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^ J ? " I **% . / TZrsS&2~ | CoCj^cfyF* yZjos^sf B " T5v>>^ ' /T 5TV!>>OTmr> jrr II ? C^-^C r X'JI X JL c/ Copyright^ 1915, by The International * Syndicate. : ST; _ ; Legends of the Origin of ) "April Fool" and Some of s J1. _ A n 1 TT71 1 I) me yueer rranus vv men Have Been Played On That Day lii Various Parts of the World. No sooner doth St- All Fools* morn approach' Bat Wnggs, ere Phebus mount his gilded coach, Ih sholes. assemble to employ their senso In sending foots to get Intelligence: One. seeks hens' teeth in farthest part of the town, : Another pigeons' milk; a third a gown From -strollingi cobbler's stall, "left asJ . therp .by' oliancc- ... Thus - lead- the giddy tribe a merry j dance, r>- And. to reward them for their harm-, t ... less toil s Tho cobbler 'uolnts tlieir limbs .with 1 . ; Stirrup oil. Thus by'contrivers inadvertent jest One' fool exposed makes pastime for. r the rest. ~Pogr Robin's Almanac, 1728. :?'. ' ?* ' "1 FTBR vainly trying to find- an origin for the silly custom of B7* "fyollng" people on April first if; ^ -.o ^the " majority of historians have come to the conclusion that it is a relic of the old Roman Saturnalia; It was at that time that Caius ? ;?; ? I" i ' i -i .i ? ? ' i i ? i " 3cji: " -A' " i 0BgfOUR hundred years ago there ?ar Wis not a wheel of any dels scription on the American, coh. . JF tinent; n6, not even, a wh'eeltytrrowl Still 1 more?there was not a - draft -animal here: that is. one whit^i was' us^d as such. The North -American-Indians might have domesticated the powerful .bison of the..plains, but their imagination did not extend that far. It has been very.aptly said that. ? "Necessity is the mother of invention" - and It logically follows that when neA "A. / " ' ' " 1 r , <*g ' ' . " ' v J te :. i &V: ' . - . - >:.' ? ; r I ; . "Spanish v . ' cossity -ls absent, -the. Invention. does j /^Ai/Alkyv1 TVi am t?Vo a n'/v iiro?iant r A. 1 6 . . V ?? * **? *?w ??tC?VM ? ; 7. d^rf^^fi'-^he..'aftn"p]lQ UVea.bf the . J^cnpricajiR of.yesterday, for any means 5fif\ o'fr.conveya.nco boy on d what' they had ?$heir ovum 'oacks. and- the * services ita? was .Xfieti, th6 first 'pack-anirri?i&n>-thU?'country, \nd on his back ~-.o'c?*that -ot',his~ wireWas botne l" 3&JSr;*5JipU8ehoT<I' effects," .which were jjS^en" vfrom hls h,ut," cr^'tent* when JfSR-S??*ry- . " - - . . spmgngr day came. . . t&ose- days- there waa rio jglory ^f.'Indiaji horsemanship,^either* liv the, nunt/Tor; chase, for- that.Vuseful equine had. not put in an appearance. -The BskinJos, or Indians of the'far"North* B?P used their'docs and sleds, but no such ] sleds' weri' evor- used in what' la nov the -United 'States. sJust when the reindeer' of " the Ldips-and Chukchls ?became their animal, for work, milk apd, meat is .not definitely knrfwn. j / : ; The First Cart. --It was\-not-until- the Spanish lnvaelon of..Alex.ico. about 1519, that any /practical-; service knimal .was Intro-j - ducedt. At thA tim.e' the donkey or ..Tkia' to Mexico by the. Spaniards, and rj J ,< *?? .l^4*"',-'-'s %.*. ' -'k'-r'. <S #*?*? -,. - --: ?' *" _ ' "-? :? ' wr A MB vk Mw jR ' -..v,r-'T .-.. ..-. . . 0/c? Z^r&pt^izrtcS dftoppryzv# c>y &5e> GS* jrz>o/&r y 7P<Z>J*?2 and Manlius bent their classic wits to the task of ifoOlirtg one another during: that part of the ceremony known as "the feast of fools." A small number of antiquarians, however, still cling to . other ideas of its origin and'these are repeated here for what.they are worth. Some believe that All Fools'" Day originated with what was known as the "Feast of Hull" celebrated in India. This occurred on March thirty-first, when the chief diversion of the jieopW' was to send their friends on foolish errands, such as sending them letters to m?et a certain person at a certain point and then hiding somewhere until? they appeared and .having a laugh at their expense. Still --others contend that -the day began with.