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Cooper's Clarksburg register. [volume] (Clarksburg, Va. [W. Va.]) 1851-1861, December 24, 1851, Image 2

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?j%iRs?*th'a l aiua Garden Speech,
We pubHib tho following extract from
vW ?pc<ch of Kottuth made at Castle
0*rden, New York. Tho language is
forcible, and must go home to the heart
of every true lover of liberty.
! urn a republican. I have avowed it
openly in the monarchial but frco Eng
land and am happy to state that I havo
nothing loit by tins avowal there. I
hope 1 will not loso hero in republican
America, by that frankness, which must
be one of the chief qualities of every
republican. 80 1 beg leave frankly and
openly to state the following points:
First, that I take it to be the duty of
honor and principle not to meddle with
whatever party question of your own
domoatio affairs. I claim for my country
tho right to dispose of itself; so I
molved, and must be resolved to respect
?ho same principle here and e'^ry whero.
Others may delight in the p*rt ofknightt
wrant for theories. J' fs n0- case.?
I aiu tho roan or ?'.e great prtnotple of
tho sovereii.?"/ofevc,7 people-to dtspose
of its of " domestic concerns ; and I most
j,0V"n'y deny to every foreigner, as to
ciery foreign power, the right to oppose
the sovereign faculty.
Secondly', I profess, highly and openly,
my admiration for tho glorious principle
of union, on which stands the mighty
pyramid of your greatness. and upon
tho basis of which you have grown, in
tho short period of seventy-five years, to
a prodigious giant, the living wonder of
the world. 1 have the most warm wish
that the star-spangled bapner of the Uni
ted States mav forever be floating, uni
ted ami one, the proud ensign of man
kind's divine origin. ? And taking my
ground on this principle of union which
I find lawfully existing, an established
constitutional fact, it is not to a party,
but to the united people of the Uuitcd
Stales, that I confidently will address my I
humble requests for aid and protection j
to oppressed humanity. I will conscien
tiously respect your laws ; but within the
limits of your laws I will use every hon
est exertion to gain your operative sym
pathy, and your financial-, material and
political aid for my country's freedom and
? independence, and entreat the realiza
tion'of these hopes which your generosi
ty has raised in me and my people's
breasts, and also in the breasts of Eu
tfupe's oppressed nations. And, there
Thirdly, I beg leave frankly to state
that my aim ii^to restore my fatherland
to the full;enjoyment of that act of de
claration of independence, which being
the only rightful existence of public law
of my nation, can have lost nothing of
its rightfulness by the violent invasion of
foreign Russian arms?and which, there
fore, is fully entitled to be recognized by
fhe people "of the United States, whose
very existence is founded upon a similar
declaration of independence.
Thus having expounded my aim, I beg
loave t<) state that 1 came not to your glori
ous shore* to enjoy a happy rest. I came
not with the intention to gather triumphs
of personal distinction, or to be the ob
ject of popular shows?but 1 came a
humble petitioner in my country's name,
as its freely chosen constitutional chief.
What can bo opposed to this recogni
tion,-which is tho logic necessary conse
qutnee of the principle of your country's
political existence ?
What can be opposed to it ? The
frown of Mr. Stlulsemna-?tho anger of
?that sateliteof tjic Czar, called FraneisJo
*t>ph of Austria?and tho immense dan
yvr with which some European and
American papers threaten you, and by
which,'of coarse, you must feel extreme-,
1y terrified, thfet your Minister at Vienna
will have Otrertd his rassports, and that
Mr. Hulseman leaves Washington, should
I be received and treated in my official I
capacity. Now, as to your Minister at i
Vietm.r. how you can combine the letting]
him stay there with your opinion of the:
cau.^e of Hungary, 1 really don't know;
but so much I know, that the present ab- j
solutistical atmosphere of Europe is not
v(?ry propitious to American principles.?
I koow a man who could tell some curi
ous facts about this matter. But as to
Mr. Hulseman, really I don't believe that
he would bo so ready to leave Washing
ton. lie has extremely well digested the
caustic pilU which Mr. Webster has ad
ministered to hiifi so.gloriously.
But, after all, I know enough of the
public spirit of the sovereign people of the
United.Statea, that it would never admit
to whatever responaible depository of the
Exeoutive power, should he even be wil
ling to do so, which, to bo sure, your
high-mihdod Government is not willing
to do, to be regulated in its policy by all
the Hulscmans or alllhc Francis Josephs
in tie world.
;So I confidently hope that the sove
reign of the country, the people will moke
the declaration of independence of Hun
gary soon formally recognized, and that
it will care not a bit for it if Hulseman
takes Jo-morrow his passports?bon voy
to hiin. But it is also my agreeable
jJ?ty t? pro/<y<? that I am entirely convin
ced that the Government of the United
5?t$t?8 shares warmly the seniimjnts of
the people in that respect. It has proved
?i' by'executing in a ready and dignified
.manner the resolution of Congress on be
half of my Irbcration. It has proved it
br calling on the Congress to consider
how I shall be treated and received.
