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I THE STANDARD MAGAZINE SECTIONOGDEN, UTAH, v jj
H D nii - "" i ' i " ""M" , ! Fl H ft -'J F A war with Germany should H H be oponcd, as It not lmprob- M s 1 ahy wl,, by a confilct bo H J tween Bomo Gorman subma- H rlno, torpedo-boat destrover H or light cruiser and ono of H r- . our own torpedo craft, don't H f make the mistake of rofor- H ring to "fleet" of torpedo dostrovors. H Thero is no such thing thore can only be H a "flotilla" of torpedo vessels of any kind. M General Order No 21S. Issued by the Navy H Dopartmcnt on June 5. 1916, took this point Into H consideration In the effort to avoid aonfusloiv H In any conflict that may arise. H War reports from Europe frequently contain j ! terms that make them appear laughable to the H follower of naval tactics. On account, how- H ever, of the possibility of such reports making H confusion the nav has Issued a special order H requiring certain terms to be used in defining Hj any division or class of our ships H It was announced that the naval forcos of Hj the United States should bo organized under H certa'n definitions, and that they should bo Hj referred to accordingly. H Of course, the first torn taken was that of H the "fleet " A fleet Is an organized body of H ships under the control of a commander In H chief. A "force" Is the major subdivision of a H fleet. It Is usually composed of all the ves- H Eels of the fleet that are of the same type or fl class and assigned to the samo duty.So It H would be proper to refer to the "cruiser force H a H A "squadron" Is the "major division" of a B force of vessels other than torpedo vessels, for torpedo craft can only work under ths term of j Hl ' fiotHla,' unless they are operating Indlvld- H usllj A "division," , however, can bo made H of either a "squadron" or a "llotilla." A sec- H tlon Is one-half of a "division " "Aked hy EDWARD B.lTERVORTH r . -- : : r ?, ----- " ' ' r"Tl Vv'-rWrf I 11 i &SWl bbbbbbbH tela ni yi , iu&E . v iU vSa BBBBBB f.fffrffiIjjnTrfiZiS'nii vi?' Ajtr H The Navy Department went farther and or- H panised a scheme by which a working order H of allotment of easels could be made In case H of war- Xt was planned that normally there H bhall be two ships in each section of battle- H fenips, battle cruisers and armored cruisers, and H l,mt normally 'thore shall be three ships in oth- BBl ' ' 1 Tleet in Three Farts. Hj This, of course, refers largcl to destroy- Hl crfI- torpedo boats and light cruisers, and it H is ordered there shall be three "dUIslons" in Hl II waa albc. decided that normally there shall H be three ' divisions" in each "squadron" of Bl esMs other than our capital ships. The 1 number of "squadrons" or "flotillas" In a force HJ s not' limited B In order to set all doubts at rest, our fleet Hl i has been divided into throe parts like Gaul !as divided In the daa of Caesar. "We have the United States Atlantic fleet, the United States Pacific fleet and the United f- rates Asiatic HocL TorceB of the fleet are tj be named as follows. "Battleship force, ' ' scout force," "cruiser force," "destroyer force," "submarine force." "mine force" and Hg 'train" this last title having a special sig- B) niflcance, as it relates to the, supply force of Hl tllc navl anU corresponds, In a distant sort of B a, to the "waon train" of tho arm. H This classification is one of the little technical H j points that has to bo remembered by eery H l seaman, and has to be learned in a recruit H j camp before a mar. Is sent aboird ship Onl H recently a well-known actor, with the best In- H tcntiong in the world, came before tho foot H lights in response to a curtain call and mads H an ardent plea, for aid to the country in its I Ho meant well, but unfortunately his audi ence contained a large sprinkling of .ca'.alry. men. When he referred to raising a "battalion H of cavalry'i-an audlblo.enicker-paoaed arounA B.B11H the theater and the applause was mingled with lauchter There lr no such thing as a "battalion of caalr." Had