^tbe mistake .-of sending the dove out of the Ark. before the waters had abated-on the first day of the month among the Hebrews, which answers to our first 61 April, and to perpetuate the niempiry of this deliverance It" was thought. .proper that whoever forgot so remarkable a .circumstance should be. punished by "being sent upon an errand similar to ; that Ineffectual message upon which i the "bird was sent by the Patriarch. A few cling to the old legend that It originated in the time of Christ, that, the Passion of our f^vlour took place about this time of tt.o year, and the Jews sent Christ backward and fftrmard tn mnrV nnrl tormsnt him? - ? : . - *; ' Spanish were also responsible for the introduction of the horse, and the first wheeled vehicle In-the shape of their "Carreta," shown in ono of the illustrations, was taken from one exhibit in the Natloftal Museum. This cumbersome cart, made entirely of wood, was 'used extensively by the Indians of Mexico and Arizona, where this type of vehicle is still made and used today. A lighter cart, with spoked wheels and shafts, was later -made-for-- transporting freight Caret ta," over the northern 'plains of the. Red River region, and was called the "Red River Cart." *. Before, and during the use of these carts, the Indians ;?f the' North were hauling their supplies of came, skins, etc., upon Ingeniously, fitted tij? forked limbs of stout trees, which formed the prlifittive. sledges of both Indians and ejnrly. settlers. Another early sledis shown.' In one of ' the - illustrations. which shows mors workmanship than, the forked branch with cross-pieces bound oh It. This' latter sled was used by the early settlers for every purpose where a heavy - load was to-be . hauled, over ?he anow?t.aa well.-ad for .lighter loads; when there who no snow.-. Sleds very .mudh'^Jlke this are 'used.-by the.,-northern ,lumber men. and . sajp-gatherers at the present time, and several yokeb of' Oxen or tfalrs of horses bear ..the burden of pulling them, insteadof the meh doing the , Job alone. The",great .value. of .the horse was .appreciated by the" Iftdlans of Mexico and" the Southwest' generally; "and without saddle or spurs they became .expert riclers/u&Ing only the mouthrain of hide fastened around the low "HE SUNDAY TELEGR. va ;</: ..- _ . JSr M JnJr rn _. jjy 'MP * y '*'T"X '' j.fV' !? -'^''! 1:y'' ,<y ' ' ^"'it'-j:'- .'-''i " '(' "'.'V*^. bhhbb^'^^ ^ ^ Or^e^^jors//^c?/ c/c " -g'" \j? from Annas to Calaphas, from. Calaphas to Pilate, from Pilate to Herod, and from Herod back again to Pilate, thus attributing this ridiculous or rather impious *ycustkm to a sacred subject. To furthejr substantiate their claim they give the Frenph name for April fool "polsson d*Avril"S on the theory, that ''polsson" is the corruption of "passion." Such an explanation is as unpleasant as it is untrue, for the term "Poissons d'Avril" means exactly what it says?"April fish"?a young fish, therefore easily caught, as in English when we use the word "sucker"?a small , fish. .Another origin for the custom Is traced to France. This nation took the lead.over all Christendom in com-, mencing the new year on January first Instead, of March twenty-fifth Before the change wis made the merry-making culminated with a feast held on April first, when visits were paid and gifts bestowed. "With the adoption of the reformed calendar in. 1564 New Year's Day was carried back to January' first and only pretended gifts and -mock ceremonial | visits were paid on April first with the view of making fools of those who had forgotten to change the date. The custom once -started was kept up even long after its origin had been forgotten.