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' Short Sketch of the Early Military Career of Our ' 'j I Fir Martyred President His Trials As Chief : v Executive During the Civil War. f'.'1 "t I . . - - Copyright, 191S, Tho International Syndicate. ; HIS MjVT NOT bo an Inappro- ' , ! M prlatc tlmo to look back upon . j ' ft somo of the great men of our 1 li i fc country -who have been In au- I I T j . thorlty when -wo -were at war. Lincoln , -was President of the United States at ,j ' j t a crucial period In our history ttnd j' ' If whilst essentially a man of peaco, he ', believed In war when necessary to ft' y i vindicate the right or to defend some b i I 1 principle vital to the wclfaro of the p 1 1 people. This Is, perhaps, with few I ,f exceptions, truo of tho biff men of 1 , ' !f modern times. j ft Lincoln had been schooled in tho i 'i bitter experiences of frontier life, !' . where courage and sacrifice were nec- j' ' essary to success, and whero thcro I 1 i was no compromise with tho forces f " that tend to wrong and Injustice. He 'i ,, was an advocato of peaceful methods but leaped Into tta fray when duty called, no matter what tho conse- 1! ' quences were or whero tho struggle might lead. Ho buckled on his armor when his conviction told him that fight was the only way to success. Blnck Hawk War. This was truo In his early llfo as well as In his moro maturo years, for when a young man of twenty-threo years ho was chosen a captain of vol unteers In tho Black Hawk "War, when Black Hawk, tho celebrated chief of tho Sac Indians, repudiated his treaty with tho white men and precipitated a war. Ho know nothing of military tactics and knew few of tho commands. In later years ho recalled his blunders with moro or less amusement. Ono of these, which ho was particularly fond of relating, was how ho got his company through a gateway. They woro marching four abreast and on approaching a gatoway Lincoln did not remember tho proper command for slnglo flic. "I knew they had to go through," ho said, "so when they neared the gato 1 shouted, tho company Is dismissed for two minutes when It will fall In again on tho othor side of the gate." Several times ho was pun ished for tho Infringement of military rules, and was onco mado to wear a wooden sword for two days, but this did not lessen tho respect tho men held for their captain. They wero proud of his wit, his learning and his strength, for ho was tho best wrestler In tho army apd they romalned his friends In after llfo. His campaign lasted thrco months with tho ordinary hardships, but his men never had an opportunity to show their prowess on the battlefield. In speaklngi of tho campaign Lincoln said, "I never had a chanco to fight an Indian, but I had a great many struggles with mosquitoes and lost much blood. I was often very hungry. Theso woro my great est hardships In tho Black Hawk War." At tho end of their term of sorvico his -company wero mustered out after which Lincoln re-enlisted as a private and served sevoral months in tho ranks. Black Hawk and his warriors woro captured and tho war came to an end. Against Slavery. Early In llfo ho becamo an enemy to slavery. On sevoral occasions he had "taken flat boats to Now Orleans and whllo In tho South ho had seen cruel overseers ill-treating tho helpless blacks and ho made up his mind to fight for tho abolition of slavery wnercvor wuuuovcr it was pos sible. Ho hold various positions In his early llfo and studied law at night. His honesty, truthfulness and extreme sense of justice won him friends who gavo him tho sobriquet of "honest Abo" a namo which clung to him all through his life, Ho was finally ad mitted to the bar and shortly after ward elected as a member of tho Illinois Legislature. Ho rose rapidly In his chosen pro fession and also took an active part in politics, never losing an opportun ity to fight against slavery. Finally In 1860 he was elected to tho highest ofllco In tho gift of tho people. In his inaugural address of March 4, 1SG1, ho mado his position clear by denying the right of any Stato or number of States to go out of tho Union. Al ready the war clouds wero gathering for many of the Southern States re garded his address as a practical dec laration of war. Less than six weeks afterward tho storm broke, when Gen eral Beauregard, on behalf of tho Con federate Government, fired on Port Sumter In tho Charleston Harbor and forced tho surrender of tho garrison at that point Tho crucial period of our nation was at hand and no ono knew this better than tho President. Lack of men and political bickerings caused tho President great anxiety. Both General Scott and General Sherman declared that tho war would be long and tedious and they urged tho open ing of training camps at onco for tho volunteers. Tho generals laid plans for tho campaign, but when the peo plo learned of their plans they wero howled down