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Cooper's Clarksburg register. [volume] (Clarksburg, Va. [W. Va.]) 1851-1861, December 10, 1851, Image 4

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licw territov 18 daily Adding to tho num
ber of t>^3C oni?age4 in thnt vocation.?
^ust;-- nnd sound policy, therefore, alike
rrMuire that the Government should use
nil the means authorized by the Constitu
tion to promote the interests and welfare
?f that important classs of our fellow-cit
izens. And yet it is a singular fact that,
whilst the manufacturing and commerctal
interests have engaged the attention of
Congress during a largo portion of every
session, and our statutes abound in pro
visions for their protection and encourage
ment, little has yet been done directly for
the advancement <^f agriculture. It is
lime that this repronch to our legislation
slioidd.be removed j and I sincerely hope
that the present Congress will not close
their labors without ndopting efficient
means t? supply the omissions of those
who have proceeded them.
An Agricutural Bureau, charged with
the duty of collecting and disseminating
eorrect information as to the best modes
uf cultivation, and of the most effectual
means of preserving and restoring the
fertility of the soil, and of procuring and
distributing seeds and plants and other
vegetable productions, with | instructions
in regard to tho soil, climate, and treat
ment best adapted to their growth, could
not fail to be, in the language of Wash
ington, in his last annual message to C'on
gress, a " very cheap instrument of im- j
Incuse national benefit."
Regarding the act of Congress appro-1
ved 'JUth September, '1850, granting boun
ty lands to persons who had been enga
ged in the military service of the country,
as a great measure of national justice and
munificence, an anxious desire has been
felt by the officers entrusted with its im
mediate execution, to give prompt effect
to its provisions. All the means within
their control were, therefore, brought in
to requisition to expedite the adjudication
of claims, and I am gratified to be able
to sta'.u that near one hundred thousand |
applications have been considered, and
iii'out seventy thousand warrants issued I
u ithin tbe short space of nine months.? J
.If adequate provision be made by law to !
carry into effect tho recommendation of
the Department, it is confidently expected J
that, before the close of the next fiscal
vear, all who are entitled to the bene-1
ills of the act will have received their j
warrants.
Tin- Secretary of the Interior has sug- j
gested in his report, various amendments
of the laws relating to pensions and houn-!
iv lands, for the purpose of more effectu- j
ally guarding again-t abuses and frauds
on the Guvernmen', to all of which I in
vile your particular attention.
'I'ho large acct "inns to'our Indian pop
ulation consequent upon the acquisition of
.New Mexico and California, and the ex
tension of our settlements into I'tah and
Oregon, have given increased interest and
importance to our relations with the abo
i it i jftl race.
No material change lias taken place,
within the last vear, in the condition and
pro-pec.s of the Indian tribes who reside
in the North-wi -vrn Territory and west
..f the Mississsippi river. \\ e are at peace
with all of them; and it will he a souree
of I'll a*urc to von to learn that they are
: i ulually advancing in civilization and
tl.e pur-ill's of social life.
Alon,' the Mexican frontier, and in Cal
ifornia, and Oregon, there have been oc
casional manifestations of unfriendly feel
ing. and some depredations committed.?
I am satisfied, however that they resulted
more from the destitutu and starving con
dition of the Indians than from any set
tled hostility toward the whites. As the
?-ettli men!s of our citizens progress to
v arils them, tin; ganio upon which they
inalnlv rely for subsistence is driven oil or
.?r-.ii r, ..,i ,,|,]v alternative left to,
them is starvation or plunder. It be
comes 11^ to consider, in veiw of this con
dition of things, w hether justice and hu
inanii v. as w ell as an enlightened econ
omy. do uot reouire, that instead of seek
ing to punish iheiu for oll'ences which are
the result of ouroWn policy towards them,
we should not provide for their immediate
wants and encourage them to engage in
agriculture, ami to rely on their labor, in-1
stead of the clcec, for the nnjans of sup
port.
Various important treaties have been
negoliited with different tribes during
the year, by which their title to large and
valuable trues of country has been ex
tinguished. all of which will, at the prop
er time, he submitted to the Senate for
ratification.
Tl.e joint i .amission under the treaty
of Guadalupe Hidalgo has been actively
engaged in running and marking the
boundary line between the United States
and Mexico. It was stated, in the last
annual report of the Secretary of the Inte
rior, that the initial point on tin1 I'acitic
and the point ?f junction of the Gila with
the Colorado liver had been determined,
and the intervening line, about one hun
dred and fifty miles in length, run and
marked by ten. >orarv monuments. Since
that time a meuumcnt of marble has been
erected at the initial point, and perma
nent landmark of Iron have been placed
at suitable dis inces along the line.
The initial joint on the Rio Grande has
also been fixed by the commissioners at
latitude 3? dc,'. *22 min., and at the date
of the last communication the survey of
theiine had bi-en made thence westward
about one hundred and fifty miles to the
neighborhood of the copper mines.
The eommi^-ion on our part was at first
?rganized on i scale which experience1
proved to be ut.wieldy and attended with'
?i lu' cc ssarvex unse. Orders have, there
lore, V, u i'ssmd for the rcductiim of the
num ier ot Iisons employed within the
smallest limit>. consistent with the safety
of those engaged in the service, and the
prompt and tlVujiont execution of their
. important uuti<.s<
Returns hav. i,CCn received from all
the officers cngiwed in taking the census
m the States antl Territories, except Cal
ifornia. The Miperintendent employed
to make the enumeration in that State
has not ygt .made his full report, from
causes, as he alleges, beyond his control.
'Sis failure is much to be regretted, as it
lias prevented the Secretary of the Inte
rior irom making the decennial appoint
ment of representatives among the States
^(!-n'U|r . b>' t'Ui act approved May 23,
*l's boned, howevor, that ttie re
turns|will soon be received, and no time
will then be lost in making the necessary
apportionment, and in transmitting the
certificates required by law.
