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B THE STANDARD MAGAZINE SECTION QGDEN, UTAfl, AUGUST - C' I' High Cost ot Gunpowder and Its Growing . 4 Uselessness Against Modern Armor Plate, SHML. I Hi The cowing cost of war Is rorc- H tng Inventors to discover cheaper Hj ihethoda or fighting. Gunpowder is too expansive. The deadly lethal H, is to lake Its place in the future, Judging from present indications. In place of the giant guns which Hj fire away thousands of dollars minute, the cheaper lethal will be discharged from suns like those ti.-od by Mahomet when he captured Constantinople In 1453, History Is vague concerning; the terrible lire Mahomet turned loose on the capital of the Greece of the Middle Agea Ali that is known Is that the Mofitm hordes burned the elcaguered citizens in their homes They shot the cross from the roof or the Church of St. Sophia and when they rode up (he streets of the city of Constantino the Great they nnnihllated the soldiers of the cross wh dared stand in their ivni. Greek lire used to combat them was of no avail, it was little mom effective than a skyrocket of the present time would be, Fired from hand grenades and from catapults the ammunition of the Moslems Withered the guardians of the clY ilization of the Hast and conquered the only protection (or the mar chants of Genoa attempting tQ gain a to Since that lime war has under Rone remarkable changes. It has ((rown nfore costly all the time and has become more closely organized. The man without money is jtist ad good a tighter as the man with money because the government criuips him. It costs more than a million dollars a day to" maintain en a small navy In time of war. should ;, battleship go into action It would shoot away more than million dollars' worth of ammuni t ion in le than an hour Flying machines are adding to the cost of Now comes lethal to solve the problem. Experiments, made in England show that lethaj bombs thrown by hand ure more deadly than gun powder bombs. They c. plode without great precusslon and onsequeotlj do not bury them-"".-Ives deep in the soil before ex plodlng None of the force Is lost. They an be discharged with hand grenade. riHe Kicnades or With the catapults Mahomet used, and still be more effective than the weapons Uncle Sam came, in era n.'B Armor has no effect against the onslaughts of lethal bombs Ai mor has become more and nmrn expensive since tin days of the uai- v j lle r lhe Monitor anu Uerrima in In sriite of this expensive armor however. It is ineffective agalnM .yJi ,h" Onslaught of gunpowder, A ni w and deadlier weapon is needed and the lethal bombs supplies the need. War has ceased to be the occupa- 5gK tion "r 'he highly hero;. formerly w- BWore lh- dawn of lhe age KjjMl "f gunpowder the knights rushed to !uttle where they fought gal- Egv9 lantly auainst ea. h other hand to gti harid- ThaI kind or fighting look HfgjB nervfc Toda we lire si the enemy Seal :,ri' r measuring his location with BpHBI mathematical accuracy; Present day ways of fighting hai. don awaj with the oj style close ror BS9 matldn Of armies We hare had to H scatter out. M; When lethal is perfected w will ha.e to scatter out still more Hal MtMoi: u,r, B I7SEX.ESS jPBM roo EXPENSIVE. Armor will be iumJoss and a-o oo expensive. a battleship ran H M-M"' an8t this wonderful n-rent. Men will have to St.a,le,. BIB '"it more than ever and if they are IfQU '" Protected with armor or breastworks, the breastworks will H nae to be constructed on such they will cdSI so much HH 11,0 nations cannot afford them. BBB Hand to hand fighting .vjll return HHl Again we hear of H dividual heroism, so rare in the'" lays of fighting. An army of men BHl barging In irh elo.se forma tin;; H will be wiped out lethal H her- John Paul Jones, the first H Amerlran Admiral, scoured the H ' 1 be 'ii-t ships with their decks UHJ ov'cred With men. A different sight H pcots the ee a? sea now. In time H f battle or even In tipie of target ira,ctlce the battleship seems ' H trangolv deserted and bare, for its fl decks are denuded of mf-n. while BH ill rails and other upstanding ln- HK ?t)itibranccs have been laid Hat on H 'I be gun turrets, five of them, are H trained around with the long, lean BBBBsi , " muzzles ot tr..