Even this morning I was honored by
the express order of the Government, by
an official salute from tlte batteries of the
United Slates in such a manner in which,
according to the military rules, only a
public high official capacity can be greet
ed. Having thus expounded my aim, I
beg leave to state that I came not to your
glorious chores to enjoy a happy rest?I
,c*ine not with the intention to gather tri
uniphs of personal distinction, but be
Vause a humblo petitioner in my country's
name, as its freely chosen eonstitational
thief, humbly to entreat your generous
aid ; and then it is to-that aim that Iwill
?levoto overx moment of my time with the
more assiduity, the more restlessness, as
.every moment, may bring a report of
events which may call me to hasten to
ray place on the battlfc field, where the
great, and 1 hope the fast battle will be
fought between Liberty and Despotism?
a ngpment marked by the finger of God
to lye ?o near that every hour of delay of
'Aur gcncrom aid may prove fatally dis
havinj/humanity; and thus
him We pctittfMf position to bo that of a
'?* the name of my op
pressed country, let me respectfully ask.
do you not regret to have bestowed upon
me the lilgh honor of this glorious recep
tion, unparalleled in history, though 1
know that your fathers have welcomed
Lafayette in a similar way; but Lafay
ette had mighty claims upon your coun
ty 8 gratitude; he had fought in your
ranks for your freedom and independence,
and what was still more, in the hour of
your need. He was the link of your
friendly connection with France?a "con
nection, the result of which were two
French Fleets, of more than thirty light
men-of-war, three thousand gallant men
who fought side by ?ide with you against
? Cornwallis, before Vorktown?the preci
ous gift of i? cnty-four thousand muskets,
and u ta?n of nineteen millions of dollars,
' anJ even the preliminary treaties of your
/glorious peace, negotiated at Paris by
your immortal Franklin.
I hope the people of the United Stales,
now itself in a nappy condition to aid
those who are in need of aid, as itself was
once in need, will kindly remember these
facits; and you citiaens of New York,
? and yoursehes become the Lafayettes of
Hungary. Lafayette had great claims
to your love and sympathy, but I have
none. 1 come a humble petitioner, with
no other claims than those wkifjjp tho op
pressed have to the sympatlijOof free
men, who have the power with
the claim which the unfo^iJiWfJias to
the happy, and the down-tr?SiV\Jia$ to
the protection of eternal jusiiot ;tud hu
man rights. In a word, I have no other
claims than those which the oppressed
principle of freedom has to the aid of
victorious liberty. Then I would humbly
ask, are these claims suQicieut to insure
your generous protection, not to myself,
but to the cause of my native land?not
to my native land only, but to the princi
ple ot freedom in Europe's continent, of
which the independence of Hungary is
the indispensible Keystone. * |
If you consider these claims not suf
ficient to your active and operative sym
pathy, then let me know a.t once that the
hopes have tailed with which Europe's
oppressed nations have looked to your
great, mighty, and glorious republic?let
me know at once the failure of our hopes,
that I may hasten back, and tell Europe's
oppressed nations, ?' Let us tight forsaken
and single-handed the battle of Leoni
das; let us trust to God, to our right, and
to our good sword ; there is no other help
I for the oppressed nations on earth."?
But if your generous republican hearts
are animated by the high principle of
freedom, and of the soliditnry in the des
tinies of humanity?if you have the will,
as to be sure you have the power to sup
( port the cause of freedom against the sac
? riligious league of despotism, then give i
| me some days of calm reflection to be- j
1 come acquainted with the ground upon I
j which I stand?let me take the kind ad- i
| vice of some active friends on the most I
practical couse 1 have to adopt?in favor !
ot that cause which I have the honor to j
represent; and then let me have a new
opportunity to expound before you my j
humble requests in a practical way. I
I confidently hope, Mr. Mayor, the cor-;
poiation and citizens of the Empire city
will grant me the second opportunity. If
this be your generous will, then let me
take this for a boon of happier days; and
let me add with a sigh of thanksgiving to
the Almighty God, that it is your glori
ous country which Providence has selec
ted to be the pillow of freedom, as it is
. already the asylum to oppressed human
I am told ttiat I will have the high
honor to review your patriotic militia.?
Oh, God. how my heart throbs at the
idea, to see this gallant army enlisted on
the side of freedom against despotism ; j
the world would be free, and you the 1
saviours of humanity. And why not?