1 he Superintendent of the Seventh Cen
sus lyliligenlly employed, under the di
I rection of tlio Scorctnry of the Interior, in
' classifying and arranging, in tabular form
all the statistical information derived from
the returns of the marshals, and it is be
lieved that when the work shall be com
pleted it will exhibit a more perfect view
of the population, wealth, occupations,
and social condition of a great country,
than has ever been presented to the world.
The value of such a work, as the basis of
enlightened legislation, can hardly be
over-estimated ; nnd I earnestly hope that
Congress will lose no time in making the
appropriations necessary to complete the
classifications, and to publish the results
in a style worthy of the subject and of our
national charactcr.
The want of a uniform fee bill, prescri
bing the compensation to be allowed dis
trict attorneys, clerks, marshals, and
commissioners in civil and criminal cases,
is the cause of much vexation, injustice,
and complaint. I would recommend a
thorough revision of the laws on the whole '
subject, and the adoption of a tariff ofi
fees, which as far as practicable, should
be uniform, and prescribe a specific com- >
pensation for every service which the of-1
ticer may be required to perforin. This ;
subject will be fully presented in the re
port of the Secretary of the Interior.
In my last annual message I gave brief-1
ly my reasons for believing that you pos-1
sessed the constitutional power to improve
the harbors of our great lakes nnd sea-'
coast, and the navigation of our principal j
rivers, and recommended that appropria-!
tions should be made for completing such |
works as had already been commenced, i
and for commencing such others as might !
seem to the wisdom of Congress to be of
public and general importance. Without
repeating the reasons then urged, I deem
it my duty again to call your attention to
this important subjcct. The works on
many of the harbors were left in an unfin
ished state, and consequently exposed to
the action of the elements, which is fast
destroying them. Great numbers of lives
and vast amounts of property are annu
ally lost for want of safe and convenient
harbors on the lakes. None but ihose I
who have been exposed to that dangerous ,
navigation, can fully appreciate the im
portance of this subject. The wholej
north-west appeals to you for relief, and
I trust their appeals will receive due con
sideration at your hands.
The same is in a measure true in regard |
to some of the harbors and inlets on the
scacoast.
The unobstructed navigation of our
laige livers is of equal iinj ortance. Our
settlements are now extending to the sour
ces of the great rivers which empty into,
and form a part of the Mississippi, and the
value of the public lands in those regions
would bo greatly enhanced by freeing the
navigation of those waters from obstruc
tions. In view, therefore, of this great
interest, I deem it my duty again to urge
upon Congress to make such appropria
tions for these improvements as they may j
deem necessary.
The survey of tlie Delta of the Missis
sippi, with ii view to the prevention of
the overflows that have proved so disas
trous to that region of country, have been
nearly completed, and the reports there
of are now in course of preparation, and
will shortly be laid before you.
The protection of our south-western;
frontier, and of the adjacent Mexican
States, against the Indian tribes within
our border, has claimed my earnest and
constant, attention. Congress having fail
ed at last session, to adopt my recommen
dation that an additional regiment of
mounted men specially adapted to that ser
vice should be raised, all tnat remained to
be done was to make the best use of the
means at my disposal. Accordingly, all
the troops adapted to that service that
could properly be spared from other quar
to rs have been concentrated on that fron
tier, and officers of high reputation se
lected to command them. A new ar
rangement of the military posts has also
been made, whereby the troops arc
brought nearer to the Mexican frontier
and to the tribes they are intended to
overawe.
Sufficient time has not yot elapsed to
realize all the benefits that are expected
to result from these arrangements, but I
have every reason to hope that they will
effectually check their marauding expe
ditions. The nature of the country,
which furnishes little for the support of an
army, and abounds in places of refuge and
concealment, is remarkably well adapted
to this predatory warfare ; and we can
scarcely hope that any military force,
combined with the greatest vigilance, can
entirely suppress it.
By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,
we are bound to protect the territory of
Mexico against the incursions of the sav
age tribes within our border " with equal
diligence and energy" as if the same were
made within our territory or against our
citizens. 1 have endeavored to comply,!
as far as possible, with this provision of
the treaty, Orders have been given to
the officers commanding on that frontier
to consider the Mexican territory and its
inhabitants as equally with our own enti
tled to their protection ; and to make all
their plans and arrangements with a view
to the attainment of thisobjcct. Instruc
tions have also been given to the Indian
commissioners and agents among these
tribes, in all treaties, to make the clans-,
es designed for the protection of our own
citizens apply also to those of Mexico. 1
have no reason to doubt that these in
structions have been fully carried into ef
fect. Nevertheless, it is probable, that
in spite of all our efforts, some of the
neighboring States of Mexico may have
suffered, as our own have, from depreda
tions by the Indians.
To the difficulties of defending our
own territory, as above mentioned, are
superadded, in defending that of Mexioo,
those that arise from its remoteness, from
the fact that wo have no right to station
our troops within her limits, and that
there is no efficient military force on the
Mexican side to co-operate with our own.
So long as this shall continue to be the
?ase, the number and activity of our
troops will rather increase than diminish
the evil, Hs the Indians will naturally turn
towards that country where they encoun
ter the least resistance. Yet these troops
are necessary to subdue thepi, and to
compel them to make and observe trea
ties. Until this shall have been done,
neither country will enjoy any security
from their attacks.
The Indians in California, who had
previously appeared of a peaceable char
acter, and disposed to cultivate the friend
I ship of the whites, have recently commit
[ ted several acts of hostility. As a large
portion of the reinforcements sent to the
Mexican frontier were drawn from the
Pacific, the military force now stationed
there is considered entirely inadequate to
its defence. It cannot be increased, how
ever, without an increase of the. army ;
and I again recommend that measure as
indispensable to the protection of the
frontier.
I in vite your attention to tlie suggestions on this
subject, and on others connected withliis Depart
ment, in the report of the Secretary of War.
The appropriations for the support of the army
during the current fiscal year ending 80tli June
next, were ryluced far below the estimate submit
ted by the Departmeut. The consequence of this
reduction is a considerable deficiency, to which I
invite your early attention.
The expenditures of that Department, for the
year ending 30th June last, were $9,080,248 5?.
