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What You Can Do
for CHILDREN Who STUTTER and the DANGER of DEL AY By DR. LEONARD KEENE HIRSHBERG A. B.. M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University) A CHILD usually begins to stut- trouble Is not noticed either by tho ter at about the age of 4 suardian or the others In the house. . The child of coursa Is entirely un or 6 years. The alert parent. con5clou. of the unusual chopped-u? grandparent or nurse at this delicate and jerky consonants. time roust guard the pronunciation Often the careless relatives with and enunciation of each and every their fatalistic notion about "things syllable that falls from the child's a'way" com* rItht Jn the end'" *ave their ears attracted sooner or later tongue. It he hesitates and halts tQ the cH]Idr(l stuttering. Then they over certain consonants, syllables or labor under the mistaken delusion words, he must be told calmly and that the boy will "outgrow it." pleasantly, with neither severity, an- No more harmful doctrine has ever .. ^ , , been perpetuated than tho one con ger, or suddenness that he roust think taJnc<J that -tocle -hrase As a first and then speak slowly. matter of experience, specch troubles I said "ha" with a clear conscience, nre not outgrown, they become in because by a curious trick of inheri- grown. If not corrected at first, they tance, stuttering, like color blindness. go frora bad to worse- So nrmI>r ^ rooted and ingrained into the child's skips the feminine portion of a family hablts does Btuttering become, that and flings like potato ivy to the vocal with every hour's growth the chance muscles of the boys and men. for a cure becomes farther and far Curiously enough, the origin of a ther removed. child's staccato speech is clouded In Don't Scold I mystery. I do not mean to say that Furthermore, be It borne well in It cannot be traced to some heredlt- mind, that the parent, nurse, attend ary factor or to some Infantile mal- ant or guardian that scolds or yells ajy, such as scarlet fever. Perish at a stammering child, might as well such a tboughtl Reference here is pour a withering acid upon a bloom made to the first stuttering words, ing flower bed. The sensitive, nerv Usually the defect appears so inslnu- ous nature of most children makes atingly that the beginning of the them shrink in fear and excitement Why SCIENCE Urges EARLY Treatment, and Why SLOW ? ?? i inn i ???? Bfiyjri*H?a>fcjr - .mini... . _ Correction Siaoula be Gentle anu by Methods Not Calculated to Excite the Child. from all harsh language. If, then, most any ono who deals cordially the explosive temperaments that ac- and Intimately with him. company the stuttering words of Children think so much more com these children, are touched off by the pletely than their limited vocabufcry fuse of a quick, sharp reprimand allows them to openly express: they there need he little expectation of a teem so fully v.-ith scintillating and cessation of the trouble. On the con- not always vain Imaginings, that they trary. the very Irritation that the rep- are wont too Impetuously to try to rimand produces, leaves an Indelible crowd a mass of thoughts and ex impress on the boy's brain, which Dertence Into a few words and syl stamps the sputtering firmly Into his lables. This only too often explains tissues as a fixed habit. their anxious stuttering. As soon as your attention Is ?*- It Is. therefore, of the utmost lm tracted to the repetition of letters, portance to have children who are syllables or words: wMenever you thinkers, who associate with broadly notice words to be pronounced wrong- experienced elders, and who absorb a ly. interrupt the child gently and wide number of experiences of their sweetly and with an Ingratiating own. to learn to speak slowly and de manner stop him from talking and Uberately without Impetuosity. calmly show him how to" guard him- . _ self against the dangers of staccato ,,e mu on' utterance. It is astonishing how wise The Impulsive, voluble boy who and full of understanding the boy of rushes slap-dash-bang fashion Into 3 or 4 yean really is. He learns very the dining room and tries between easily tfnd will co-operate with al- gulps of porridge, soup and other and QUIET Methods Are the Best t : ~ ? Humiliation from tae Infirmity of Stammering Increases as the Victim Grows Older. victuals to tell you about the day's lessons In recitation and klndergar <ioinps. Is the very child that must ten songs should bo given, be cautioned to hold up. to stop a Thouph not common before 8 or < moment, and to speak very slowly, years of age, thereafter stammering This Is the boy who must 'learn to and stuttering increases among chll take a long, deep breath before he dren from