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NOTES OF THE HOG LOT
Pasture and pure water are the per fection of pig feed for summer Mud holes and wallows hare no place in a hog pasture. Every pig that pons to pasture should have a ring in his nose For summer bedding a few loads if clear white Band is excellent Eliminate cabbage, turnips, etc , e Ctv weeks before butchering lime. Do not let the yards become foul I IH unsanitary Plow them often. Cast-iron troughs are the most san I Itary, although plank will do If kept clean Fiit hogs In a bunch will thrive bet-' ter than a large number Tho perfect mother bunches her brcod in some corner and settles down ' a few feet from them. .rer Belecl a ;, oung boar with a coarse, homely head and expect re sults that will be satisfactory. ben a sow is cross and ugly to two litters in succession, sell her. Prolificacy must not be lost sight of in the general-purpose hog The pig's digestive apparatus must lie developed to its full capacity be fore the fattening period begins Select sires and rams from large litters. Excessive dealt produces a crowding of the internal organs that is detri mental to fecundity The digestive powers of the hogs are the feeder's foundation of success Similarity of breeding stock pro duces offspring of much greater value. Do not compel the pigs to lie in wet, muddy nests over night and never al low them to become chilled Pneumonia is just as likely to oc cur with pigs as with human beings, although the pig is more certain to re cover, however, it is an unfavorable condition and is not wanted Young pigs should have fresh sod thrown into them occasionally if they ; iire not allowed to run out into the large yard. The best thing for young pigs is to get them out on the ground i and in the sunshine It Is almost Im- r possible to secure thrifty young pigs unless they have sunshine, exercise e and a yard to run in The business of breeding pure-bred swine, is a business by itself and 11 should not be undertaken by anyone w ho cannot keep records straight and who is not willing to invest good Money for improved blood The most conservative course is to I elect the breed most popular in your ilcinity and Improve upon the com HOD individuals by the use of im ; roved breeding boars The idea of perfect comfort Bhould predominate in every building that is constructed for hogs As farrowinc time approaches be pure that the old BOW la in a good pen with a strong rail or plank around ibe sides standing QUt some 15 inches Large Stock Tank on Farm of Illinois Farmer. and standing aboul a foot from the floor. Great care should be taken not to overfeed the sow for the first few days The skinful feeder will regulate her feed so that her milk supply will in crease about as fast as the demands of her litter for it increase until at about two weeks of ago they are ta rn n i; imour xu roeir uaui i of giving when on full feed. A large proportion of the growth obtained while the pig is less than Ave months of age costs only a little actual money and to make the business profitable it is essential that we secure the most gain possible dur ing the first f'-w months of the pigs life. When pigs are kept eight months, when fully as good v. eight could have been obtained at six months, the profit is anything but what it should have been. There are good openings for men In the pig business, who will teed city ! swill. It is good material lor pig feed ing, but mut be red with judgment. Before feeding, it should be heated up and fed before it becomes cold In many cases outbreaks of disease come from feeding cold swill CARING FOR AN ORPHAN COLT By W. D. N E ALE. An orphan colt can be raised by hand successfully if a little care is taken It should be fed on cow s milk, but the cow should be fresh if pos sible. Do not feed the milk at its normal strength, but weaken with one third water that is, to two parts milk put one part warm water. The mixture should be sweetened a little with sugar and given when about tho temperature of a mares milk. At the end of two weeks, the quan tity of water may gradually be re 1 ducrd and the amount of milk in I CARE OF HORSES IN HOT WEATHER A creat many horses are laid up 1 again this summer with sore shoulders. This can be remedied in a very large measure with sense and care A good horse collar is the main part f the harness and it should be of the very best kind and fit the animal's neck perfect l The collar should be kept clean at all times and the horses shoulders well washed and brushed daily Much dust and dirt arise in the fields and on the roads at this season and these are caught, and held on the moist and sweaty shoulders and col lar, t he re to form hard lumps and ridges. i:ery time the cellar is put on