Tho estimates for the year commencing 1st July
next and ending June 30.1853 are $7,898,770 83;
showing a reduction of $1,101,492 75.
Tho Board of Commissioners, to whom the man
agement of the affairs of the Military Asylum cre
ated by the act of 3d March last was entrusted,
have selected a site for tlia establishment of an
Asylum in the vicinity of thiscity, which has been
approved by me, subject to the production of a
satisfactory title.
Tho report of the Secretary of the Navy will ex
hibit tlie condition of the public service under the
supervision of th:>t Department. Our naval force
afloat during ths present year lias been actively
and usefully employed in giving protection to our
widely extended and increasing commerce and
interests In the various quarters of the globe, and j
r.ur flag lias everywhere afforded the soeCritv and !
received the respect inspired by the justice aii'' .
liberality of our Intercourse, and the dignity and
power of the nation.
The expedition commanded by Lieutenant De
Ilaveu, despatblied in search of the British com
mander, Sir John FrauUlin, and liis companions
in the Arctic SeaR, returned to New York in tho
month of Oct" 'ben after b-iiJr - v; ' " Mi
poril and sufl'c
irerous naviga is
climate wtllio j?
tlie objects of t
tions to seienc<
qucnted point; f j
tlio e\|K-Jitk
Borvlvo. unsjBlV ? -
tho entire approbation of the Government, it is i
suggested, as an a t of grace and generosity, that
tlie same allowances of extra pay and emoluments
be extended to them that were made to the oili- '
cer? and men of like rating in the late exploring
expedition to the South Sea3.
I earnestly recommend to your atten
tion the necessity of re-organizing tho
Naval Establishment, apportioning and
fixing the number of officers in each
i;rade, providing some mode of promo
tion to the higher grades of the navy,
having reference to merit and capacity,
rather than seniority or date of entry into
the service, and for"retiring from the ef
fective list upon reduced pay those who j
may be incompetent to the performance
of active duty. As a measure of econo
my as well as of efficiency in this arm of
the service, the provision last mentioned
is eminently worthy of your considera
tion.
The determination of the questions of
! relative rank between the sea officers and
j civil officers of the navy, and between
! officers of the army and navy, in the
various grades of each, will also merit
your attention. The failure to provide
any substitute, when cdVporal punishment
was abolished for offcnces in the navy,
lias occasioned the convening of numer
ous court-martial upon the arrival of ves
sels in port, and is believed to have had
an injurious effect upon the discipline and
efficiency of the service. To moderate
punishment from one grade to another is
among the humane reforms of the age ;
hut t<> abolish one of severity, which ap
plied so generally to offences on ship
hoard, and provide nothing in its stead,
is to suppose a progress of improvement
in every individual among seamen which
is not assumed by the Legislature in re
spect to anv other class of men. It is
hoped that Congress, in the ample op
portunity afforded by the present session,
will thoroughly investigate this important
subject, and established such modes of
determining guilt, and such gradations
of punishment as are consistent with hu
manity and the personal rights of indi
viduals, and at the same time shall ensure
the most energetic and efficient perfor
mance of duty and the suppression of
crime in our ship's of war.
The stone dock in the navy yard at
New York, which was ten years in pro
cess of construction, has been so far fin
ished as to be surrendered up to the au
thorities of the yard. The dry dock at
Philadelphia is reported as completed,
and is expected soon to be tested and de
livered over to the agents of the Govern
ment. That at Portsmouth, New Hamp
shire, is also nearly ready for delivery ;
and a contract has been concluded,
agreeably to the act ef Congress at its
last session, for a floating sectional dock
on the Bay of San Francisco. I invite
your attention to the recommendation of
the Department, touching the establish
ment of a navy yard in conjunction with
this dock on the Pacific. Such a station
is highly necessary to the convenience
and effectiveness of our fleet in that ocean,
which must be expected fo increase with
the growth of eonmerce, and the rapid
extension of our whale fisheries over its
waters.
The Naval Academy at Annapolis, un
der a revised and improved system of reg
ulations, now affords opportunities of ed
ucation and instruction to the pupils quite
equal it is believed, for professional im
provement to those enjoyed by the cadets
in the Military Academy. A large class
of acting midshipmen, was received at the
commencement of the last academic
term, and a practice ship has been attach
ed to the institution, to afford the amplest
means for regular instruction in seaman
ship, as well as for cruises during tBe va
cations of three or four months In each
year.
The advantages of science in nautical
affairs have rarely been more strikingly
illustrated than in the fact stated in the
report of the Navy Department, that, by
means of the wind and current charts,
projected and prepared by Maury, the
Superintendent of the Naval Observato
1 ry, the passage from the Atlantic to the
Pacific ports of our country has been
shortened by about forty days.
The estimates for the support of the
Navy and Marine Corps the ensuing fis
cal year will be found to be $5,856,472
19, the estimates for the current year be
ing $5,900,621.
The estimates for special objects under
the control of this Department amount to
I $2,684,220 89, against $2,210,980 for
j the present year, the increase being oc
I casioned by the additional mail service on
the Pacific coast and the construction of
the dock in California, authorized at the
I last session of Congress, and some slight
additions under the head of improvements
j and repairs in navy yards, buildings and
; machinery.
I deem it of much importance to a just j
economy, and a correct understanding of.
: naval expenditures, that there should be |
i an entire separation of the appropriations |
, for the support of the naval service proper
1 from those for permanent improvements j
I at navy yards and stations, and from j
I ocean steam mail service, and other spe-.
i cial objects assigned to the supervision of |
[ this Department.
The report of the Postmaster General, j
communicated, presents an interesting
view of the progress, operations, and con
dition of his Department.
At the close of the fiscal year, the ,
: length of mail routes within the United
States was 196,290 miles; the annual
; transportation thereon 53,272,252 miles; j
| and the annual cost of such transporta-,
, tion $3,421,754.
Tlie length of tlio foreign mail routed is ostium- j
I ted at 15,349 miles; and the annual transportation :
thereon at 615-200 miles. The annual cost of
this service is $1,47:!,1ST, of which $44S,937 is j
i paid by the Post Office Department, and $1,028,
1230 is paid through the Xavy Department.
