness on your work team fits well, and does not gall or chafe. To bo suro that every strap 1b safe before you start to work. Often a bad accident is caused by the breaking of the harness in a bad place. To boo that the team gets plenty of time to eat their noon meal. To give the horses plenty of water on hot days. They get as thirsty as you ao. To speak quietly, yet firmly, and to give the same order always In the same way. Then the horse knows what you mean. To be patient with your young ani mals and old ones, too, for that mat ter. It does not take much to mako a horse nervous, and therefore dan gerous To give the team a breathing spell once in a while, especially just before and after an unusually hard piece of work. To give the horses a good rub-dqwn and brushing at least once a day. It will make them feel like new. And above all, not to "tear up the earth" if things go a little bit wrong. Far better whistle. It saves trouble. E. V. B. PREVENTION OF THE WIRE WORM ATTACK By W. R. GILBERT., The only effectual way is to kill the pest and have done with It at once and for all. I plowed a field after clover leavings, and sowed it with oats, which sprouted nicely for a time Then this worm attacked it, and in three days there was not a leaf visi ble. We harrowed It that season, and It recovered. The next time It was in clover leavings before plowing. The result was, and is to this day, that there is not a wire worm in the field. I had oats In it last year after the clover hay, and not even the ap pearance of the worm' It Is now twelve or fourteen years ago The wire worm has no terror for me, nor do I think It would have for anyone else. If they tried tho above ! plan and easy remedy. The ground rock salt is cheap and easily obtained, and I believe it kills the eggs or , larvae, when it is allowed to lie and : dissolve on the ground before being , plowed in. IMPROVING CLAY LAND By W. R. GILBERT. If if contains much water, draining will be a great Improvement; one or two three-feet drains through a damp piece of land will be a permanent Im provement, but tho difficulty In some ca.es is to get an outfall. Where the outfall exists, wet land should be drained before planting fruit trees, and the drains should not be less than three feet deep. More will, in many cases, be better, as the drams which let out water will introduce air. and so a double improvement will be going on. After draining, some of the clay should be burnt like ballast, and after it has cooled, screen it and lay the roughest over the pipes in the drain and spread the fine material over the land. I have seen this carried out on cold, clay land, and the Improvement has been immenso. CARE OF GRASS LAND I i . i j T Grass Land That Has Had Care Shows by Yields. Nothing can be farther from good management than the common prac tise of leaving the grass land to take care of Itself. On the average small farm the live stock have the run of the whole ofMho grass practically ev ery day In the year. There is never a fresh field to give the stock a change; the sweet parts of the farm are over-grazed, and by over manuring lose their sweetness and become rank, while the poor parts are allowed to run to seed, thus in creasing the proportion of weeds and weed-grasses The prevailing fault on the many farms, large and small. Is the want of proper gates, even when the fences j may be good. A good gate that will last half a lifetime, if properly hung, can be got for very little; we need not specify at length what the common stop-gaps are. It is a deep study In human nature to find an explanation of the state of mind that will not take the trouble to settle the question of gates prop , erly Valuable machinery Is stuck In a gap, exposed to all weathers, and 11a I ble to be Injured or to Injure stock, ; when moved to allow a passage. In another case, the gap Is stopped , bv bushes, which have to be taken down and built up laboriously each time the gap is wanted. Frequently we see a gate leaning against a gap, because the farmer has not time to Bet up gate posts. More frequently the gate post is set up so badly that it gives way, the gate drags or has to be lifted each time It is opened, and the gate comes to pieces long before it should be worn out. The average stop-gn, as a contriv ance to save time and trouble, leaves everything to be desired. It is waste ful both of time and material, and Is ' most laborious The proper erection of a gate post is not a difficult matter, if due regard is paid to the drag exercised by the weight of the gate. A gate post of narrow diameter, such ai wood or metal, soon works through the soil unless properly stayed. Even a stone pier would give way In soft soil. The groat point is to provide some resiutane to the drag. There are many devices that inge I cutty will suggest. A simple one, if rather costly, would be to Imbed the if ' T IN THE SHEEP FOLD . - , ' "I Shropshire Shearling. By L. M. BENNINGTON. Sheep are the most nervous of ani mals, and if allowed to run down, quickly become tho prey of disease. The well-kept, well-fed sheep is the only kind to keep. Sheep will not thrive in dark, damp, badly-ventilated quarters, even if they are only confined in such places over night. Better keep them in an open lot than house them under such con ditions. Never permit the sheep to lie on foul bedding or in barns that are muddy and dirty. Low. muddy pastures mako fine breeding places for germs, and sheep i should always be pastured on high, dry land. Never turn a sheep loose after clip Ping, without first having dipped him thoroughly as a preventive of parasites. No matter if the ram or breeding ewes you buy come from the best ' breeding farms In the country, do ; not permit them to run w ith your flock I for at least ten days. Thl.s time Is I necest?ary to develop any disease that ' may b- carried around with them. Sheep require more careful Inspec tion than any other farm animal, be cause disease attacks them quickly and often becomes fatal