-: Feast of Fools. But after all. these origins must -e m Four Hundred Years Ago duced First Horses, Cart?Early Sleds "Travois"? "Prs - Inventions? er Jaw to control-their steeds. The plains tribes fixed a contrivance of two crossed" poles over the horse. - near * the neck. the ''ends of which . dragged along the . ground. Upon these long poles they bound cross-stick^ upon which to place a. load. Sometimes a small tent-like cabin was erected upon these dragging poles, and In moving or tra\^ ling from olace to place, the "children of the family rode within, while their mother was honored by a position upon the back of the horse. This get-, up was called* horse-travols, and the same kind of :wheclless vehicle was 'said to have been adopted for the dogs of tho early Pueblos. The Prairio Schooner. The early settlers not only used the ;two-wheeled, carts , for transporting their families and their effects from place to place, but later made four-' .wheeled "'prairie schooners," named "after the boats which thelf bodies .closely resembled, that more might _be carried' -in one wagon than wer'8 /possible with the two-wheelera In j'th'ese' picturesque "prairie-schooners" whole families,, crossed the "great :plalns of the west, to- Beek their for-' '.tune. or living, among wild beasts and savages I Sometimes these wagon' 'trains stretched out 'for a long die'tance. and many out-riders on horse back accompanied them for. guidance and protection, but-their old match^ lock rifles' could not. be reloaded as quickly as the spear or arrow of. the Indian-could be In readiness, so travjelling across the plains was not always free: from dangers of redskins. While the most, prljnitlve carts, lntroduccd first into Mexico, were very heavy, and cumbersome, much lighter ones were later made after "the general patterti of the heavy ones. One of these .-lighter vehicles.-which was extensively, iused- in: .the; Colonies, was the onehorae chaise whichOliver Wendell 'Holmes, in his poem. "The Deacon's the gOndf t hoss-shay. This "shay" was .thd bsr t c>; : : A.Mr CLARKSBURG, W. "i , ,n - -sss; ' tT - . V- . ' 'k&.-C*'-.-} ' ''' 'J"?:^V - ' - : * - C MMMH ^ ^Mppagpi ^J& 'Mf . 7' ' * .' r V v . ? ? ?- ". - ' Z<5~. <?jf3j*r0C?S& ~ give way to ancient -Rome, for, the feasting of fools even though ltr- ocJ curred on-February seventeenth is the nearest thing- to our All Fools' Day. Although this feast took place In pagan: times it wasv really one of a | series of burlesque festivals' which are ; said to Have 6een' introduced into the Christian Church by Theophylact, Patriarch of Constantinople, and was a recrudescence of the'-Roman Festa. |In France and. Italy a bishop and archbishop of fools were elected and confirmed with* a lot of buffoonery, after which a pope 6f fftols was chosen. All sorts of riotous and imI pious scenes took place, such" as 'eat 1 mg sausages on tne altar-and burning bid-shoes lii/the censers.'' The people performed all sorts of pranks on the streets, being carrfe'd '" aboilVoA" each others* shoulders for" the amusement of the crowds * The Churches depending immediately upon the Holy See, refused to permit these things and happily the custom died, out-'and the simple fooling of people took Its place and Is still universal throughout the world.* .. All Fools* Day In Eighteenth Century^ There Is little, record of All Fools' Day pranks in England until the early part of the eighteenth century; About .this time Addison' makes reference to it, telling how "a neighbor of mine, who Is a haberdasher by trade and a very shallow, conceited ?e > Not a Wheel On This Co] Burros and Wheeled Cai i Used By Indians and Se lirie Schooners"?Old Sta Railroads andCars ?The Br HARRY B. BRADFORD ginning;', of, carriage-making' in," the United -State#, and when supplied with good springs, made a comfortable means of conveyance'fortwopersonli; with a rack lib the rear for alf necessary baggdge. . < The Illustration shown was..