The annual transportation within the I'nitcd
States (excluding tho service in California and
' Oregon, which is now for tho first time, reported
and embraced in the tabular statements of the '
Department exceeds that of the proceeding year j
6.162,155 miles, at an increased cost of $347,110. I
The whole number of post offices in the United '
States, on the 80th day of June last, was 19.796.
There were 1.69? post offices established, and 230
discontinued, during the venr.
The gross revenue* of the Department fur the
*iiscal year including the appropriations for the j
franked matter of Congress, of tho Departments,
and officers of Government, and excluding the
foreign postages, collectcd for and payabio to the
British post office, amounted to $0,727,860 73.
The expenditures for the same period (excluding j
*20.599 49, paid under an award of the Auditor, i
? pursuance of a resolution of tho last Congress ;
for mail service ou the Ohio and Mississippi rivers ;
ill 1532 and 1333, and tho amount paid to the Brit- j
ish post office for foreign postages collected for 1
and papable to that office) amounted to $6,024,- ,
300 79; leaving a balance of rovonuo over the :
proper expenditures of the year of $703,299 99.
The receipts for postages, during tho year fox
eluding the foreign postages collected for and pay- ;
able to the British post office) amounted to $6,-!
343.747 21,b(?ingan increase of $997,610 79, or |
IS. 05-100 per cent, over the like receipts for the
preceding year.
The reduction of postage, under the act of
March last, did not take effect until the commence
ment of the present fiscal year. The accounts for
the first quarter, under the operation of tho re
duced rates, will not bo settled before January
next; and no reliable estimate of the receipts for
the present year can yet be made. It is believed j
however, that they will fall far short oftliose of
the last year. The surplus of tho revenue* now
on hand is. however, so larze that no further ap
propriation from the treasury, in aid of the rev
enues of the Department, is required for tho cur
rent fiscal year; but an additional appropriation
for the year ending 30tU June 1> 13, will probahlv
be found necessary when the receipts of the first
two quarters of the fiscal year arc fully ascertain
ed.
In his last annual report the Postmaster Gene
ral recommended a reduction of postage to rates
which he deemed us low as could be prudently
adopted, unless Congress was prepared to appro
priate from tlio treasury, for tho support of the
Department, a sum more than equivalent to the
mail services performed by it for the Government.
The recommendations of the Postmaster General,
ill respect to letter postage, except ou letters from
and to California and Oregon, were substantially
adopted by the last Congress. lie now reeom
?Jhorn>?? ?? *1-- lnf?nr rutna, ft 11(1
advises asrainst a further reduction until justified
by tlie revenue of the Department.
He also recommends that the rates of postage
on printed matter be so revised as to render them
more simple, and more uniform in their opera
tions upon all classes of printed matter. I sub
mit tho recommendations of the report to your ,
favorable consideration.
The public statutes of tho United States have
| now been accumulating for more than sixty years, ;
: ami, interspersed with private acts, are scattered
i through numerous volumes, and. from tho cost of'
tlio whole, have become almost inaccessible to the j
j (Treat mass of the community. They also cxhib- i
j it much of tho incongruity and imperfection of
hasty legislation.
As it seems to b" generally conccded that there
is no " common law" of the United States to sup
ply the defects of their legislation, it is most im
portant that that legislation should bo as perfect
as possible, defining every power to be conferred,
evory crime intended to be made punishable, nnd
prescribing tho punishment to bo inflicted. In
addition to some particular cases spoken of more
at length, the whole criminal code is now lamen
tably defective. Some offences arc imperfectly
described, and others are entirely omitted; so that
flagrant crimcs may be committed with impuni
ty. The scale of pu nishment is not in all cases
graduated accordiugto the nature of the offence;
and is often rendered more unequal by tho different
modes of imprisonment, or penitentiary confine
ment, in the different States.
Many laws of a permanent character have
been introduced into appropriation bills, and it is
often difllcult to determine whether the particular
i clause expires with tho temporary act of which it '
it a part, or continues in force. Is has also fre
quently happened that enactments and provi
sions of law have been introduced into bills, with
the title or general subject of which thoy have
little or no connexion or relation. In this mod?
of legislation so many enactments have been
heaped upon each other, and often with but little
consideration, tjiat, in many instances, it is difli
cult to search out and determine what is the
law.
The government of the United States is empha
tically a government of written laws. The stat
utes should, therefore, as far os practicable, not
only be made accessible to all, but be expressed in
language so plain and simple as to be understood
by all, and arranged in such method as to give
perspicuity to every subject. Many of the States
nave revised their public acts with great and man
ifest benefit; and I recommend that provision be
made by low for the appointment of a commission
to revise the public statutes of the United States,
arranging them in order, supplying the deficien
cies. correcting incongruities, simplifying their
language, and reporting them to Congress tor its
action.
An act of Congress approved 30th September,
1850, containing a provision for the extension of
the Capitol, according to.iuch plan as might be
approved by the President, and appropriated one
hundred thousand dollars to be expended under
his direction, by such architect as he should ap
point to ex*cute the same. On examining the va
rious plana which had been submitted by differ
ent architects, in pursuance of as advertisement
by a committee of the Senate, no one was found
to be entirely satisfactory, and it was therefore
deemed advisable to combine and adopt the advan
tages of several.
The great object to be accomplished was to make
such an addition as would afford ample and con
venient halls for the deliberations of toe two Hou
ses of Congress, with sufficient accommodations
for spectators, and suitible apartments for the
committees and officer* of th- t? o branches of the
Legislature. It mi also desirable not to mar the
harmony and beauty of the present structure,
which, n? a specimen of architecture, is so uni
versally admired. Keeping these objects in view,
I concluded to make the addition by Wings, detach
ed from the present budding, yet connected with
U by corridors. Thii mode of enlargement Jill
leave the present Capitol uninjured, and afford
great advantages for ventilation and tho admission
of light, and will enable the work to progress
without interrupting the deliberations of Congress.