Tliese gallant men take part in the migh- j
ty demonstration of the day, proving that,
1 was right when I said that now-a-days I
oven the bayonets think.
llvmane Act.?There is much more 1
distress amongst the poor of our city than
any of us are willing lo believe, an 1 yet
from causes that some would think ridicu
lous, that distress does not reach the pub
lic ear. For instance, a lady who has
held a prominent position in society, mo- j
ving hand in hatul with tlipt class, which
is considered the very best, loses her bus-1
band, and she has no resources to fall
back upon: What is she to do? She is
too proud to ask charity of those whom
she has mot as equals, and even if 6he
was not, she feels that she might meet1
with a rebuff, in case she did, which
would be too mortifying to bear. Of
course she would rather call to aid some
of the elements of her education received
in the days of her girlhood; say, instruc
| tion in music, teaching school, or the em
ployments of the needle.
Dropping in last week at a merchant
tailor's store on Main street, between
Fourth and Fifth, we became from the
situation wo occupied, an unwilling lis
tener to a scene that reminded us of the
above fault that exists in society. A la
dy came into the store?she was a lady,
as her every appearance betokened?and
asked the proprietor for some vests to
make. That proprietor and ladv had met
before, but it was under different circum
stances. then the lady was the gayest of
the gay, moving in a circle to which he
aspired not, for his associations were con
fined to another sphere. She remember
ed him, and hence the reason she appli
ed to him with more timidity and morti
fication, feeling that there might have
been a time when he could have thought
himself flattered at some of her inconsid
erate conduct. She was mistaken in his
character, for he always felt that he was
so much of a man that the highest of na
ture's noblemen could not slight him, and
a woman could not offend htm.
That proprietor was most reluctantly
compelled to tell the lady that he had not
a single job on hand, having given out
the last but a few moments before. The
| announcement seemed to nearly break the
lady's heart, for she immediately exclaim
ed: "What shall I do for myself ind
children? I have no money, no work,
nor any means of relieving 'heir w wp.
Thi-' i? the seventh place. t?> wl ich I h ? e
applied, to all of which I 1 five been tvf;i
seu. For the saki of hmnani y. sir. io
give me some employment."
We pitied the poor woman, and so did
our friend, for she had no sooner made her
append than he ordered his foreman to cut
out half a doxen vests which was done
??mmI Iwmiied ov*r tu t h? lady to m?k?.?
She took them, expressing many thanks
for the favor, and we left that tailor's store
with the consciousness that he had a
pretty good heart wrapped up in the vest
he was then wearing.? Cincinnatti Enqui
rer. -oJl,
Cooper's ClarksburgHrgister
" Rqatl Rl|hu and Equal Law*!"
At this office, an intelligent, actlvo boy about
15 years old, to loam the printing business. He
inuit be industrious and steady. To such an one
u good opportunity is offered to ioarn the business,
and none othors ueed apply
?3T We last week alluded to the want
of a proper organization of the Demo
cratic party, to enable them to unite their
strength and truly represent the senti
ments of a majority of the citizens of the
county in the selection of their officers.?
The recent vo'e for State officers in this
county incontrovertibly proves, that the
Democratic party is decidedly in the as
cendancy, and simple justice would seem
to demand that the political opinions of
that majority should be respected in the
choice of rulers. This, however, was not
altogether the case at the last election.?
One gentleman was elected whose politi
cal principles did not agree with the mas
ses. We have not a word of fault to find
with Mr. Moore, personally. Indeed we
esteem him highly as a man and a citizen,
and will do him the justice to say, that
this is the estimation in which he is held
in this community. But we profess to
look farther and be governed by other mo
tives than the personal qualifications of a
man exclusively, particularly when our
own candidates are not inferior in this re
spect. We profess to be governed by
principles in the selection of our law-ma
kers, and can, conscientiously, support
only such men as coincide wi ll us in those
principles. We believe < hat the measures I
advocated and supported by the Demo
cratic party, are the most calculated to
promote the best interests of the country,
and consequently, wc are in duty bound
to support them. This we illy do by vo
ting for a man whom we know will oppose
them, whatever his personal qualifica
tions may be.
But voting for the opposing candidate
is not the only nor the most effectual
manner of contributing to our defeat. A
want of harmony and unanimity of action
is the great cause of the discomfiture of
our candidates in more counties than Har
rison, and unless a united and liberal dis
position is manifested, wo never can pre
sent an unbroken front to the enemy, or
at any time be secure in the just represen
tation of our political views. This can
best be accomplished by a thorough or
ganization of our party strength. There
are several ways of doing this, which will
enable every part of the county to be fair
ly represented, and effectually prevent any
person from being forced upon the party
by a few of his select friends, or because
he imagines himself to be the best person
in the county for the particular office to
which he aspires. The voters of each po
litical party?those who are expected to
support them at the election, should them
selves select the men for whom they desire
to vote.