- drawn from*, one ;'of, the very, early models, exhibited in 'the Rational Museum.) '/ This earljj model, without' steel springs, m\ist have been a yeritable"rough-rider" In those by vs^^SS58SE^^^BB^i^^^^fi3W ' ' ^LjLi^55BS^S . i . * - >?"- : ;~**~T r""- -- Early Sfc t " gone days when roads Jn thlsfcbuniry were in as primitive a condition as wagon manufacturing. Historic Stage Coatfh The old. historic.; stage-coachmade Its appearance-^ about the beginning of thfe' nineteenth century; -when. }t was- put In general use throughout the- United'States. Its familiar ah&pefl -body was suspended..above the frame work of -the supporting parts' ;by 'means oi great leather, straps, and these added greatly to the ease of the occupants Within. -To' these' coaches, four or more horses were harneesed, and the weary t^lps from?"Phlladeln>ii?i tr\ iPltfihilfi'iL'.! -AV VtiifWii?h ritl tnerous . Other points, were undertaken, frtth'lugfeagre pliedCuip-on. top and behind the big stage.'' . It goes without saying that travelling teds Slow, and tedious In tho&e early 'daJ^C$add ho dbtthtC pftisengefa had plenty Of'time to get '"*ell acquainted with ' oneV another " during their journey, v '*?,' - "> ??/ . > * First Stonr? Carriage. . ' ?-??? ' ?f ; ? V'i.*<i^:^-. >" f^'VV-^-'V- - " : *;?f 'V: ''. r'??7 : ?? T3W7* ?-'> "? * -' -^":1 'v .. .' ; : ?: ; > is- -- .? - ^UI2E1 ! !? ' '^ptrv *i \ i cK5f r '.. -. ' C-.-'iv ' i '-? ' '">* ?; - 5 ; ; ? , . ' _ fellow, makes bis boast that foe these. ten--years consecutively he has made not less than a hundred fools. . My landlady had a falling: out with him about a fortnight ago for sending tevery one. of her children upon a 'sleeveless*4 errand, , as she terms It. j ' Her eldest son went to buy a half- j penny's worth of inkle at a shoe- [ makers, the eldest daughter was dis- , patched half a mile to see a mon- ' ster; In short, the whole family of j innocent children were made April fools. " Nay, the landlady herself did 'not escape him." Dean Swift. Dean. Swift in his "Journal . to Stella" In 1713, tells how he spent a lively evening In "contriving an April fool." The scheme was to clrculato a report through their servants that a' man who had been hanged a fewdays previous had come back to life land could be seen in flesh as a guest of the" Black Swan in Holborn. He j-was anticipating great sport at seeing the crowd on the"'followlng day. , but after all, he records later, somebody told the people that" the ,wholt> affair was a Joke and he himself be'< came the April fool. ! . On April first. IS 10. Napoleon married Marle^ Louise, Archduchess of [Austria, oir which occasion the'wagLglsh Parisians called him "un poisson d;Avrll"?a young fish?an April fool. 1 As a memorial of his marriage Naj poleon had a number of medals made j which showed Love "tearing a thun- " Iderbolt. Later these medals were known as April Fool Medals and several of. them are to be seen In the French Museums. Royalty Indulged In The Sport. At one time even royalty Indulged In the sport of April fooling. Peter the Great In 1719 .set about to fool1 his people by building an Immense pile of wood in the open square In front of the palace at Petrograd. This was covered i with tar and other Inflammable material. On the morning of .April first he had it set on-fire. The flames shot high in the-air and people came into the city by the thousands " to assist in'putting out the fire which they believed was consuming the palace. "When ;they reached* the squa*re [they were-met by soldiers who shouted?