To carry this plan into effect, I hare appointed
an experienced and com potent architect. The
cornerstone was laid on the 4th of July last, with
suitable ceremonies, since which time the work
has advanced with commendable rapidity, and
the foundations of both wings are now nearly
complete.
I again commend to your favorable regard the
Interests of the District of Columbia, and deem it
only necessary to remind you, that although Its
inhabitants have no voice in the choice of repre
sentatives in Congress, they are not the less enti
tled to a just and liberal consideration In your le
gislation. My opinions on this subject were more
fully expressed in my last annual communica
tion.
Other subjects were brought to the attention of
Congress In my last annual message, to which I
would respectfully refer. But there was one of
more than ordinary interest, to which I again In
vite your special attention. I allude to tho re
commendation for the appointment of a commis
sion to settle private claims against the United
States. Justice to individuals es well as to the
Government imperatively demands that some more
convenient and expeditious mode than an appeal
to Congress should be adopted.
It is deeply to be regretted that in several In
stances officers of the Government, In attempting
to execute the law for the return of fugitives from
labor, have been openly resisted, and their efforts
frustrated and defeated by lawless and violent
mobs; that in one case such resistance resulted iu
the death of an estimable citizen, and in others se
rious injury ensued to those officers and to indi
viduals who were uMng their endeavors to sustain
tho laws. Prosecutions have been instituted
against the alledged offenders, so far as they could
be identified, nndare still pending. I have regar
> ded it as my duly in these cas?s, to givo all uid,
1 legally in niv power, to the enforcement of the
! laws, and I shall continue to do so wherever and
whenever their execution may bo resisted.
The act of Congress for the return of fugitives
from labor, i9 one required and demanded by the
express words of the constitution.
The constitution declares, "That no person held
to labor or service in one State, underthe laws
thereof, escaping into another, shall, In conse
quence of any law or regulation therein, be dis
charged from sych scrvico or labor, but shall be
delivered tip on claim of the party to whom such
service or labor maybe due." This constitution
al provision is equally obligatory upon the Legis
lative, tho Exccutivo and Judicial Departments of
the Government, and upon every citizen of the
United States.
Congress, however, must of necessity, first act
upon the subject, by prescribing the proceedings
necessary to ascertuin that the person is a fugi
tive, and the means to be used for his restoration
to the claimant. This was done by an act passed
during the first term of President Washington,
which was amended by that enactod by tho last
Congress, and it now "remains for the Executive
and Judicial Departments to take care that these
laws be faithfully executed. This injunction of
the constitution Is as peremptory and as binding
as any other; it stands exactly on the same foun
dation as that clause wliic!: provides for the re
turn of fugitives from justice, or that which de
clares that no bill of attainder or cx yost facto law
shall bo passed, or that which provides for an
equality of taxation, according to tho census, or
tho clause declaring that all the duties shall bo
uniform throughout the United Stat?s, or the Im
portant provision that tho trial of all crimes shall ;
be hv jury. These several articles and clauses of
the constitution, all resting 011 tho same authorl- |
tv, must stand or full together. Some objections
have been urged against tho dotails of the act for
the return of fugitivos from labor; but it is wor
thy of remark that the main opposition is aimed
against the constitution itself, and proceeds from
persons and classes, of persons, many of whom
declare their wish to see that constitution over
turned. They avow their hostility t0 any law
which shall give full and practical effect to this
roqi>:rement of the constitution. Fortunately,
the number of these persons is comparatively
small, and is believed to be daily diminishing, but
tho issue which they present is one which invol
ves the supremacy and even the existence of tho
Constitution.
Cases have heretofore orison in which Individu
als have denied the binding authority of acts of
Congress, and even States have proposed to nul
lify such aels, upon the ground thnl the constitu
tion was the supreme law of the land, and that
those acts of Congress were repugnant to that in
strument, but nullification was now aimed, not
so much against particular laws as being incon
sistent with the constitution, as against the con
stitution itaelf: and it is not to l?e disguise/1 that
a spirit exists aud has been actively at work to
rend asunder this Union, which is our cherished
Inheritance from our revolutionary fathers.
In tnv last annu.il message, I stated that I con
sidered tho series of measures, which had been
adopted at the previous session, in reference to the
agitation growing out of tho Territorial and sla
very questions, as a final settlement in principle
and substance of the dangerous and exciting sub
jects which they embraced; and I recommended
adherence to tho adjustment established by thos?
measures, until time and experience should de
monstrate the necessity of further legislation to
guard against evasion or abuse. I was not indu
ced to make this recommendation because T
thought those measures perfect, for no human le
gislation can be perfect. Wide differences and
jarring opinions can only be reconciled by yield
ing something on all sides, and this result had
been reached after an angry conflict of many
months, in which ono part of the country was ar
rayed against another, and violent convulsion
seemed to be imminent. Looking at the interests
of the whole country, I felt it to be my duty to
seize upon this compromise as the best that could
be obtained amid conflicting interests, and to in
sist upon it as a final settlement, to bo adhered to
byall who value the peace and welfare of the eoun- ,
try. A year has now elapsed since that recom
mendation was made. To that recommendation
I still adhere, and I congratulate you and the
country upon the general acquiescence in these
measures of peace, which has boon exhibited in all
parts of the Republic. And not only is there
this general acqulesceuco in these moasurea, but
the spirit of conciliation which has been manifes- ,
ted In regard to them in all parts of the country,
has removed doubts and uncertainties In the minds
of thousands of good men, concerning the dura
bility of our popular institutions, ana given re
newed assurance that our Liberty ami our Uniou 1
may subsist together for the beuefit of this and all 1
succeeding generations.
MILLARD FILLMORE.
Washington, Dec. 2,1851.
Coopers (Clarksburg JUgisfrr
"Equal Itlghi- end Kin* I Laws:"
CLARKSBURG, WEDNESDAY, DEC. 10, l?-ol
Wanted.
At this office, aa intelligent, active boy about
15 vean old, to learn the printing busineas. He
must be industrious and steady. To such an one
a good opportunity is offered to learn the business,
and none others need apply.