Imitation, association and starts to talk. Have him breathe faulty methods In elementary school deeply and count ton before he begins teaching. any little narrative. Perhaps there Is no greater omls Short periods of "silence" must be slon In the whole pilblic school currl malntained. especially when he Is In cuium than that which concerns nn excessively voluble mood. He methods of enunciation and precision may be taught Mother Goose rhymes of speech in children. Voices hare and other simple melodies. Little been raised in the wilderness of prl speeches, stories, and fairy tales told mary education for years, speeches him only to hear him slowly repeat have been delivered, school boards them, will help In a measure. Gym- have been besieged, but In vain, nastic activities in a small way. and Youn* children acquire more bad habits vt ch >?w I ?? ?* ?!?> csa grammar, rhetoric. ?r pronun ciation??t school than the bewt pa-; rents In the world can counteract <* neutralise. D?a|?n u?l Aid*. Several instances of stammering have come under my professional ob servation that were picked up by ??? conscious imitation of an association with other children la the schoolroom and playground. 1U? should not he so; Indeed, some one I* de^enct when It occurs. You might as Well put a hungry welt m a sheepfold as to al low a stammering teacher or ehlM t? mingle with children in school. Breathing exercises, singsong meth ods or learning school lessons, recita tions tn rhythm or with the whispered voice at first and the loud voice after wards are all helpful. Whenever any signs of trouble present themselves, three or four deep breaths should be taken, practice with the troutyeaom* vowels and consonants should be car ried out, and single powerful ex piration should be msde before any syllable or word Is pronounced. Every mistake should be at once slowly and carefully corrected by a proper repetition. Perseverance In these exercises, watchfulness and patience as well as detailed instruc tion with a pleasant guardian will go a great way in eradicating the defect. In young men and adults a hearty co operation upon their part usually means a fairly complete curie. After all. the cure is more a matter of the Individual himself and those In Inti mate contact with him, than of doc tors, drugs or dogmas. Why It Is IMPORTANT That BREAD Should Be WRAPPED A CONSIDERABLE amount of dltlon and weight of both wrapped hour after baking?It retains suffl- Another contribution to this sub recent literature has been de- end unwrapped bread. cleQt heat and moisture to favor the Jcct la by Barnard and Bishop, deal . . ?. . ? , . ^ . . . growth of organisms, especially when lng with the effect of wrapping voted to the subject of wrap- For breads whose crusts are to be * ^ paper6 ,s used ?he cru8t of Tlpon the chomlcal composition ping bread. An elaborate chcm!cal kept dry and firm, such as Vienna joaf as it leaves the oven is of the loaf. It was found that wrap and bacteriological Investigation of and French breads, porous paper Is practically sterile. ping In either semi-porous waxed or the subject was reported some time better than waxed paper. Bread The same writers examined a raraffln paper prevents the cscape ago by Jacobs Leclerc and Mason. reachea the temperature of the room large number of samples of both of moisture and tends to preserve rrTi a . . ' . . . tibout three hours after baklnsr. and wrapped and unwrapped bread bought the colloidal condition and piiyslco es nvest ga ors sougnt to ae- tjljg Jg best time to wrap It. In retail stores. Of the unwrapped chemical equilibrium, the destruc termlne the kind of paper most suit- further delay entails the danger of loaves 62 per cent, showed organ- tlon of which produces stateness, able for wrapping, the length of time contamination with bacteria and Isms of the B. coif type, as com- The effects of wrapping vary con after baking that bread should be molds. pared with only 7 per cent, of the slderably for different kinds of ?wrapped, and th* bacteriological con- If wrapped too soon?tay. one wrapped loaves. Lrcad. SCIENCE'S Newest Theory of How LIFE Really BEGAN THE origin of life, and tho part probably played by sunlight In this process, formed the subject of a paper by Prof. Benjamin Moore. F. R. S.. and Mr. Arthur Webster, presented at the laat meeting of th-s British Association, Jn which too au thors reported the results of exten sive laboratory experiments which appear to have a bearing on the ques tion. They first pointed out that the whole world of living plants hjm 1 ani mals. as we know It, depends for Its continuance upon the synthes'3 of or ganic compounds from inorganic: by the green coloring matter of the plant acting as a transformer of light ener gy Into chemical