-ir twin weapons pointing out over the sea. and every now and then one of the guns twitches ever so slightly or a fur ret revolves a little, as the gunlay-m- keej) their sights aligned on the distant target The ten bi- rifles the ship car ries are powerful weaj.ons. Pach one of them is over fifty feet long and weighs close on eighty tone, while Iholr liSou-pound shells .an be hurled to a distance nf over 1 1 f - teen mile.. The enormous proje' -tiles, too. leaA'Q. th" mn.bs at the rate of 1.800 miles an hour, ami can penetrate the thlokeat armor .itfoat at a range of five thousand yards. Hut now as the ship moves on through th w.iier with tt sharp bow sending up two little oascados of spray on either side of tlv stem it look- like a great mastodon un controlled by man. There are no aijens of life on hoard nothing ex cept th.- twitching gnu turrets ami the black smoke rolling from the .iuai funnelai which tells or the men laboring below. But every man on board Is a) the station he would occupy in action, and before lonj; the uproar ol lhe guns will have begun. In the conning tower, with Its 12-Inch armor, stands the aptain. his navigating Officer, a Junior of ficer or two, and several other men. The small, circular erection, bire ly ten feet in dl.imat' i. icarnt i i y cramped for all It has to contain. Above lhe conning lower Is an other armored ere tion. containing a range finder, ami inside this Is the gnnnerv lieutenant. with half a t)OZen more nlfi. i is ahd men. He Is surrounded by strange looking In struments, while the man at the range Under, with his eyes at lis rubber eyepieces, is monotonously hanting out the distance the ap proaching target. TAm.PT LOOKS SMM.I, IX THE DISTANT E, To the naked eye the target it self a great, lattice work struc ture, towed by another battleship looks ahsourdly small and insig nificant at its six-mile range. Rut the gunlayers In the turrets are provided with telescopic sights, and these, with their powerful lenses, serve to counteract the difficulty Inside the turrets themselves the expectant men are grouped round their guns. The great projectiles ami the . orditc i barges behind them have already been pushed home by the hydraulic rammers, and, since their weapons are thus fully load i 'I the un's erews are idle for the time being. Rut the gunlayers the men who 8 i" and lue the guns and the trainers those who keep them pointing In the right direction are anxiously keeping the sights on the target; ahd every now and then, as they move their small brass handles, there is a wheezing of machinery, and the great breeches rise and fall ever so slightly, while the whole ar mored structure containing them revolves an Inch or so at a time to kei i t he sights on. minute or tWO later, after nn order has come from the control )" sitloh, the lieutenant in charge of the foremost turret suddenly raps out the order. '"Rrlng both guns to the reads !" The men standing by the breeches Hick over their small levers, "night gun ready! Left gun ready!" they report in rapid succession. The range, meanwhile is decreas ing rapldlj and about ten seconds later there cornea the strident rat ii ng of an elei trie bell. It is the signal to open fire The gunlayer holds his breath, sees the cross wires of his telescope cutting the lattice work of the target and then presses an innocent looking brass thumbplece. As he does so, . there is a roar, and with a bla7e of orange flame and a pall of brow n smoke, a projectile weighing more than half a ton Is sailing through the air on Its wav towards the target Outside the turret the concussion Is terrible, but Inside It Is barely felt and the only means the gun's crew has of knowing I heir weapon has gone off is by the rocking of the turret and the recoil of the gun. The men, meanwhile, are work ing like demons. Someone, by moving a small lever has opened the breach. A cloud of acrid cor dite smoke (Ills the turret; but an other man, turning a tap. sends a Jet of water spouting into the chamher to extinguish any still burning fragments. Rverythlng seems chaos. but everyone knows what to do thov have done it time after time, and In less than thirty seconds we hear a Sharp order: 'Right gun load"' A man moves