-"Sheepheads. pl$s, .swine,- donkeys! Fall back by order of the ^ t n J ?a J n tv uii.it jfua ^fiuer^Lttiiu uidi LUV Little Father-lias fooled you? * It is tlio first at >*" ) '(*^|if Tower of London Joke.. Another historic bit of fooling was when Franils,- puke of Lorraine, and' his 'duchess escaped from .prison on April first" in the'.fifteqhth century. -They, came out of prison disguised as ^peasants and were recognized by an. old woman attendant. - She called to the soldier who'was on guard, telling him that it was the duke and duchess.! "April' fool!" was' the sentry's answer, and the royal couple went out undisturbed. When " the guard went off duty he told the Story to his friends and they called It a smart trick. The Governor enjoyed the Joke as well; | / ntinent-Spaniards Introrts ? The "Red River tilers - The Horse ge Coach?Steam Automobile. 'X' corded that. the. first, steam carriage was made by Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia/.In 17S7. while it seems }he first' quite practical . one" whs manufactured b> .the Stanley* Steam Car-*, riage Company of Newton. Mass., in 18971 . The jjflcrst iron-rail track Jn the' United States was laid" in 1826 from' | ioc quarries at vuinty. iuasa;; a iracK lour mUesUdnsf, costirig: $50,000. and ttler's Sled. * , In 1830 the first American locomotive was constructed by Peter Cooper In . Baltimore, Md., and this was the first locomotive to carry passengers on this side of the Atlantic ocean. The first railway cars, as many know, .were merely, .stage, coach bodies .placed upon smaller .-wheels* for' traction use. ;S': ' ' \ ' * ' ' v -' : . >SD \H ^ : v. *' II ll I ' I I Nfe; r: ' ?ye' "r ;,* . C<v ^ *??'$$&}?'* ' jC5"JTSSSji i'-?: *r1igfegjg^^^yj 3 ? *? &fv^ i?3*i r^pS?w|?9?9&?u !^^fc^1<r-:H>0| I :*^WSBMBSS'^ ^^?IK4?85BS?^B>' "A>hft-.'/'<i 81 ' ^rV sJL aI/ ^ - ? - . i?? ,? _ -' ~-T.'JTr:3.i'f : ?/C^^Cf-r'-fieV^-. ? fj*~jr>os72 sr > '" ..' ' . v"" -' ';'. < and even while he was laughing word came to. him that .the peasants were, none other than the royal prisoners and they were now beyond his reach. In 1S60 all Ixmdon was aroused over a clever April fool trick which was perpetrated on some of the best families. On March thirty-first a large number of persons received post cards conveying the following Invitation: "TOWER OF LONDON Admit bearer and friends to view the annual ceremony of washing the white lions on Sun day j April 1st, I860. It is particularly requested that no gratuities be given to the wardens, or their assistants. Entrance at the "White Gate." In one corner of the card was aseal which proved to be the die of an inverted sixpence put-on to give the invitation an official appearance. The result of the hoax wad greater perhaps than the perpetrator imagined It wpuld be, for It Is said- that nundreds <jf people went to the town in response to the Invitation and all day. long cabs rattled about the walls, tjie drivers Inquiring for the White Gate. "Hunt the Gowk." In Scotland, the proverbial land of wit and humor, the curious practice of.-;^hunting rtherrgowk" was In- vogue I for many years. Gowk, originally a cuckoo, means by extension a fool, a simpleton. The trick' as played wasr for wag'number one to send his vie-* tim. wag number two,' for some distance-with a letter containing-words such as these: "This. Is the first of Aprile? Hunt the gowk another mil$L" -After reading It number two hands It to number three and so. the letter passed on .until.^somebody discovered the Joke. In writing of. this a-Scotch poet -seems to -think that the man who did-the sending was the bigger, fool of the two. and says in' rhyme? fit is a thing to~b.e disputed. Which Is. the greatest f obi" reputed? The man who Innocently went K -' r: S B jtjp* J By 1835 one..thousarid miles of railroad tr^ick had' been completed in.^the Unfted States, bu,t-the speed of!.t.rains had not passed mUchkbpye. the..