Congress.?Congress met on Monday thr lat
inst, and organized by electing Hon. Linn Boyd,
of Kentucky .Speaker, and J. W. Forney, Esq., tha
able editor of the P'nnayWanijn, Clerk.
The Preaident'a waa s?nt in on Tues
day, and wilt be found in onr colnmna to-day.?
Ita extreme length haa crowded out our usual ra
riety, and left os scarcely room for any tiling else.
Nothing of importance has a* yet transpired in
Congress We intend keeping oar reader* in
formed of all transactions of general interest which
may occur during the session.
? ? ' ? -? ?
'tW Piety commands esteem.
?? ?? "
Election Returns.
We give below, the complete returns from this
coutfty, and the reported returns from those ad
jacent. Whip In KaJlc,
T*
?
eorxjLNOK.
Johnson, 423
Summert, aa
i I
193
114
151
54
172
34
26 895
64 588
uxct. got;
Leake,
Watts,
! att't. oci.
I Bococh,
, Baxter,
' senate.
Basse),
Johnson's majority, 307
388 127 134 172 27 848
336 105 52 33 63 5B9
396
332
537
Kincheloo, 149
DELEGATES.
Lewis,
Moore,
Vance,
Holden,
380
459
381
304
Lsako's majority,
127 136 ' 170 28
105 43 33 61
Bocock's majority,
CI 131 185 71
175 50 15 13
Basse's majority,
210 127 153 81
109 71 36 74
30 27 159 11
120 170 43 13
259
857
579
278
9851
402
583
951
751
C07
550
Johnson is reported to have rocelred 400 ma
jority in Marion county. Kldwoll and Amettare
electod Delegates. J. S. Wost, Dom., Is reported
to have been elected to the Senate, over Martin
Darn.
Johnson's reportnd majority in Upshur is 23.
Summers is said to have a majority of 46 in
Taylor county. Burdett, Whig is elected Delegate
in Taylor, over Johnson by about 115 majority.
Lewis County.?A friend has sent ns the (Vtll
vote of Lewis county, by which wo learn that
Johnson has 212, Leake 213 and Bocock 321 ma
jority. Loivntz, Whig, 231 majority for Senate,
and J. M. Bennett, Deui., &S0 maj. for Delegate.
The Speeches on Monday.?The morning of
tlie day of election wea devoted by llio different
candidates to defining their positions in public
speeches. We did not hear them, but understand
that they acquitted themsclres very well. We
are informed that Mr. A. S. Holden, a candidate
for Delegate, during his remarks, took us to task
for not announcing him as a candidate in the Re
gister. Wc aro surprised at lhis( inasmuch as
neither he nor any of his frionds authorized us to
do so, which la the Invariable custom. It m?y
be that Mr. Uolden was Ignorant of this usage,
if so, we advise Uim to inform himself lu future
before making himself ridiculous. He is freely
forgiven by us, us the vote he received shows the
estimation in which he is held, and bin powers ,
to do us harm.
0*G?u. Samuel Watts, the Whig candidal* for
Lieutenant Governor, visited our placo on Thurs
day I "it and made a sjjoech, in which ho (aid Unit
the Whig party had thrown aside the old party
issues, and that there was now little diiTerence of
opiuion in regard to them, between tho Whigs
and Democrats. lie, tioivi'Ver. declared his own
feelings to be as utrongly in favor of tho old dis
carded measures, as ever. IIo claimed for the
Whig party exclusive friendship for the Union? <
the new rallying cry of tho party. This was
very advisable, considering tho fact, that in every
election held in the free states this fall, the Whig
have coalesced which the nbuliliiinists, and have
ip-!U<rally bsen benton.
Mr. Watts was replied toby Juhu 3. Carl lie, Esq.,
who clearly exposed the hypocrisy of tho no-par
ty professions of tho Whigs, nud successfully re
futed their pretensions to' be the espocinl guardi
ans of the Union. It is tho general opinion fhut
Mr. Watts came oil* second best in the encounter.
SrcciAL Covrt.?A special term of tho Circuit
Court of Marion county, will commence on the
8th of January next, at which Jndgc Fry will pre
side. Purties litigant in that Court can prepare
for trial.
Death or lirsj. lin*v Wilson.?We copy be
low from the Lexington (Mo.) Chronicle, of the
Sth nit., an urtlele on the death of Bcnj. Dray
Wilson, formerly of this place. IIo was buried
on tho Sth ult. His death was caused, we believe,
by eating custard into which Croton oil had been
put, iu mistake for oil of cinnamon.
"Most deeply do wc rogret the painful duty
which is devolved upon us, of recording the death
of our esteemed young friend, Benjamin Bray
Wilson. He breathed his last, in this placo, on
Thursday evening, after a lingering illness of se
i voral weeks. During the short time we have been
I a resident of Lexington, there have been few w itli
whom our associations wore more Intimate, or for
whom our friendly attachments have hocn stron
ger. Ilis many sterling and manly virtnes had
drawn around him a list of friends that few of his
ago could boast; and while his death will fall
most heavily npon his parents and kindred, yet
numbers of others will mingle the tear-drop of
sorrow with theirs, as they contemplate the un
timely fate of their friend; un i long, long uftar
the first burst of grief shall have passed sway, in
the hidden recesses of many a heart, will be che
rished the'memory of his virtues. In the very '
prime of his youth, with prospects of ? bright fu- :
ture before him, either in his professional carocr
or in the preferment of his fricn<ls, with talents
and intogvity which would have sustained with
honor in any position, he is cut off, and the dsrk,
gloomy mantle of death enshrouds them all I Oh,
Death! relentless Death! can no plea avert thy
fatal shaft I Must affection's bleeding chords, the
pride of manhood and its glowing hoj.es. the no
blest virtues of our race, the heart-warm prayers
and tears of loved ones, that hang like holy in
cense round the throne of God,?must all these
be plead in vain f Alas, yes!
"' Leaves have their time to fall,
And (lowers to wither at the north wind's breath,
And stars to set? btit thou hast all,
All seasons for thino own. Oh. Death!' "
THE MAILS.