the horse it should be examined for these lumps and ridges If any found they should be caretully brushed and rubbed away A tier each day's work, especially in warm weather, bathe and clean tho shoulders with a mixture of warm water, salt and soda Hot water is one of the best known natural agents for relieving soreness due to sprains, bruises, and excessive pressure of the animal body. Salt and soda are healing and disinfecting agents. A little alum and tannic acid, the Juice from the bark or leaves of oak or willow trees, will heal and toughen tho skin and should be applied with warm water. Regularity of work counts in every thing, ami especially In th- handling of animal. The horse that is worked regularly acquires strong muscle3 and lough shoulders. Many farmers allow their work horses to remain idle for several days or even weeks at a time, and then Immediately put them into hard serv ice. A horse that has been Idle for sev eral days should be given very light and moderate work for the first day or two so that the muscle and skin will regain their strength and toughness P it a better plan to arrange some work for the horses dally, in this way their bodies never become soft ' and weak, hence they seldom become 111 or Injured and ore always in traiu- I lug for efficient service & ' ' Ascot' Chief, First Prize Three-Year-Old Stallion. I creased until the water Is left off al together. Don't forget to sweeten the milk at all times. Whenever possible the milk should be given immediately after milking It from the cow. If it is desired, a fresh egg may be added three times a day It will be a strengthened- pnd will make the colt's hair sleek and glossy. Tim miolUil f mill 1. 1 ,1 Kn a lie- tjuciiiiT vi iiiiiii. kiwi, -wmuiu urj governed by ones judgment. Some colts require more than others, but be careful not to overfeed, for the colt may get the scours. Until the colt is a month old, it will be necessary to feed it three or four times each day. To teach the colt to drink from a pall is not a very great task Put .your finger In his mouth and lower your hand into the milk He will get a taste of the milk and soon you can slip your finger from his mouth and he w ill proceed without you If he proves obstinate, wrap a gooso quill with a strip of cloth and use it as a nipple mi a bo; tie, or purchase a nipple from the drug store Good care must be taken of the pail from which the colt drinks. It should be scalded each lime it is used. Never use sour or skimmed milk, if you would 8 -end bowel iroubles. Give cler.n water between feeds. Let him run in the ard and soon he will be nipping the green grass After a while he will be eating dry bran from your hand if you put a lit tle sugar in it Soon you will be able to feed him some grain and then your hardest w ork is over HOW TO SWING UP A CARCASS It is easy if you know how Take a good stout, half-Inch rope and fasten the ends to a pole, as shown in the cut, letting the rope hang down like a swing Make a smooth, round stick A 1 A For Swinging a Carca39. six feet long, run it through the lead ers and bring the feet together as they would come naturally. Insert a short stick in the end of the loop and then wind up until the carcass t. wings clear. WORDS OF WISDOM Some of us waste too much time trying to make tools and other things fur use on the farm, when belter aud cheaper ones can bo bought in the open market. The straight and narrow path is not always lined with Uie rno.-t attractive scenery . It is not always tho best-looking horse that covers the greatest num- i-.f milc in a rl ill- PCOple who expect a reward (or kindness are often ombiltered by their failure to receive It Put a real kind ness, one without a string to It. al ways brings Hs own rewnrd. Some men sow thistles and then pray for a good crop. Do you want something to serve as a border or edging'' Try lobelia, candytuft or sweet alyssum From time to time examine the window plants to find if any have be come pot-bound. If so, shift into a pot one or two sizes larger. The world moves, and if a man has the grit to hang on he will be pulled out of many a bad hole The sun always casts Its shadow be hind us as we face It. So does trou ble. It Is just as necessary to repair the weak places in the fence as It is to ylrengthcn the thin spots in the soil. WEEDS FROM AFAR By BELLE P. DRURY. Many of our most troublesome weeds are introduced plants It is a curious fact that the migrations of man have often been traced by a study of such plants The American Indians, it Is said, called plantain the "footsteps of the whites because it followed the Euro pean colonists. It has become natural ized and is remarkable for following civilized man all over the world j The daisy is another weed of culti