We hope the people will serious
ly consider this matter and act as
they in their judgement may think best.
We give our own views on the subject,
with nothing at heart but the success of
the principles we have always cherished
and of the party with which we have al
wavs acted.
The Treason Trials.?The U. S. Dis
! trict Attorney stated in the U. S. Circuit
' Court at Philadelphia on the 17th inst.,
j that nolle prosequies had been entered|up
i on all the indictments for Treason, but
that detainers had been lodged against
I all of the prisoners by the authorities of
| Lancaster, to be taken there for trial for
j the murder of Mr. Oorsuch. He further
stated that those not convicted at Lancas
ter, would be brought back to stand
their trial on the charge of a misdemean
?3T Wc publish in another column a
communication in favor of Dr. Flowers of
Shinnston, for one of the Board of Public
Works. We have not the pleasure of a
personal acquaintance with Mr. Flowers,
but his reputation as a business man, and
I his acquaintance with public improve
ments, would seem to justify the opinion
that he is eminently qualified for the sta
tion to which he is recommended.
1 ?5T0f the Virgin ia members, Mr. Bayly
is Chairman of the Committee on Foreign
Afl'airs, and Mr. Beale Cnairman of the
1 Committee on Manufactures.
XtT A friend at our elbow suggests
that the c.iu?e of the late cold weather is
hat Summer's holed up.
1 ' is; h hin.l til l hofcriv"
' ?!?.! i' M Joe !
a.ti 'Vi rt .tin out uatiks cO Hon. J.
M. 11. Beale, for Miviral valuable docu
?3T Cnnrity covers a multitude of
; sins.
Thin man has created more excitement
throughout this country, than any other
person who has ever visited our shores,
with the exception of Lafayette. His
stay in New York was a succession of
'honors by corporations, committees and
individuals. He has made a number of
speeches in which he has declared the
object of his visit to this country to be to
procure its aid and influence in favor of
Hungary. He wants the aid of the peo
ple in prosecuting the war against Austria,
and the influence of the Government to
prevent Russia from interfering in the
struggle. The former he is likely to get
to a certain extent, as several gentlemen
of New York have already contributed
$1000 each, and others have contributed
smaller amounts. A Hungarian Nation
al Loan Committee is about being estab
lished in New York, to receire the amounts
of those disposed to contribute to this
object. The impression made by the el
oquence of the Ex-Governor in favor of
Hungary, has been very great among the
people, but what impression it will make
upon the government remains to be seen.
We doubt very much, however, if he suc
ceeds in inducing it to take any part in
the matter. The policy of this govern
ment heretofore has been not to interfere
in European affairs, or permit the pow
ers of that country to meddle with Amer
ican matters.
The sympathies of the American peo- i
pie are always enlisted in behalf of those
who are struggling for liberty against the
oppressions of tyranny, yet it becomes us
to be cautious how we endanger our own
institutions in commencing a crusad
against despotism throughout the world.
If the moral influence of this gove. ?
ment can effect anything for oppressed
Hungaary, we should he greatly rejoiced
to see her benefitted by it; but the poli
cy of going further, is at least question
We have already overloaded our col
umn; wiih accounts of his reception,
speeches, <fcc., but we cannot refrain from
laying before our readers an extract from
his address made at Castle Garded, in
New York. He evinces a love of liberty
and devo'ion to his country, which must;
command the admiration and respect of
every true patriot.
For the Register.
Mr. Editor I see in several numbers
of the Register, communications recom
mending sundry persons for the office of
Judge of the Supreme court, <fco. This
is as it should be. Let all the prominent
men suitable for the different offices be j
brought before the people.
The new Constitution creates some new
offices and changes the mode of filling all
the old ones. This is also as it should be. j
Let the people choose their own agents. (
and make these agents accountable to the
people. Let this be accomplished aud
Virginia will begin to look up. When a
man receives an office now. it will not be
for life; moreover, he will not have to
look to one or two influential friends for
that office, but to the people ; and after a
reasonable term, he must lay that office
down at the feet of the people, to be
again filled by him or others, as they may
The New Constitution retains the Board
of Public Works, but that Board is formed
differently from the old one. The State
is laid off into districts by the Legislature,
and each district elects one member of
that Board. This is one of the most (if
not the most) important offices in the gift of
the people. Upon this board of commis
sioners depends much of the prosperity of
our country. It should be composed of
practical business men. ...
This portion of the State will be entitled
to one member of that Board, and in cas
ting about, my mind has fallen upon Doct..
Jesse Flowers, as a very sui able person
to become a candidate for that office?