energy. However, chlorophyll, which acts as tho transformer. Is one of the most complex of known organic substances, and therefore represents an advanced stage of evolution. Starting from a. purely in irganlc world, without a trace of organic matter, what Is the first step In the production of the latter? asks tiie Scientific American. The authors find that when dilute solutions of colloidal ferrlij hydroxide, or the correspond ing compound of uranium, ?ro ex posed to strong sunlight, or the li^ht of a mercury arc, there are synthe sized the some organic compounds that are at present formed as the first stage in the process of organic syn thesis by the green plant, viz., for maldehyde and formic arid. As a planot cools down, first only elements would be present, then binary compounds, and next slmplo crystalloid salts. Then, by the union of slnsle molecules into groups of 50 or 60. colloidal aggregates would ap pear. As these colloidal agfjregates In crease In complexity, they also be come more delicately balanced In structure, and are metastabie or labile, i. e., they are easily destroyed by sudden changes In environment. but ure peculiarly sensitive to energy changes, and can take up energy in one form and transform it to an other. These labile colloids take up water and carbon dioxide, and. under the action of sunlight. produce the simplest organic structures. The lat ter, reacting with themselves and with nitrogenous inorganic matter, con tinue to build up more and more com plex. and more labile, organic col loids. until ultimately these acQuire tho property of transforming light enerpy into chemical energy. Thus life lias orlgnated. and prob ably still originates, by the "law of molecular complexity." Using "MAGNETIC WAVES" for Treatment TUB Inventor, Bachelet, who3e war, Is the originator ot a magnetic lines of force, unlike electricity, re magnetic railroad device made wave generator that Is being widely quire no conductors, cannot be in such a sensation in England used by physicians. The Invention sulated. but to the contrary, permeate not long prior to the beginning of the rests on new principles. Magnetic all subatances. ? ? 1 How the Magnetic Lines of Force Travel in the Bachelet Magnetic Wave Generator. of the BODY The aJectrlc current, as employed heretofore, in medical vork, lias been of very high voltage and low amper age, tUc human body being use'.! as a conductor, while the Bachelet Idea Is to uso magnetic Hnes of force to set up, by induction, a powerful cir rent of Tow voltage and high amper age, which uses the buman organism as an accumulator. It Is claimed that In this form the application of electricity produces neither shock nor unpleasant sensa tion. tho magnetic lines of force pass ing. through the body with an even, undulating motion, agitating all cells equally, %and reaching directly any affected organ, no matter how deeply seated. It Is contended that while electric ity simply passes over a conductor, whether It bo wire or body, the mag netic waves are absorbed and irara formed Into vital energy. It is point ed out that if disease is accompanied by or caused by a lowered vitality, an Increase In vital force gives greater power of resistance. This action and the "normalizing" influ ence of these magnetic waves upon chemical reactions, circulation and all physico-chemical functions of the body, are said to give this Instru ment a wide range of therapeutic usefulness. Bachelet himself at one time lived in Brooklyn, N. Y? where the laboratories arc now situated. IFc wi^p regarded as a dreafer and eccentric, ar.d the furore his inven tions occasioned In Europe was a matter of some astonishment to his old neighbors. Strange EAGLES That Kill and Eat MONKEYS - i BEHOLD an Interesting contrast In eagles, wherein conscious pride and power are shown on the one hand and a baleful melan choly and dejection on the other. True, the birds may not feel this way; but they look it to a very large degree. The fushlonable one is the harpy eagle, one of the most powerful birds of prey; the other la the mon key-eating eagle of the Philippines. The harpy Is a native of South America, and Its odd headdress and neck feathering makes It resemble some of the odd designs that fashion sometimes decrees for tha wear of women. The hood 1b not at all Inar tistic, and the decoration on tUe crest further carries out the semblance to human mode. The harpy can fly like a dart, and, though it cannot be said to be as dangerous a creature as the harpy of Greek mythology ? the "snatch er," the personification of -4hc whirl winds, according to Homer?It Is. nevertheless, an aerial terror. It has enormous strength of pinion and one may judge what a blow might be de livered by the claws by studying