vation. as is also shepherd's purse, whose wild type has disappeared Purslane is not considered a weed in England, or at least it Is used as a pot herb. Its flowera open only In the morning It is troublesome on account of its prolificacy and rapid maturity It will live and even mature- seed after it Is pulled up It has been estimated that one plant will produce 1,250,000 seed Goosefoot, fennel and the nettle fol low the European wherever he goes. Our common mullein is a noxious weed, which some unknown enemy to the plant doubtless keeps in check, as otherwise Its large number of seedB would spread with greater rapidity. There are several varieties. On ac count of its soft leaves, it is called the "velvet plant ' in England. Why the Canadian thistle is so difficult to kill can be readily un derstood when its structure is considered It Is called the "cursed j thistle" and deserves the name, be cause while other thistles are an- ' nual or biennial, this one has a pe rennial horizontally branching under ground runner, so that when the slen der, perpendicular root is pulled up, this is by no means the end of the plant, for the runner ramifies and sends up Its branches to the surface The only w-ay to kill it is to cut the radical leaves Cattle dislike this weed so much that they will not feed near it. Some farmers are not vigilant as they might he in waging war upon poison Ivy. The task of exterminat ing so thrifty a vine is certalnl) diffi cult, for it clambers over fences, weaves itself into hedges, and from secret places, like an enemy in am bush, sends forth its harmful Influence Its poisonous properties are exhaled in a vapor especially on damp days or dewy mornings The wind seems to bear the poison on its breath, and sim ply to be in the vicinity of the vine is, to some persons, to be inoculated with it. It is fortunate that wherever a pois onous weeds grows, Its antidote Is not far away Near the treacherous Ivy, blooms the virulent nightshade, whose bruised leaves may be used as a remedy In some cases, with good effect , as may bo also the leaves of the common plantain HOME CURING OF HAMS By MRS. W. C. HUTCHINSON. There is no other product of the farm to which the owner points with greater pride than to his abundance of well cured hams, one of the daily essentials for the table, and if the ham i6 well cured and well cooked, we certainly have one of the most appetizing dishes which can be set before us This edible need not be limited to the farmer alone, those of the city may enjoy, equally with him. by pur chasing tho slaughtered hogs, or hams of the butchers, then, using a good method of sugar curing. It Is economy to those In the city, and a profit to the farmer should ho j place his home cured hams on the market; there is always a ready sale, and they bring a much better price lhan the packers meat or the ordi nary enlt ham Should we decide to market our own j ' home-made,'' "sugar-cured" hams, there would be a very great demand for them Each year we are compelled to refuse a number of would-be pur chasers. To all Interested In the sugar-cured method of preparing It, we give the following recipe. For 1 000 pounds of meat, take 40 pounds of common salt, ten pounds of Orleans sugar, four pounds black pepper, three pounds Baltpeter, half pound cayenne popper. Mix thorough ly, then rub one-half of the mixture on the meat, let it lie two weeks, and then rub on the remainder, after which let it lie four weeks, then hang and Btnoke. As soon as the animal heat is out of I ih rnaat annlv first half, carefullv covering skin and flesh side alike, and well over hock bono The extra expense over salted meat is small and 1 think about equal to oth er methods of curing, the amount of la bor required for first application Is very little more than ordinary salting, and for second, requires one, man about one hour If you wi6h to cure smaller quantities, time and labor will be In proportion Do not think the quantity of the preparation too small when mixed, for although It may look so, yet It Is an abundance As this is put on the meat, each ham Is placed separately upon a plat form, there to await the second appli cation, when it Is again placed for the four weeks, after which w hnng and smoke for four days from wood Are, not being partial to hickory wood By this time the meat is firm and dry, and it is wrapped In newspapers, then placed in sacks made of denim, or other strong material and hung in a cool dark place. We have used this recipe for IB years, have never had a ham spoil and have never tasted better hams. ruii Tg 1 gfo ADVANTAGES OF THE SOY BEAN There are some who really think 1 they have discovered something new, when they find out by actual experi ence that "corn and beans" form an