be referred to the quostlon of raising a "squadron of cavalrj" and suggested that foui troops bo raised to compose such a "squadron" he would have been greeted with the warmest applause. This point Is of some Importance, as late de velopments make it appear as If the first attack on this country maj come from across tno Mexi can border, especially If the German element has been successful in stirring up trouble as it has been in other sections of the world It is announced that the Naal Department shall assign vessels tp fleets, forces, squadrons, flotillas and divisions. The reBorve forces, howover, are to bo named. It will bo recalled that many of our older bat tleships are held in reserve as a "second lino of defense." At one time, when tho Kronprlnx Wilholm, tho commerce raider, entered Norfolk harbor in tho summer of 1015, It was doclded that a battleship from the reeorve fleets at Philadelphia should be sont thore. . Alabama Plays Her Part. Secretary Josephus Daniels ordered tho battle ship Alabama, then In resorvo at Philadelphia, to move down to Norfolk. The Alabama ful filled her part admirably. She came down to the entrance of Chesapeake Bay. passerl be tween tho two British cruisers that were guard ing th entrance to one of our greatest harbors, and stood guard. The British cruisers dipped their flags as the Alabama pabscd Into the harbor and tho American Hag was courteously lo Acred In return. At the samo time, It was noticed that tho Alabama had oomc of the best gunners of tho niy aboard. She had tho old type of 13-inch guns in her main turrets, but also carrltd in array of modem 0-lnch guns. She could easily have dofcated tho t-o BrltlBh crulBorn on guaid outuldo the entrance to Chesapeake Ba. The Alabama was holdoff Hampton Boaflo jfor a time and there was no Indication that cither the Interned Gorman vessols for the Prlnz EiUl Frledrlch had been Interned a short time be foreor the British cruisers had the slightest disposition to tamper with her The Al tbama hah plaj cd her part already The Koarsaigo, her sister ship, was laid down at the samo time during the Spanlsh-Amoi lean war. It will bo recalled that tho noted battle of tho older Alabama and the original Kcar sargo oft tho coast of Franco was between vessels which ropiescntcd conflicting interest during the civil war das It was a graceful act of Congress to name tho two battleships laid down in Spanish-American war troubloua times after tho two former battlers of civil war days . Tho Kearsarge, ono ot-tho famoua fighting BBBnT- 'SiilU "'' '" r " ' vessels of tho United Slates navy In the civil war das, had Its name porpetuatcd when tho original vessol fought tho battle with the Ala bama. Tho later vessel, howover, on account of Its largo coaling capacity. 13 being used aa a cruiser and acompinlcs tho cruiser squadron Although Its speed is not what It should be, the old battleship keeps up Its standing remark ably well Ono point that is of interest to those who belong to shipB not in tho olassilled lists may be mentioned In paragraph No 9 of general order 218 it says thero 'Tleots made up of vessels not suitable for tactical grouping may he organized so as best to meet their special situation." This may affect our own vessel, Huntress, so long used for 'a naval training ship.. It Is qulia possible sho will bo used bb a patrol vossel, and, In spite of hor slow speed, sho may be useful In the Guir of Mexico, whero it socms possible sho will bo sent. England's Reply to Kiel Canal Ono word frequently used in connection with our battleships Is tho term "dreadnaught." In reality, the droadnaught typo of ship is a dis tinct pattern of vessel, and such ships ng our Pennsylvania, New York and Texas are known as "supordroadnaughts" because they are of a moro pew erf ul typo Our older battleship such aa tho Connecticut, Vermont, Louisiana Rhode Island and Now Hampshire, arc all pre dreadnaughts The "dreadnaughf'-the original vessel from which tho term .was orawn-is said, Jo hav 1 The top photograph shows United