with dorision. Tho comic papers cartooned General Scott and his plans and In the samo breath de manded that the Federal forces got into tho fight. President Lincoln yielded to the cry of tho peoplo and tho battle of Bull Hun was fought and iosc ior ino union rorces. Troubles With Cabinet. His Cabinet was divided and there woro many discussions. General Scott was old, feeble in body and Irritable. Ho did not want to retire and while tho President had tho greatest respect for the old man's military ability he felt that the veteran warrior was In no condition to cope with tho situa tion which was confronting tho na tion. General Scott, howovcr, refused to retlro until ho was fairly driven from his post by McClellan. Tho bat tlo of Bull Run weighed heavily on tho President's mind, because ho knew that It had been fought to please tho politicians against tho judgment of General Scott, who declared that the Union army was unprepared. Hun dreds of men had been killed and wounded and all through a blunder. Military Knowledge. Lincoln, in tho meantime, spent many sleepless nights going over re ports and studying maps and tho po sitions of tho various regiments. "Many times," ono historian writes, "He had toy soldiers and moved them about as though thoy were real men." His talent in military affairs was re markablo and his correspondence with his generals roveals his ability as a military strategist. Although his ad vice was spurned by both General Bucll and General Hallcck they wero compelled to acknowledge that In the tlmo of a crisis they found him re sourceful and In emergencies prompt and clear-sighted. Military men of today are of tho opinion that had his advlco been followed somo of tho dis asters which befell tho Federal forces might havo been averted. Hon did not respond to tho call to arms 'as they should havo dono and had to bo drafted fn ordor to ralso tho number of soldiers required. Slackers existed f.n oo mv An tnrlnv and Tn?itlpn! influcnco was used to exompt men. Then, too, tho substitute system was in voguo by which mon who had money might pay somo other man to tako their places. Lincoln greatly de plored this lack of patriotism, but was powerless to prevent It, Parents wero continually coming to him with sad stories In reforenco to their sons and as ho was of a deeply sympathetic na turo theso stories affected him greatly. Absolutely Fearless. "4 Ho did not know the moaning of fear and insisted on riding to his sum mer cottago at the soldiers' home alone, although Washington was at that timo filled with spies and enemies of tho Union forces. His favorite hours for visiting the War Department were between eleven and twelve o'clock at night. An escort of four soldiers was appointed to see him back and forth. Ho used to talk with these mon during tho walk and frequently tell them little anecdotes of his early life. Ho always had tho greatest considera tion for the comfort of his fellowman and one rainy night when ho' started for the War Department ho begged his escort not to accompany him. "Don't come out In this storm." he said, "I have an umbrella and can got along very well." Ono of th,-, ! declared that they must accami a I r him as they dared nof d&? I flora. The President know 55? f rotary Stanton was a stickler on? ' dors and a man of violent temper ' ho replied. "Come along then f0 ' ! Mr. Stanton should learn that you I mo go out alono ho would haw -2 i court-martialed and shot ' twenty-four honrs," Patient And Cool. 1 1 Throughout tho entire war Llnceh ' displayed remarkable patience jm ' f never appeared disconcerted tho hot-headed members of hb Cab! ' ' Inot began to wranslo ho i ' SS35n? SUbJCCk b7 telllns a j ! hicldont apropos to tho occaUi ' Tho darkest hour in tho Civil w ' came in May, IS 63. after tho Moofe ' battle of Chancellorsvlllo. Tho coai 1 try was weary of war with its drUs. I C ing taxes of gold and blood. Ever; 1 whero there was discontent and tii ' enemies of Lincoln wero savage b " their denunciation of his polidei 1 Others made piteous appeals for ia ' early peace. The President was at i desk far Into tho night, for his pra. est travail of soul was our disunited nation. Again and again ho ho?i for a decisive battle. Getrjrabarg , proved a disappointment for Meade did not follow Lee In his retreat E When Sheridan in a hasty report S 1 Ishcd up with the words "If (he tblrj . c Is pressed I think Loo will surreader. k Grant sent tho dispatch to the Pro! 1 k dent, who Instantly wired back "W ' jc tho thing bo pressed." So the v J g ended after a four years' struggle te- W tween Americans. Lincoln's Joy m I tr. unbounded and ho was busy maWtj j t plans for tho reconstruction of tli ; u South when tho bullet of an assujh j yi ended his life, "in his death ti( a nation lost ono of Its greatest herou ' te and tho South lost its most J:.t c friend." n ' FOftrDUKETOCATCHTHEVERYDAY ) VfM SR,. 