an upright lever, and a miniature lift climbs Into view through the floor. It has come "l from the shellroom below laden with the new barge and projectile, and stops dead in the rear of the gun. Reposing In a tray Is tin shot It self. Another lever Is worked, and a flexible chain hydraulic rammer, looking like a snake darts out of Its resting place and pushes the shot before it Into the breech of the gun. It Is drlvt-n home with a dull thud. The rammer Is withdrawn. I --yr yr - Mwsssi -1 pijsw3 - - another handle is pujjed, and two tam cylinder, of Cq "Ite fall info the tray Just V;l. ' '" Projectile. They, too are rammed home, and, before we weapon Is ready for firing. In the lire control position tne gnnnery lieutenant has seen o target, and promptly whispers on order , o a man a, hi, side, ThelaT tet moves a small h..ji thirty iecohdsterre UPPER left An Ameii can marine at Vera Cruz fighting snipers. Up per ri,e;ht One of our dreadnaughts. Center The fleet we have to maintain for 'fuel only. Below The effect of lethal weapons, showing the effectiveness ol. jj hand grenades, rifle gren ades and howitzer grenades. Drawings show some of the old-fashioned weapons of the days of Mahomet. another discharge. In about ten minutes It is all over. and the ship Is approaching the target to see the rer.ult of Its shoot ing. The structure Is badly bat tered, but most of 'he lai'.ice work I- still standing, and Is riddle i with holes. The captain and gunnery lieuten ant are both on the bridge with telescopes to their eyest "Very good shooting:" murmurs the former. "Not so bad, sir, ' agrees his junior Oil From Tomato SoedL Government experts who arc in terested in agricultural by-products and the utilization of waste are fol lowing closely reports which come to this conntr;. of the new tomato seed oil industry Which Is growing up In Italy. Experts of the Depart ment of Agriculture believe that process will soon be Introduced sue-. issfully in this i ountry. The making of oil from tomato seeds Is comparatively a new indus try In Italy, and was started at Parma In 1910 The seeds "are tak , en from the tomato refuse from rat- sup and canning factories, and ths ..ii extracted from the seeds is used extensively in tho manufacture of soap. The Italians are now con ducting experiments looking to the manufacture of an edible oil from the crude- tomato seed oil. and hls oil. it is expected, will become a cheap substitute for olive oil in the preparation of food. The tomato seed oil industry was BUC c!-sful in Italy from the first yeajrk and at the present time be tween 6.000 and S.000 tons of wet tomato refuse are worked out id the industry In this way each eyar. It i estimated that the 8.000 tonJs of wet tomato refuse will yield ap proximately L',400 tons of dried resi due, which In turn, yields 2 4 0 tons, or nearly 65,000 gallons, of tomato seed oil. Besides the oil yielded from 8.000 tons of tomato refuse, it is estimated that 1.300 tons of oil cake Is produced as a by-product, and this has taken an important place as a stock food In Italy. There about about S00 tons of toniato peel in each 8.000 Ions of wet refuse front canning factories. and al though no particular use has been found for the peel up to the pres- gU enl lime, the Italians are making & xperlmenta with the object of find- ! Ing out Its value as a fertilizer. The establishment of the tomato seed oil Industry in Italy has given nn added source of Income to the tomato preserving and catsup fac tories from the sales of the refuse material which was formerly thrown away The seeds from the tomato preserving factories sell for slightly more than 14 cents per 100 pounds, and the wet refuse just as it comes from the factory sells from 4 Ji. to B cents per 100 pounds. It is nee easary to collect the wet refu dally, as it ferments within fort" eight hours If allowed to stand Al though it will always be Impossible to produce large enough quantity of tomato seed oil to make it rlvil therthe ..live oil or cottons ed n$ experts of the Department of w, culture bMleve that the TndurtryvS yield product which win k 7 rjady market at air UmZ nd"lfl BTlve to the tomato producW tJl e-ts and manufact Jiei wit OWC of income from a " 71 by-product,