States battleships in line. They are ready for torpedo practice. Most ves sels illustrated are of our older type, but they are still effective for coast defense. The middle picture shows Troops F and H of the Fourteenth Cavalry about L to break camp in Mexico. This regi ment is under command of Ool. Sibley, whose father was the well-known In dian fighter during the civil war period and who invented the Sibley tent, now in universal service throughout the , War Department. The Fourteenth Cavalry has done magnificent service on border duty. fg The bottom picture shows a typical if "Sibley" tent, used by American border guards, looking across the Rio I Grande at Laredo. been Ei gland's answer to the completion of j- the Kiel CanaL Germany was boasting thit It could control both the North Sea and the Balllo b means of this canal. England promptly constructed what was then the most powerful fighting ship afloat and named it the Dreadnaught. Shipfl of this sl&e could easily d of eat the older pattorn vessels capable of going through the Kloi Canal The Germans Immediate y widened tho canal to accommodate larger ves- I. solo, but England had quite a start on them I in bulldlnc such vessels . The Droadnaught of the British navy today is not nearly as poworful as tho huge fighting ships of many other navies a striking example of how naval construction has progressed, for her keol was laid In 190S and she was In com mission In the latter part of 1908. She is armed with ten 12-inch g-uns and twenty-four ' 12-pounders This battery is another indication of how rapid has been the change In armament Our cwn two pioneer ships of the typ the Michl- gan and the South Carolinn w ere also laid -T down in 1906, and wore launched about 1"09 t They carrv eight 12-Inch rifles and a secondary j battery of twenty-two 3-inch rapld-flro guns , ,j Today both snips are regarded as "second line" ships, simply because the rango of tho torpedo has Increased so enormously in tei 3 ears that the 3-lnch secondary battery Is no i longer thought sufllclcnt to protect a ship of ; the "first line." whore tho brunt of attack must t t borne, from tho assaults of torpedo-boat J deatrovere It takes at least a 6-inch gun to 1 got the proper range and deliver the ncces- I i! sary smashing power to boats of tho type, ' t many of which exceed 1100 tons in burden. 3 These destroyers thomsolves carrv 4 and 5 $ inch guns, and a favorite trick In the European - $ war-notably In the battle of tho Skaggerack- , 3 has been to fire shells containing a portion of back povder in addition to the heavv charge of smokeless powder a shell loaded with black J: t powder, exploding near an enomy vossel causes j Cj a heavy cloud of white smoke Under this I i,i screen a destroyer can mako Its attack, witn I Ui probably better chances of success. . I Tl . . 'f How to Talk Like a Sailor. f Wnen wo refer to tho Springflold rlllo. car- J: rled by our soldiers In army and marine corps. ? o speak of n as bolng of "30 caliber." In f ft? referring to tho larger guns aboard a shlo. $ T?w th0 proper torm to Uao Js "t0-" To v Mv sa that a 12-lnch gun was of 50 calibers would M ?ph thft8Uch a n was DO feet long Tho fife J?tWeon th0 damter of tho bore and It the length of the gun is known as tho "caliber' E$ in navnl circles. ; j wi nhT0 bG a stJUQd"n of vessels and thore I S nliHnSl, !.a dron of cavalry. Just who s A uncertain But our present form of regi- 2 100 L? d0V0lPcrt y Napoleon more than f! 3 cavaWf' Th0r6 arG thro squadrons of I & reJiri?', t'T troop ch n an American f B In Napoleon's day there were sis of T Sn two troops each. g J Napoleon waa tho first man to arm his car- di?B wh a Wh10' lth carbines. In thoae gS trar rhtrrer a? prval,ed-it was cur l tlon of nm e troPsand storm a posl- f . er of mllery.at tho cot terrific slaugh- S hav?n thor"8hly was this Idea of '.A1 mSSL ? .ChUrSe "en ma3" lmbuod ln th0 - 4 S havli; n that C0U,d ha en effected olonn r8 hem harge ,n Bk,IBh rormatloa. jl wen, lwl neceB8ary when the onemy-s lines jftjg if"