1 hsriinrf i Ing" is generally dono by the uof ,; ' 1 k. . WMWim Hi ''A QnMM- I DarUf? an electric routing necdio ffuidedlj . ( J " 11- JCCgfe WMMMWmf' imSW JSl SSWMl WF l l llirr- a man who has a steady band i " ) SSSSSn miWmiMfmM iMMXfm VIP: : ZSteZ good eye for lines Tho cheag f The Evolution of theVal- 't ; entine From the Love I ' Poems of the Fifteenth ; ! Century To the Valen- fu tine Post Card of Today. W Copyright, 101S, by Tho International : ,'t Syndicate ! t i ALENTINE DAT antedates tho i . ' , I I Christian era for It was ono l ILJi oC tho custom3 oC tho Roman I Lupercalia. Tho early Chris tians found It dimcult to get the peo- ' plo to break away from tho pagan ' i customs at onco so they- gradually IJ, , changed the festivities and finally tho names. To make the transformation j' oC tnis day complete, it was decided , by the reform element that tho day I should henceforth bo known as St. Valentine's Day, and that It should j I v ho celebrated on February Fourteenth J 1 1 In honor of St. Valentino, tho great I ' , bishop, who was beheaded 270, A. D., I 4 hy tho persecutors of tho early Chris- l.i r ' tlans because ho had performed tho I"'' ' remarkable mlraclo restoring the I I l I Eight of his Jailor's blind daughter. Lji j Although tho name of tho day was I L J changed It still remained tho feast of h i ; lovers and the boys and girls as late l : l as Pcpy's time, 1GG1, wero wont to I 'I j . chooso human valentines as in the I; days of the Lupercalia. j'!:, First Valentine. r 'j . I, To an American girl, however, wo I j' are Indebted for tho fancy Valentine. I ) In 1849 Miss Esther Howland, of Wor- l( f i ccstor. Massachusetts, conceived tho It , Idea of making Valentines out of lace I i paper and pictures and pasting" lovo I f . verses on them. I, J ,i Twenty years latec-the plcturo post card camo into existence, and took tho placo of tho lace paper type. It ; had its origin in Germany, and soon created a furoro in tho world, both . on account of Its cheapness and Its beauty. First it pictured scenes of mountains, streams, old castles and palaces. Then it had words of greet ings for special days printed on it, and finally tho verses of lovo so appro priate to Valentino Day appeared on Its face. From tlmo to tlmo tho cards wero improved on and today they havo reached perfection In work manship and aro tho most popular Valentines of tho present age. Before tho war tho majority of theso cards wero "mado In Germany," but Just now they arc almost entirely Ameri can products. A few, however, aro mado In England and France. Tho process used in turning out the Val entine post cards is Interesting, and whllo slmplo to tho man who has tho work in charge, it seems rather complicated to tho layman. Making The Card. First the artist makes the drawings, something appropriate to tho day, such a3 lovers clasping hands, Cupid piercing hearts, flowers bearing cards upon which aro written lovo messages, etc. Tho design is colored by tho artists for a key to tho printer or lithographer as the caso may be, as some of tho cheaper cards aro merely printed In colors similar to tho color pages which form a part of tho Sun day newspapers, while others aro made by a process called lithography, a name taken from tho Greek words llthoc, a stone, and irapho, I write. This art of printing from a polished stone was Invented by Aloys Senc f elder,, a native of Bohemia, in tho year 179G. Tho lithographing aTt has passed through a series of evolu tion and whllo the stone Is sometimes used there has been an ever Increas ing substitution of zinc and aluminum In placo of tho stone until today tho finest lithographic work is done on aluminum. When a Valentino post card is to bo made, tho copy for the lithograph artist may bo a drawing or a sketch, a photograph or a model. Tho work Is first drawn on tho alum inum plato or upon specially prepared paper called transfer paper. Special soapy inks and crayons aro used by tho artist for drawing tho original work. It 13 then tho business of tho post card printer to translate his Ideas of tho work to tho metal plato, tho result nemg several drawings, whlcn when printed In their respectlvo col ors one on top of tho other (called superimposed), will produco a fac simile of tho original drawing. Thcro aro various methods of doing this, such as by hand-stlppllng, rising shading mediums, or by working with a greasy crayon on a grained litho graphic surface, or by spraying with tho air brush o'r aerograph, or by splashing upon a polished stono or slightly roughened metal plate, or by working up transfers having a photo graphic baso, half tono, etc., or by a combination of two or thrco of tho abovo processes. Each method is claimed by the worker to bo tho best. Printing Colors, Each color Is printed on soparatcly and sometimes nlno or ten printings aro required. The larger number of printings