The Doctor is well known as a far seeing
business man. and in my opinion the very
best man to fill the office that we have in this
section of the State. 1 know not what
the Doctor's feelings are upon this subject,
but as he has always been the people's
nuxn, he is respectfully requested to allow
his name to be made use of by his friends
in connection with that honorable position.
This article is not written without consul
tation, and should he do as desired, he
will receive a hearty support from
Many Voters.
Clarksburg, 20th Dec., 1851.
Dear Sir: j
I have noticed in your paper of the 17th
instant, a communication signed ?? L " on
the subject of the election of a Judge of
the Court of Appeals from this Judicial
Section, in which the writer nominates
me for that place, and expresses the hope
that I will at once announce myself a
candidate for it. Having no aspirations
for the office, and not wishing to be regard
ed as a candidate, I deem it proper at
once to so express myself. I will, how
ever, state that in reply to repeated so
licitations from various parts of this Judi
cial circui'. urging me tobecome a candi
date for the office of Circuit Judge, that
i h:?ve stated. I might be so regarded.
Yours, very respectfully,
Mr. Cooper. Edi or Regis'.er.
fW Among the novelties advertised
in he English paper are "single and
married bed-steads." S
Advice to the Yonug Attorney.
The following excellent advice to the
young attorney we extract from the
* Monthly Legal Examiner' for June, 1850.
The extracts here given may, perhaps,
be read with profit >y members of the le-j
gal profession both old and yoong.
Before we proceed to review in detail
the various branches of your practice, and
to describe the duties that will devolve
upon you in the conduct ,of each one in
its turn, let us endeavor to throw togeth
er a few hints for your conduct towards
your clients generally. We will suppose
that you have seated yourself in your of
fice for the first time to wait the coming
of employment. Such a moment is an
appropriate one for reflection upon the
new and important duties that have de
volved upon you, and the manner in whioh
70U should endeavor to discharge them.
i ou will naturally desire to prescribe to
yourself a code of rules for conduct by
which you may be guided in the practice
of your Profession?so perilous because
so full of temptation ; so fraught with use
fulness to the world, so honorable to your
self, if rightly pursued ; so pestiferous to
the community, and so self destructive, if
dishonestly or dishonorably practiced.
The difference for you now to make be
tween the Lawyer and the Pettifogger?the
difference is between the respect and the
reviling of the world?between the gen
tleman and the pickpocket?between be
| ing a benefactor or a pest to society !
Let it be your first resolve always to!
consult your client's interest without reference '
to your oicn. In almost every case that'
oilers itself it will be competent to you to 1
advise two courses?one which will in-1
crease costs, the other of which will pre
vent them. It is your duty always to
adopt the latter.
..JP10, dufy Is sufficiently obvious ; the
difficulty lies in the performance of it.
t enainly some self-denial is demanded to
counsel peace when your very client is i
panting for war, and when merely to fall i
in with his wishes will be to fill your poc
ket with fees, while to thwart him is to
reject great gains, and, perhaps, even to
hazard his displeasure. Yet it must be
done. \ our duty is to advise him con
scientiously for his advantage, and vou
must resolutely, and without a glance at
the golden vision on the other side, give
him your honest opinion, and counsel him
for his profit.
And difficult as it may appear, this du
ty is done, daily and hourly, by the at
torneys, to an extent far beyond anything
of which the prejudiced public has any
conception. It may appear to be a para
dox. but it is strictly true, that the attor
neys are the great peacemakers of society.
But for their intervention there would be
tenfold more of personal violence, and fif
tyfol.l more of litigation than now exists,
tor one quarrel they promote, they settle
a hundred.
This consideration for your client and
forgetfulness of yourself is, however, not
the most difficult trial to which you will
be subjected. It happens not unfrequent
ly that a client goes to his attorney under
the influence of anger, smarting under
the sense of some real or imaginary wrong,
and thirsting for revenge. Passion will
never listen to reason ; you may suggest
to him doubts, difficulties, expenses?in
vain ; he will not see nor regard them.?
If you hesitate, if you will not full in with '
his humor and flatter his anger, promise '
him revenge, and show yourself as ready
to plunge him into litigation as he is to
begin it, he finds fault with you ; he thinks
you ignorant or timid ; and he quits you
to seek some adviser less honest, who
will natter lils passion. You will have
done your duty, but you will have lost
your client.
In such circumstances, without aban
doning an iota of your principle, for his
sake, equally as for yo ir own, you ma}*
have recourse to management. Seeing
that his reason is under the control of his
passions, you may defer your appeal to
the former till the latter have somewhat
subsided. It is not required of you that
you should drive him from your office by
direct opposition. Hear his grievance
patiently ; sympathize with his indigna
tion ; if you see no immediate prospect
of pacific advice being received, tell him
that you will look into the case, that you
will give it grave consideration, and state
our opinion the next day. By that time
e is pretty sure to be somewhat cooled.