The Eastit.s Mail arrives at Clarksbtire on
Sundays. Wednesdays and Fridays, at C o'clock,
P. M . and departs, "fuc-lays, Thursdays ar.d Sat
urdays at 5 o'clock. A M.
The Wester* Mail arrir.*on M'-ndaya. Thors
d ays and Saturdays, at 4 oVk-cit A.M.. and de
parts, Sundays, Wcdn<-*davs and Fridays, at 7
o'clock. P. M.
The I nioxtow* Mail arrives daily at 4 o'clock, '
P. M.. Mondays excepted, and departs daily at It
o'clock. A. M.', Sundays exceptsd.
The Weston Mail arrives on Mondays, Wed
nesdays and'Fridavs. at 4 o'clock. I'. M., and de
parts.'Tuesdays, Thursdsys Saturdays, at 10
o'clock. A. M"
The Brc?HA>vo!? Mail arrives on Tuesday of
each week, at (o'clock, P. M , and departs on
Wednesday at 6 o'clock, A. M.
The Bsveblt Mail arrives on Mondsy of es'b
week, at 4 o'clock. P. M.. and departs on Fridaya
at 7 o'clock, A. M.
The Shj.nnston Ma il arrives on Saturday of esch
week, at 11 o'clock. A. M., and departs at 13
o'clock. M., of same day.
HP* The Post OflRo'is opt,n from ? o'clock A.
M., till 9 o'clock, P. M., every day except Sunday,
when it is open from > to 10 o'clock. A. M.. and
one hour after tbs arrival of ea.h mail.
E. BKl'EN, P. M.
THE MARKKTH.
[COMSCTKO wiiilt ton rut tuinn.1
Baltivom, Dee. I, 1M1.
Brir Cattlx.?The offerings ?i ibe ?c*le? on
' Monday, replied *00 bead. 4SO of vMch
I driven to Philadelphia, ud the h*Ufcee(MO ) eold
I at prioee Tinging tram *2.60 to $4, ? 100
on the hoof, equal to$U&TJtO net. andaverafing
! **K*^We quote mtham U to ?M
22**^' gfSTfSs 2SS
i Co**, M?M I HAfcN
rmxktfa LEWIS
V7 public that he 1
the room nearly opp
tag office, third door ab
where he has fast received! . .
Winter Goods, to which ho Invltis the ????-*
lion of bU former friends and customer* and the
public generally. Hit stock consists, In put, of
the following: . ^
Print* Ooiu 3 to ti Cents
Cashmeres, Alpaocas, DeLalncs, titn very cheap ?
Woollen and Cashmere Shawls.
Black Dress' Silk, Ladles' Flannel Shirt*.
Black French Twilled and fancy colored Cloth*.
Satin, fancy colored Wlk and other Vesting*.
Men's Flannell Shirts and Drawers.
Cuttofl Vsnrn, Brown A Hlraeti*4 Cottons A Drillings
A large assortment of BOO Id and SHOES.
Fine Clothi Plush and Glared Caps*
A variety of Sftk, Molrsktu, Angola and Wool
HATS, very low. With the usual assortment of
Gaocxmiss, HuiitttO, Qoccttwan, Davos and
Medicines, Books, Sr*noxtmr, &c., &.c<
He Invites the publlo te examine his stock
which will be found as low ss any in the coun
try.
All klmb of produce taken in uchsnge for
gocds*
N. B.?Those Indebted to him will please call
and If poeslble pflV lllm?by so doing they wUk
confer a lasting favor.
Docember 3. ISM?ly.
IN'. W. Vn. Railroad Co.
AN Instaimont sf Three Dollars on each share
of the stock of this company, is required to
be paid to Uio Treasurer, at their offioe in Parker*
burg, on or before the 10th day of December next.
Stockholders tesldlng in or neer Lewis county,
may pay fhelr Instalments to Jonathan M. Ben
nett, Esq., and those In or near Harrison county
to Burton Despard, Esq., who will deliver to lh?tu
the official receipts of the undersigned, counter
signed by themselves.
Bv order of the Board,
P. G. VAN WINKLE, Treaa.
Parkersburg, Nov. 90,1851.?St
IVcw Clothing: StorcT
The subscriber has just opened
at hla store-room In Clarksburg,
Immediately opposite " ikt burnt
district," a lorgo und fntblonixble
assortment of Ready-Made Clo
thlug, which lie plodgea himself
to sell at such noMlsi.r low pri
ces, thst those who call, cannot
fn" (0 Sn ,'u;'r w*y rejoicing In
tlie possession Of bargains never before obtained.
In this place. His stock consists principally of
Coats of every description, Vests, Vsnts, Shirts,
very cheap; Diawers, Flannel end Cotton Under
shirts, Cravats,Gloves, &.C., Jce.
Also, a large assortment of Boots, Shoes, Hnts
and Caps: all of which will be sold at prices here
tofore unknown to tho people of Clarksburg and
tho surrounding country. Alwsys in liana, and
constantly recel\lug from the cities ot Now York
and Philadelphia, n new and complete assortment
of Winter Clothing, iosupplv the present demand.
Thnso who wish to save their money,can dn so
by calling upon the subsetiber, at his store, one
door west of the law office of J. S. Carlisle, Esq.,
formerly occupied bv Col. G. D. Camden.
' MYER BONNEBOKN.
Clarksburg, Nov. 9G, 1851.?3t
IVew Fall X Winter (ivodi.
received from
l'hilsdulpliia. iinliimuro ami Pittsburg, lay Fall
and Winter (iOods, of all kind*. to wit:
Clothes Casslmcros nnd Satinets, of ill ?otwrt
njid style*.
Kin* Silk* of *11 color* and stvlc. Alio, lata
?tylo (>r\\ vv!!cii GooJ* for I.udiu?'l)i?t*a*,
Calicoes from 5 to 1 <\ ct*.. of *tij>crlor style.
Alpaca*. Miulin*. Cimlimerc*, Ac.
Hath nnd Cam of lint Intent *tyl?i.
Jlo.YNLTa ; Silk. Hmid uiul Pourl.