includes special workings for light tlnt3 which do not requlro the same caroful handling as when thoy havo to bo obtained by breaking up tho strong colors into almost mi croscopic dots. Tho proving room is tho connecting link between the art ists department and tho transfer man, and tho prover supplies tho artist with the offsets on tho metal plato or transfer paper. This man also pre pares tho plato for printing, proving or taking transfers. If the work which tho artist i3 about to make is an ordinary colored sketch without out- Jin csucn as aro irequonuy uaevi ju cards), then as a temporary guide for his own uso. and afterward for that of tho transferor an outllno is made. This Is called tho key and Is mado by pinning down a sheet of gol atlno on top of tho sketch and trac ing tho latter by scratching tho gela tine with a steel point. This gclatlno engraving Is then handed over to tho prover or tho transferer to bo filled In with soft transfer Ink, which Is done by dabbing tho Ink all over tho sheet and working it Into the engrav ing, then wiping away tho superflous Ink with rags and whitening In a mannor similar to inking a copper or steel plate. It Is then placed between damp sheets until tho gelatine becomes quito limp, when It Is run through the press a few times on a clean stono under a great prossure. It Is then pulled off. Next comes the guide lines and register marks, which aro guldo or key lines on certain parts that aro to contain moro than ono color which Is not enclosed. Theso lines aro taken away when the work Is proved. An offset or faint Is then made. This Is a colored impression of the : koy upon tho plate, such coloring i matter being used as will in no way I effect the work or tako printing ink x later when tho plate is being pre- -pared. Various kinds of powders are used for thl3 purpose. One offsot is required for each color to bo drawn ( up. Tho plato is then placed in tho printing machine. Theso machines aro of two kinds, one known as tho flat bed machine, whero tho printing surface travels backward and forward in tho bed of tho machine Tho other la called a rotary machine, In which tho print ing surfaco Is bent round a cylinder. Some machines print direct from tho printing surfaco on to tho paper, whllo on others tho plato prints on to a rubber blanket on a cylinder and this In turn transfers it to tho paper. They are known, as diroct and offsot ma chines. Post cards aro sometimes printed on hand presses and on a direct printing machine. Each color Involves a separate printing form and a different ink. Tho post card maker must understand the harmony of colors, otherwise his work would bo a falluro, for certain groupings of col ors aro pleasing to tho eye, whllo others aro harsh and displeasing. The fight colors aro always printed first. In somo cases a darker color laid on tho lighter shado will produco a color desired. A certain amount of dryer Is mixed with tho colored Inks to In sure quick drying, for each color must bo perfectly dry on the cards beforo tho other can bo printed on. Tho printing of tho card3 Is ex tremely Interesting as ono soes tho rarious colors unfold on tho card, a special plato being used for each col Dr. When tho reds aro to bo used tho plato Is "routed" so that only tho mrfaco to bo printed In that color trill como In contact with the Ink. tVhero yellow Is to be used everything aos been "routed" except tho parts losigned for that color. This "rout- lltho zinc from any wash iTtS painting by photographing tn , jeet through a half tono screen, i process makes a fairly good corn light colored chromo type Embossing The Card, When a post card Is to be , omW a koy offset is mado on a thick or stone, and tho PaS as required. A light tint Is tooe printed at tho same .time the cm , Ing is done. In tho better d" Valentino cards tho relief U ma" p stand out considerably and 1 graving is deeply cut IN ' (l parts aro wetted and a thin PW tj paper laid over them and ree f ttoPbotlom with a of cotton ( Tho hollows aro then ffj , .. plaster of Paris Ich c0 ; llttio glue. After 0 pUter J f the top is touched over Jith A ft or other strong adhesive. KJ 4 passed round the cylinder rfowir allowed to harden befor a , aro put under It 1n thoP- e, Quently velvet Is eboed fi g ; , form of flowers and pwtca t cards. ty. Spanglo Cards. I Occasionally ono finds apa- J spangled with lotion ft, U. nTe or spangles and glitter. Tna , mado of thinly rolled copper . broken up into small P"w pi k dtJ aro dyed to all shades of co p( 1 givo a pretty Htterinff ffcc ; j, t t frost and snow aro SfZ from glass, whllo tho je4 t aro mado of small f & fc per. Tho method of attach . powders to the cards 3 slf b J : or surfaco is gono over wltn a j.1- fc tubular pencil containing a ffi . jj, heslvo. such as fish Sluo. and e is then passed through a tho powder in a an" to V ; 3ied cause the imbed themselves in too b