Even then, unless you are satisfied that,
he is in a condition "to listen to calm ad- ;
vice, it would be imprudent to offer a di
rect opposition to his desires. Admit his
wrong, but set before him the difficulties ,
in the way of redress, and especially the '
cost of it. and submit to his consideration
whether it would not be more prudent to
compromise. Appear to leave the deci
sion to him, only taking care to put him
in possession of all the elements which
should determine him, as a prudent man,
not to fight, and then recommend him to
give mature deliberation to the matter be
fore he resolves. If, after that, it should
be his desire to proceed, your duty will i
be done, and you may rightly undertake s
the^ conduct ot the case, although never
omitting any opportunity that may offer
in its progress for prompting him to an
amicable settlement.
Legislature or South Carolina.?The
Senate adopted the resolution, asserting
that in fixing the day for the assembling
of the Convention, it was to enable the
people, in their sovereign capacity, to re
sort to such mode of resistance as they
may determine upon. And to vindicate the
State from the aspersion so lavishly cast
upon her that she has submitted, in com
mon with other Southern 8tates, to the
past aggressions of the Federal Govern
ment. In the House to-day, this resolu
tion was laid on the table.
The Senate to-day, refused the appli
cation of the General Government (or the
sale of the Light-house at Bull Bay.
tW Gen. Sam. Houston the hero of
San Jacinto, the father of Texas, and a
candidate for the Presidency, has this
week taken his seat in the Senate. He is
in fine health, (says a correspondent of
the Bahimore Clipper,) looks as vigorous
as the youngest man in the Senate, and
much more *avage with his Tiger Vetl,
which attracts the attention of every body.
The vest is the aciual skin of the Cougar
or wild Leopard of Texas, which the old
warrior killed with his own rifle. ^tan
Houston has been full of wild romancaHin
all his life, and be'll die romantically.
Couijut-si ?f Havana.
It is not generally known, we imagine,
that Havana has three times been made
a conquest of. It was taken by the
French, in the war between Henry II,
and Charles V. The city was nearlyde
stroyed. Its walls were demolished and
the fort rued. It was, secondly, taken
by Morgan, a sort of amateur conqueror?
now somatimes called a pirate?in 1669. I
. The greatest atrocities were committed I
i on the occasion. It was a regular pirati
? cal foray, with all the accompaniment of I
such forays. Morgan was afterwards'
knighted by Charles II., a gentlemen
, who, so that he got plenty of money and I
I had no cares pressed upon him, was wil
ling to do almost anything be was asked.
, The third capture was made in 1762 by
I the English. Lord Mahon thus describes I
[the event: I
The next object for our arm* in the
Wesl; In di es was not French, but Spanish.
On the 5th of March, 1762, an expedition
against Havana bad sailed from Porta
mouth, commanded by General the Earl
of Albemarle and Admiral Sir George Po
cock. It was joined on its way by a
share ot the squadron which had con
quered Marinico; the whole force, after
this addition, amounting to nineteen ships
of the line, eighteen smaller ships'of war,
and 160 transports, with 10,000 soldiers
on board. They made good their lan
ding near the Havana without opposition,
but on approaching the city, found them
selves beset with the most formidable ob
First among these might be reckoned ?
the climate, which, at the summer season, ]
to winch this enterprise had been delay
ed, and with the needful exposure of ac
tive service, is dangerous, nay, deadly, to
an European frame. The city itself, |
though most other sea points in Cuba,
destitute of natural strength, had been
fortified with the utmost skill, cost, and
care, as the great mart and centre of the
Spanish American trade. Within the har
bor lay twelve ships of the line ; within
the ramparts a garrison which, including
the country militia, was not in force infe
rior to the besiegers. Besides the strong
works flanked with bastions which defen
ded the main body of ihe placei the nar.
row entrance of the harbor was secured
by two forts deemed well nigh impregna
ble, the forts of Puntal and Moro. It
was against the Moro the English first di
rected the attack. They begun on the
12tli of June to construct their batteries,
but so thin was the soil, and so hard the
rock beneath, that they advanced very
slowly. The seamen, however, cordially
co-operated with the soldiers. By their
joint exertions the batteries were at length
completed, and the cannon .dragged with
prodigious labor over a long extent of
rugged shore. Several of the men at
work dropped down dead with heat
thirst, and fatigue.