(inocEiiiE* ; Snt>ort?r Y. 11. 'IVa, lilnck do., 8u
l>orlor CoITi* at ct*.
Hoot* & Snots ; a Mumrior *touk of *11 kind* fur
Latlioa, Gsntlciucn and Boys.
tji'tKNs wani ; h eood sssortinent.
Cottok Yaw ; all No*., Halting, Ao.
Iron ?fe Nail* , *l*o, a good lot of Iron and
Nail*.
Haiw-wari ; ? good nMortment.
Alto a llnu auorlmunt of 8AOULr.tr.
All of which I w ill mII Cheap for Culi or ??un
try product.
' 1 B. F0WKE8.
Not. Utli. lbil.
Takl Nonet?Tho*s who li*v* stsinliug ao
count* and note* unsettled will pleas* call with
otitdolnvsnd sotttle them. or by tlio lit nfjsu
tiary next, without, regard to |N)r*on?; and thoa*
who fall to settlo by that tlui* their accouula
will tw transferred to meet tny debt*.
It. FOWKi.fi.
Nov. iatli,16&l.
N. fl.?All kinds of grain will b* rsevtvad on
?lebt* or for go6ds. R. F.
.\ch supply of* Dry <*ootl?.
'pin: lioat bargains can In* hod at ft. Dnspsrd,
.1 jr'a. new establishment ; who hss just receiv
ed a very large nnd general ntsorliuenl of good*,
fine, good and cliosp, which he offer* to sell on
pleasing term* for Cn*h, Produce, or to prompt
dealer* on time. Hi* slock consists In part of
Cloths, Cuofmeri, Tin nit, SatinttU, Rraiy mailt
Clnthimj, eoniiitin?/ of Finr Arnt and Qmt Coal I,
IVif, 'I'anti, Shirti, ttt., 8ilki, Alpaeat, Df
laim, <V<-., Collcecs, or ovcry kind, and quality,
Shmrli, brown, and hioucheJ Cottoni, Driliinyi,
Flanntli, Linityi, and a thousand and one other
articles in the dry gooil* line. Hi* stock alio
comprise* Groceries. Queenswsro, Hardware,
Hudolcry, Book* and Stationary, Boot*andHhoee,
Hut*, Capa and Bonnet*. In short, lis ha* era
ry thing kept in a country store, lie eatliMl loll
you all, but como and see for yourselves, snd yott
| will cry with the Queen of Shaba, (who whilom
did visit Solomon) that the half hM nol been
told you. lie will also give you a prsctleal de
- monslrallon of another fact, stated In sacred writ,
; which to, that old thing* are done sway, and
J nil thing* have become new.
Clarkaburg, Not. Ifitii, lb&l-lf.
TO tiSk PlTriucf
friendo and promptness of a iiortlon of my cus
tomer*. I have buen enabled to substitute my
Tools. Muchnlnery, Slock, if,, Which were de
stroyed by Art on the 27th of Msy, last. My Ma
chinery i* now nsw.of the vest latest mra^va*
hist, and not Inferior to any In ttss. with these
fagilities I can manufacture TIN, OOPPEK,
SHEKT-JRON and BBAM WARS lowsr than
has ever been done in tho WssL. All kind* of
JOB-WOIIK will bs done vary promptly sud
at greatly reduced prices. lforsK-HrorTisv of
overy kind at the abosrtest notice?ths common
size of which will be mad* at ll?H ct*. per foot.?
In short T will say that Atovir cam as sa?ni? a*
dealixo with vt; and that fset can bs establish
ed by trylaf ms oxer, and if satiafsetlon
is not given, 1 will not ssk a return. This Is
no humbiiggtrv I will i?o what 1 tar.
I hereby tender my thanks to this people for
their long end liberal en- 'I'sgerneijt, and am un
der many obligations to tho*a of my cnatomar*
who have so moxriLT settled their claims silica
the fire. And #? 1 ye-, greatly need money, w< uld
request all tb?M knowing tusnaclvea due m? u>
mako payment at tbelr xaki.isst cunvsiiieiK<
This will more cffectuslly enable me to oarry out
mr oetcbmp'atioii to sell L<rw for prompt pay.
1 nave removed my Hhop from Hie Cowt-llous
yard, to the north ond of tieapsr'l'k tmhUng*. on
the cr<>?*-?tr<-<it, Ivadina from B*rtfettr* IToU. to
Kinche'.os'i vrrntr ; where I will he glad to *aa the
rrorLB I however will, between tbltaad spring,
Ik- upon the old gr<rjad opposite the Court-lions*.
C. W.BMITIiT
Htrkslnrg, Nor. li,1*8l,~ly. (?
tulernational Uaicnzinf
OF LITERATURE. SCIENCE AND ART.
ThU " Paragso of IV Monthllas," Corapri
sea the spirit of the English RrrVrw* and Jopr?
iuU; trsnaUtiona from the French, Oarman, Itc.t
the most popular BHtal Romances anfl Talcs; no
tices of thapilMtpal cvsitts lo Literature sod Art;
the ganerml history of eoeh moddf; obituaiiea of
eminent persons; flnsat paMim of n*w works,
tc. Each number contstiw IW Wirt pages, ia
doable column*, with finely engraved Portrait* ef
public characters, Illustration* of events, he., and
carefully prepared notic s of laahiona. Tha three
splendid volames presented In a stngls year, wBI
contain la the "g^rsgmU 2000tasgaandadmlraWr
: priatarf aM ftaibeliiahad pofra. 3-We fifth toIm*
I cammmtxa ?lth the Dee^nhar 4uptl*r.
Tdvl?<3 a y?r, 23 coik'u * nmnbtr. Vol*
aim* bound la mualia (comprMn* four monthly
ngmbtri,, tlMi. U>ck votanaa from tha con*
iMBMmcut (Aafiul, 1830) can ajwtya to auppU<
?L Addrtaa .
STRINGER A TOWN8END,
Nm.H^EU. 8MOraadway, KmtTot.
C. 4 C. ?. LEWlOi,
Attoruicn at LaVv,

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