almost ideal balanced ration for, not only horses, but all live stock as well Most people think of navy beans, string beans, or lima bpans when the word "beans" is spoken, but this is not the sort we wish to apeak of Soy beans or soys, as they are most commonly called, are not beana at all. It Is well known that the true bean sends up the cotyledons of the seed as the first pair of leaves. Sovs do not have this habit of growth, but ! like peas, send up a pair of seed leaves In reality soy bean is a pea. The pea and the bean, however, are both members of that splendid family of plants known as legumes and as such, when given the right conditions, secure their supply of nitrogen large ly from the air This is a second rea son why you ought to try a patch this year. The soy bean is a native of Asia, but unlike most of the Asiatics, it is not only admitted to the United States, but is welcomed as well This bean (pea) is a Btrong-grow Ing, erect, an nual plant It grows anywhere from two to four feet tall, is of varying shades of green, but is Invariably cov ered with rusty hairs, both on the stem and leave? The leaves are borne in sets of three and the leaflets are large, thin, and broadly ovate In shape The flowers and beans are borne in the axils of the leaves from ground to top of the plant The ripened pods, after the leaves have fallen, appear In clus ters all along the main stem. In shape this erect-growing plant with numer ous brancnes, resembles a miniature tree. Soys are adapted to a wider range of soils than even red eloer They do well on loam, on light clay 6, on any mixture of these, on sandy soils, and on heavy clay The soil of the corn belt of Illinois, is particularly suited to their production, since they yield both an abundance of foliage (and therefore are excellent for hay when ; so desired!, and also an abundance of i seed This plant seems to adapt it- i ! self not only to various soils but to seasons as well. It seems to thrive I remarkably well n a droughty sea son, when other plants suffer for want of moisture, and yet, In a wet season neither growth nor production Is petarded. Soys are not difflcult to harvest Anyone who has had experience with the cow or ( anada pea, knows how difficult it is to handle those vinlng plants This difficulty is not expe rienced with soys, since they may be harvested with the regular grain bind er and shocked not unlike wheat or oats The only caution to observe is ; to bind them into smaller bundles and I shock them in smaller shocks. After shocking they will stand a very large amount of bad weather and be uninjured We have found that the use of the binder is the eas iest, quickest and best way to han dle this crop even a hen cut for hay LAMBS IN THE CORNFIELD By Mi A. COVERDELL. While both the older sheep and the lambfl may be turned into the corn field after the corn reaches a stage at which the lower blades begin to wither, It is well to keep a close watch j of the larger animals, to see that they do not get to nibbling the husks from the low -hanging ears This is not apt to occur until all tho lower blades of the corn have Herdwick Ram. been eaten ofT, and in that case the lambs may be allowed to run in the field till they are sold, or brought In for winter shelter Where, one has lamDs to turn inco the cornfield they will not only make use of the blades of corn which are usually wasted, but they will keep down the weeds that are invariably springing up after corn plowing Is over, thus seeding the field to the pest for the following season. The manure dropped by the lambs will also be scattered around over the fields, thereby fertilizing the laud with out the usual time and labor expended in hauling and spreading the manure. Another advantage in pasturing the cornfield after cultivation is ended is that it will be much easier to get through the corn at gathering time, and the ears will be the more exposed to view Make a cheesecloth mat of two thicknesses of the material, and after cleaning the ice box out. before plac ing the blocks therein, lay the mat carefully over the drain pipes and it will collect all matter that would oth erwise clog the water pipe Garlic, leeks and olives stimulate the circulation of the blood. - A Cluster of Pole Lima Beans. Most People Think of Navy, String, or LI- ma Beans, When the Word "Beans" Is Spoken. Soys have a feeding value that Is exceedingly high Henry, in Feeds and Feeding, in a comparison of soy hay and clover shows that "beans" are actually richer feed than clover and j that they are excelled only by alfalfa Clover hay contains 6.8 per cent pro tein, 36 8 per cent carbob drates and 1.7 per cent (at per 100 pounds dry mptter Alfalfa contains 11 per cent , protein, 39 6 per cent carbohydrates, I