At length their artillery came into play
upon the fort, and some vigorous sallies
of the besieged were steadily repulsed
One morning three ships of the English
fleet stationed themselves as close as they
could to the Moro, and attempted by their
tire to dismount their guns, but they were
compelled to withdraw, after slight cflect'
upon the enemy, and great damage to'
themselves. Many days elapsed with lit
tle progress: nevertheless the besiegers
continued undaunted, and towards the
close of July they were cheered by the
arrival of some unexpected reinforce
ments from New York. On tho 30th of
that month the mines having been sprung
and a practicable breach effected, (though
still narrow and difficult) the English
troops marched up to the assault. The i
"l'a n?' ?T ---ion dUpUy
the same .n'rep.d.ty as in their former sal*
.es; many threw down their ?rm. Mnd i
cried for quarter; many others rushed,
headlong to the water, where they perish-1
cd ; yet the officers set them a most gal
lant example, and it was not until both
their farst and second in command (Don
Luis de \ elasco and the Marquis do Gon
zales) had fallen mortally wounded, that
the besiegers stood victorious on the sum
mit of the castle wall.
The Moro thus conquered, batteries
were forthwith raised against the Havana
itself, and on the 11th of August their
fire began. Within six hours they had i
silenced nearly all the enemy's guns; I
Hags of truce then appeared from nearly
every quarter of the town ; and a capitu
n ensued, by which, not only the Ha
vana. but the district 180 miles to the
westward and all the ships in the harbor
were yielded to the English This capitu
lationi was not signed until the morning of
the 15th though the 12th has been more
commonly alledged. for the sake of con
necting this auspicious event with the
birth day of the Prince of Wales It
came in good time. The English had al
ready lost 1100 men from sickness or the
sword, and I find it asserted, that at the
time of the surrender, no more than 2500
remained capable of real service.
Treasure and merchandise of immense
value^?the whole, according to one com
putation, not far short of the sum of
?300,000,000, fell to the victors. But
great and just discontents arose at the
distribution of the prize money, in viola
tion it was said, of the established rules.
While no more than ?3 14s. 9d. were
allotted to a common seaman, and ?4 Is.
8<i- to a common soldier, the admiral and
general each obtained the enormous sum
of ?122,697.
Havana was subsequently restored to
opam for a quid pro qua.
Exitccno* or a Primt w Atstbia?
The Miltn Gazette of.the 8th ult., eon
tains the following sentence :
Giovanni Griola, priest at the parish
oolV , ? C^r*' WM convicted on the
28th of October, of having, by means of
money and persuasion, attempted to in
duce severar Austrian soldiers to desert
he possessed, further, 18 copies of a revo
lutionary writing, dated September, 1851,
which tended to the overthrow of the pre
sent legal government of his Imperial Ma
jesty On the ground of the proclamation
issued by his excellency, Governor Mar
shal, Count Radetzky, he was sentenced
to death, and the sentence executed at four
shot0"* m afternoon by powder and
Boston (says the late pamphlet on
her condition) is wedded to more than
1,000 miles of railway in Massachusetts,
more than 1,800 in the five other 8tates
of New England, and 66LV mure in New
York. Her investment in them exceed
dfht mWkmt of dofhrtf
r~ Population ofthe I nil id states. ?=?
The following table exhibits the are#
itid { ovulation of the several tf;tites of
the Union. In regard to the area, it U
to be remarked that widely varying state*
mcnU are made by geographers and oth
ers ; and the following from the Superin
tendent of the Census, is essentially dif
ferent from any former statement which
has met our eye. We arc not aware that
the area of the States has ever been ascer*
tained by careful survey; and for that
reason we merely give the statement for
what it is worth, without vouching for its
The population exhibits a ratio of in
crease tor the ten years prior to I860,
considerably greater than that of the pre
ceding decennial period; and those esti
mates of population which had been foun
ied upotyt uniform ratio of inorease, turn
OUi to DC widest ok we ixuin. ibis *??
suits from an extraordinary influx of for
eigners , which has taken place within the
last five years. During that period, the
number of immigrants has been equal (to
the fifteen preceding years; and the tide
still swells higher with every recurring
season. It is already ascertained that
about 280,000 foreigners have landed at
New York alone during the first eleven
months of the present year, leaving little
doubt that by the 1st of January the
number will reaoh 300,0001 Forthe oth
er porta, it will bo within bounds to esti
mate the arrivals at 100,000 more, ma
king a total of 400,000 immigrants in one
year ! This is equivalent to adding such a
State as Michigan with four Represents
tives and two Senators per annum, from
this source alone, besides one of equal
site from the natural increase of our peo
ple. It may he safely estimated that five
millions of foreigners will have cngraftod
themselves upon our population in ten
years from IBS*; and there is abundant
evidence that that number exceed* the
total amount of immigration to these
shores, from the first settlement at James
town up to this time ! It is only within a
few years that our population has been
materially increased by immigration.?
l'rior to 1825, the number of immigrants
rarely, if ever, exceed five thousand ptr
annum, while within the last two years,
fifteen thousand have arrived at New
York in a week!