before it has , been really discovered. A good flock master will not fail to have every sheep on the place pas3 under his eye once a day. Oil meal Is excellent to prevent in digestion nnd keep (he young sheep In fine condition generally. Tho breeding ewes, In addition to good pasture, should, from now until breeding time, have some grain, in order that they may be brought up In : good condition In September. Post In a broad-based block of con crete. The weight would then be on the post instead of the gate, and the cen ter of gravity would be supported by the base of the block, whether the gate stood open or closed. Whatever device Is adopted, let there be no delay about the proper hanging of gates. This Is a matter that gives away the character of a farmer perhaps more than anything else about his place. While on the subject of gateB and gate posts, we may call attention to the fact that many a gateway in the wet season is a regular sea of mud, and the fields on each side cut up badly for some distance Gateways should be firm and un yielding, not only to provide clean and easy passage for fofct or wheel, but also to secure firm gate posts. A soft gateway gives no support to a post. Where there Is a hard bottom, the gateway may have the surface cleared away and the hollow filled with stonec picked off the land. With a soft bot- IjH torn, a foundation may be laid with bundles of faggots, which are to be cov ered, as before, with the t tones. Fag gots in such a popition last a long . jH tlmo and provide tho drainage which is required in such a position. jH Let the center of the gateway be H higher than the sides, so as to pre- IH vent ihe lodgment of water, which. does to much harm In thin position. WHY USE DAIRY RECORDS? H Accurate records of each cow'3 milk yield enables us to weed out tho herd and retain only the money makers. They serve as a tab on the milkers. Tf the cows are not milked clean the jH fact is discovered. Poor milking by hired help Is discouraged, and the dr.-- H Ing off from imperfect milking reduced 10 a minimum. The cow's daily record Is an excel lent barometer of h?r physical condl tion. Derangements are more quickly discovered and checked, and better methods of feeding are enccuraged Both owners and help are stimulated to increase the product, and it edu- jM cates them in the matter of dairy economy. They induce better business meth ods In the management of the busi ness. A place where business meth IH ods have been too long ignored. jH They serve as an excellent guide In selecting heifers th.it are to be raised to replace the cows we annually dis card from the herd. C. M. S. Some men deceive only themselves, when they think they are deceiving others. Hogs Exposed to the Hot Sunshine Day In and Day Out During the Summer I Will Logc Much of the Gains They Make. 1 By L. E. CHAPIN. It is true that warm water Is just as wet as cool water, but it Is not so palatable, and the hogs will thrive better if they have a cool drink at least twico a day. Water should al ways bo within reach. Hogs exposed to the hot sunshine, day in and day out during the sum mer will lose much of the ga!n9 they make, even though the clover fields be of the finest The main and only point in raising hogs is to produce flesh that ill bring the most money, and every little thing that will work toward this end should be put into operation. No farmer that continually 'stuffs j his breeding sows with corn can hope to secure the best pigs. Ereeding stock requires more clover, bran, al falfa than corn Tho short-nosed hog is always to be desired against the long, slender-faced type. The sow should be long-bodied and the boar short. It has always been a disputed ques tion as to whether a hog gains any thing by rooting. Even if he doesn't, he has plonty of time to spare, and rooting will certainly not hurt him. When a pig's tall curls up in a crispy, tight sort of way, it is a sign he feels good, and Is thriving If it desu't, he needs something to brace him up. Some farmers cut off the tails of their pigs, because they claim it taker, ten ears of corn to raise one tall; therefore, they amputate, in the Inter est of economy. The man who breeds hogs with high ( ideals of perfection cannot succeed : unless ho keeps an active record of his breeding operations. He needs a blank book for the purpose, and must pLiy the most careful attention to en tries. An armful of green cornstalks will add relish to the hog's ration, but It I should not be fed regularly until the corn In the ear has hardened beyoDd I tho possibility of frost. E Do you know anything around the fj farm that will run Into money faster I than hogs? I THE VALUE OF ELIMINATION I By A. O. CHOAT. The road to much of the compara- 1 tive perfection in live stock, etc.. lies f through elimination. n By the elimination of weeds or of : inferior specimer.3, in the thinning of K. poor seed and poor plants in planting. if'. we do away with most of the chances of failure and the production of rub- I believe we have not ruven suff I cient attention to this elimination 1 process, for the betterment of our f- stock and crops I This year, for Instance, I have found J that the elimination of poor seed po- " tatoes and of course selection of good seeds in their place has increased my potato crop fully 20 per cent. L When we carry this same principle i of elimination into other lines of farm- ing, and dispose of the scrub hens that lay but 75 eggs a year, and tho 1 cow that gives but little, or poor milk, the unprofitable mongrels of no partic ular breed of stock, then, and not un til then, shall we be on the read 'o a more satisfactory outcome general ly, and soon see loss turned to profit INTENSIVE FARMING Intensive farming means nothing more than concentration of one'r. mind and energies upon a 6mall number jf things. The successful men in every line of endeavor are these who centrate. The scatter-man I? alvivj busy, but has little to show for hi3 efforts. it - - l . --- T- ' "