and 1 2 per cent fat, while soy hay has 10.8 per cent protein, 38 6 per cent carbohydrates and 1 1 per cent fat per 100 pounds dry matter Comparing the grain from soys with the grain usually fed for concentrates, and again we find them of high value. Bran contains 12 2 per cent protein, 2 per cent carbohydrates and 2 7 per cent fat; linseed meal has 29 3 per cent protein, 37.7 per cent carbohy drates and 14.4 per cent fat per 100 oounds drv matter. W hat better feed, either as hay or grain, could one want? The yield of grain of soys varies with the variety planted The Illinois experiment station has found that ' yields as high as SO bushels per acre ma be produced However, the av erage yield of the medium maturing j sorts will be more nearly 25 than 50. : Soys possess many adantages over, ! any of the legumes commonly grown Among the advantages may be men tioned They are erect growers with out runners, therefore, do not tnnple The seed may be harvested by machin ery, and threshed with the ordinary thresher They ar1 heavy yleldera. ' The grain is highly nitrogenous and therefore very valuable for feeding I purposes; they may be pastured by either hogs, horses or cattle and will furnish both grain and forage when so pastured Ah a supplemental feed to corn, they are a grain that com- j bines well to balance the ration and take place of expensive concentrates. They can be easily raised in any part of Illinois, are not difficult to handle. 1 provide a greater variety of feed, and m are relished by cattle, horses, hogs, I sheep and poultry, and furnish to all Ll classes of live stock in a cheap way, 1 the moBt expensive of our feeds C I M. S. J BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG I What are you striving foranyway J to live rich or to die rich? Better 1 think it over a little and see If you I are on the right road. God never I means a man to send $10 to the hea- 8 then and then begrudge his wife 10 I cents for a scrap of lace. Pretty poor sort of Christian, that If the boy has I a hobby, let him ride it. If you lead It for him, it won't be so likely to run away with him. Get the children a I few bright books, the readable sort on I botany, geology, zoology and astron- 1 oray, "nature study'" books (avoiding I the big works ) It will make the world J seem like a bigger, brighter place to I ! live In, not only for the children but 1 for yourself, for you can't help reading to' them if they are left lying around i handy m DON'T CROWD THE CHICKS I If chickens are allowed to crowd fi into bunches in close houses, these hot nights, they will easily catch cold when a damp day comes. Why not move the roosts out into the scratch' '1 I ing sheds'' f Government statistics tell UB that 1 next to the apple, the strawberry is the most uDiversaJl grown fruit in this country, and that the amount of annual revenue received from the j strawberry crop Is second only to that received from the apple crop 1 THE PLACE FOR SHEEP ON THE FARM 1 By ELMER HENDERSON. Every farm in the corn belt, wheth er large or small. Bhould maintain a few 6heep. They are docile, clean and easily handled. Compared with the cost of main taining other stock, the up-keep of maintaining a small flock is quite small They do best upon a grass diet, with a little grain in addition The profit comes, not from keeping them as a main issue, but from a few head Of well-bred, well-fed ewes kept to j clean up the fence corners, kep down the lawns, graze on the hillsides, and ' other kindred places Tho keep of a flock managed this way, Is practically nothing, for what they eat would otherwise go to waste A flock of 10 or If. sheep, so man aged, will yield a very handsome in come. Fifteen ewes can easily be de- ' peuded upon to raise 20 lamb9 which at even tho low price offered by the country buyer, will bring about $100. I The wool from the 15 ewes 6hould I amount to 150 pounds, worth from 20 II to 30 cents the pound, say from 10 I to 35 dollars, or a net Income of about $135 a very neat little eum, when it Is considered that It reprsents prac- ' j I ticnlly a clear gain Of course the greatest profit comes to the man who, instead of keeping ' J the ordinary grade sheep, has a flock 1 1 of high clas" pure-breds. The outlay on these need be no more than that for the ordinary grades. However, by handling them carefully a much greater income may be secured Ten ram lambs to sell each fall would bring anywhere from $15 to $30 each It Is best to keep the choice of the ewe lambs to re- J plenish the flock Tho rest could be sold to supply the pure breed trade, together with those of '.he maruro ewes that for some reason or other are takon from the reserve flock j FIHm in t ' tAmel 0f hire Ewe Lamb at the New York State Fair.