The world has been wondering for
thirty years at the rapid settlement and
growth of our frontier States ; but the
progress which has been witnessed in the
past is as nothing compared to that which
is destined to exhibit itself in coming
years. When the State of Ohio commen
ced its career, the population of the Un
ion was little more than four millions, and
the emigration from Europe was perhaps
five thousand per annum ; yet. in the first
five years of her existence, her popula
tion rose to forty-five thousand, and in
the next ten, to two hundred and thirty
thousand. It is to be remarked that at
that period Ohio formed the whole fron
tier of the free States, which circumstance*
concentrated the whole tide of emigration
upon that State. Whereas, at the pres
ent moment, that frontier extends from
'the parallel of 49 deg. to40deg. 3 1 min.;
|and west of the S a c of Missouri, it will
come down to 36 deg. 30 min. But not
withstanding this wide field which opena
before the tide of emigration, the immense
volume which it has acquired will fill up
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, with a
rapidity which has never been witnessed
in the history of the older S'.atos. Tho
progress of Wisconsin in the last ten year*
prior to the taking of the la'.e census i*
unparalleled. From thirty thousand" in
I 184U, its population rose to throe hundred
and ijve thousand in 1060; and if, like
. Ohio in its enrly history, WigconsdnJiad
mm riri?u 11, vin? mmmtrftntn of Northern
and European emigration, there is little
doubt that its population would now nurft
ber a million I But Michigan. Illinois, Io
wa. and Indiana, all equally rich and ac
cessible, have increased with nearly equal
rapidity ; and by spreading tho population
over a wider surface, broken into separate
State organisations, have prevented the
exhibition of the sublime spectacle of a
great compact and a populous State, the
creation of ten years ! ?
The true lover of romance is he who
studies the history, resources, and prog
ress of this great country in wealth, popu
lation, and power, and from unquestiona
ble data estimates what that wcal'h and
power are to be in coming time Tho
dreams of fiction are paltry and unsatis
fying to the imagination, compared with
these great realities.
Table of the area, aiul the number of inhabi
tantt to the S'/narr m>le, <f ra h State and
Territory in the Union
Area in Population Kn of in
state. aq. miles. in I860. habitant*
. to sq. m.
Mains - . SO,000 MS,tAt 10.44
New Hampshire - s.tso 117 o<M 84 2fl
Vermont - - 10.21* 818.811 SO.OT
Ma*?ai-hna*tts . 7.800 ktu.4** la* 11
Khodc Island - I MO 147 644 10*!06.
Connecticut - 4.174 170.7*1 7?.8S
New York- - 44:000 8.0*7.8*4 *7.4*
New Jersey - 8.8*0 4SV.656 00.04
Pennsylvania . 44,000 2811,788 60.*6
Delaware - - 2,1*0 *1,686 ?8.84
Maryland - . ? ?M 688.086 62.SI
Virginia - - 81.86* 1.411.881 t8.1T
North Carolina - 46.000 188.808 18.80
Booth Carolina - 24.600 4*8.607 t7.M
Georgia . . - 68.000 M?,*** 16.88
Alabama - ? 60.7*2 171.871 18.fl
Misaiialppi . 47.188 408.666 1 8.88
Louisiana - - 48,481 611,874 11AM
Texaa - - 887.881 218,688 .8#
Florida ? - 68.888 87,401 1..7
Kentucky - . 87.880 *82,406 88.07
Tennetaee ? - 46.400 1.00t.SM 21.88
Miieouri - . 87,840 <48.048 10,1)1
Arkansas - - 68.188 *08,888 4.01.
Ohio- . - 88 844 1.MO .408 ? 48.85
Indiana - - 88.80* 8*8.414 88.88
lilinoia . . 66.406 161.470 lc.88
Michigan - - 64.264 887 464 T.OT
Iowa . . 60.814 1*8.814 8.7T
Wiaconsin- ? 4**24 *06,1*1 5.46
California ? ? 148 *81
Minnesota- - 88.000 8 ?77 .0T
Oregon . - 841-488 . 112*8 .At
New Mexico -- 810,744 81.6Q& ,tf
Utah - - 187*21
Nebraska - - 188.TOO >
Indian ? . 1*7 171
Northwest- - 687.644
District of Col. . 40 r 61,487 SSI.48
*,*11.6*6 *8,080,7*8
To this number ahould be added about
200,000 for Utah and California.
Tub Cask or Mr. Thrasher.?It is
stated that Mr. Webster has written to
Judge Sharkey, our new Consul at Ha
vana, to obtain a copy of the record of
the court which tried Mr. Thrasher, our
goverement only being in possession of
newspaper acoounU. It is further added
that Mr. Webster is of the opinion that
Mr. Thrasher became a citizen of Spam,
and if so, he ean only request a remission
.of the eentcoee.

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