* enty-flve mile an, hour limit. The tirst sleeping car came during1 the 'year 1836. ' but "the Pullman} Palace Car waited until very nearly a "genera-_ tion had passed (1864). Steam Railways. Appear. While the first.street horse-railroadIndiai ' ' . ' was . opened on Fourth avenue. New York, way back-In IS32, the elevated street railways were ;not erected there until 1877-78." With the successive improvements In the "application of steam, transportation both on land and water greatly Increased, and-railroad and steamship companies began to' develop and handle mors business.' Considering- this "wonderful development and '.tvlde application of the I% 1 ; .. . '. ? ,.(I , steam ^ engine. It Is strange Indeed that the automobile did hot arrive' until so late a date!. It has only been during the".past fifteen years, or.less, after the development of-the gas en-; gtne; that the automobile business has t?ken on such Immense - proportions 7^00/ ~ Or he that him designedly sent." Just how the custom, came to Amer-. , " lea Is not recorded, but nevertheless It Is here, and the spirit of the day is unchanged even if our sense, of humor has advanced or deteriorated whichever way one may view the ? matter. American Jokes. One of the American trlek$ is to glue a coin to the pavement and have people try to- pick It up. This . affords the greatest amusement .to the street* urchins. Another is to drop a . pocketbook stuffed with paper on the street and then call out "April JToolT* when a passerby picks it up. A package to which a slender, almost-invisible string is attached (s another favorite trick, as is the bf ck under the in - the old days the London street gamins delighted in callihg-'out-ttt gentlemen who were walking with ladles ?-"Say, mister, what Is that on your coat?" When; the embarrassed man ^ ^ had twisted himself in all manner, of ways in trying to find out the boy would, can out^?"just me tan to too v coat?April fool!"4t Yearn afterward the boy calls out?"Say. "mister,, there's something on your face," and when, the man gets put, his handkerchief and begins to" rub he ls' ^reetetf , with?"Why, your, nose is on.1 .yphrV face?April fool:"" Sending persons to " the druggists for pigeons' milk or' ^..-A the bookseller's for a history of "Eve's grandmother are still a ' common practice. Loajde'd cigars and ' candy stuffed with cotton and pepper ' are regarded as refined April fool tricks and so common that few min will accept a Havana 'fro'iti a friend dri that day and "many girls distrust the boxes of candy sent to them by over-generous sweethearts. The custom-of pinning papers ^bearing the words 'JAPRIL FOOL." to a man's coat taiuu no longer regarded as funny in this country, although It i& still regarded as a clever April-, . foel Joke In England. - , h MM The . first electric railway wai opened In Berlip, Germany in 1881, but it was some, ten years .or so before the first elbctrlc underground system superseded the cable-propelled method in "Washington, D. C. Electric locomotives' have - been : in use' -for some years., for shortvruns, in various parts oX the country, but the development of the Vthlrd rail" and trolley .systems have far outdistanced the more cumbersome locomotives. One of. the most pleasing changes from steam to electricity occurred-when'the New York elevated systenr gave up their little steam .engines for the cleaner cars propel led'oytbe Vthlrd rail?? electric "method." - V Wheels?-Wheels?Wheels: Now our city streets present "wheels ?Wheels everywhere I Policemen protect us at street crossings from the V dangers ' of carts, carriages.- "tro cars. wagons, autopdoblles, ' bicycleg^t motor-cycles, etc.. etc. Over one "million autdmobiles ; are at present, ir mra In ( 7?nnmee oni*.la. either operated or owned by population- The. health* ulexerclSeot walking Is more dangerous in_ pur large pities, today! than it bas\retrer cSnt^yef?re iD the bistory ?r olir ;mS^o or, less lrresponslbla^^ujfeurs are operating great gasolhte o. steam-driven trucks .and cars along our thoroughfares _ today.