their size and the needle-like points. The harpy Is somewhat longer than tho golden eagle and halls from South America. "It looks for all tho world like a woman," remarked a Now Eng land sea captain who beheld one for the fiVst time: and the fact that the skipper was a conflrmied bachelor should not affect the value of his im pression. . Travellers who have dined on broiled monkey declare that the dish Is not unlike chicken In flavor and fibre. Indeed, there have been some tropical eplcuros^who have been loud ly enthusiastic "over simian grille and simian cn casserole; and yet nat urally wo have lacked vy testimony to show how uncooked monkey ap peals to the palate. And lacking this, then, we must take the silent testi mony of the eagle. 'With the bird It Is probably a necessary but "not * particularly engaging dleh. Perhaps if tho eagle had tho bene fits of modern cooking Its expression might bo different. "Think of being condemned to eating raw monkeys nil of Its llfel" comments the same skipper. "Xo wonder he Idoks tho rlcture of woe and Indigestion!" Bringing the monkey-eater to a Amazing Masses of STARS BC studying thu distribution of stars In the globular masses, E. Pickering has- deduced, from observation, the apparent density, i. e., the number of stars per unit of sur face at different distances from the centre of the mass; he concludcs that the distribution is the same for bright stars as for feeble ones, and also that the law of distribution Is the same from one mass to another. H H. von Zelpel has endeavored to de duce. from the apparent density on the celestial sphere, the true density In space, with partially satisfactory results. The distribution of stars near the centro xfas represented In a sat isfactory manner, but the density at the boundaries is less than that re quired by the theory. In a new memoir he arrives at a novel conclusion. Each of thelse masses is a gigantic system contain ing about a million stars; the number of stars visible on a plate Is not the hundredth part of the total number. 7^v The Harpy of South America, Known as tho "Snatcher," One of the Most Powerful ' Birds of Prey. western zoo offers a little problem that the naturalists have, however, happily- overcome. Monkeys are too vnluablo to furnish as food. and. besides, g-ood taste would prompt tho The Monk Donkey-Eating Eagle of the Philippines. authorities to restrain the Phillip la* pirate from dlntng On Its fellow-ex hibits. So it is furnished with a re - past of rabbits. "But." suggests Newljerry O. Norwood, "this bird would look equally as miserable if It were dining on angel oake and wal nut sundaes." Cooling DRINKS for SUMMER COOLING and nonalcoholic drinks are always In order at this season of the year, and It is well, especially it we have a comfort able porch and a lot of friends, to have some reliable old recipes from which to make them. With distilled water, suear, lemons and other fruits many are possible with little trouble, and require only a few minutes In preparation. Many housewives-make a syrup of the sugar and water?not too thick?and keep it in tho Icebox. It blends with the fruit Juices quickly and saves time In the making. Pineapple Water?Chop fine one blK pineapple. Four over it one pint of boiling syrup made of three-quarters of a pound of sugar, boiled in a pint ot water. Add to this the strained juice of one lemon; stir all togotber and cover. Let stand for two hours, then strain through a fine sieve and add a quart of spring water. Put the pineapple pulp into a cheese-cloth bag and squeeze it into the drink, so that nothing is wasted. Serve in glasses half filled with chopped ice and drop in one chqrry in each. Orangeade?Peel three oranges thinly, putting the peel Into one pint of syrup made by boiling three-quar ters ot a pound of sugar in one pint of water. Squeeze tho Juice at 12 oranges and strain it into a pitcher. Add the "syrup and three -plats of ?spring water; chill and servo. Claret Qranito?Make an orange ade the same as the above recipe, but add to it a bottle of good French claret. Put on the Ice until very cold, or place It in the freezer with salt and Ice around it, and frappe. Currant Water?Wash and stem one pound of ripe currants, and add to them a half a pound of raspberries and a half-pint or water. Bruise all together with a wooden spoon; put all in a preserving kettle with three quarters of a pound of sugar. 8tll over the fire until the mixture Just about simmers; then filter It through a fine sieve and add throe gills of the syrup, made aa above, and IVi pints of water. Let It cool and settle; then decant, like wine, for use. Mint Julep?Peel thinly the find ot half an orange; put it in a glass with a little crushed ice and a teaspoon Of sifted sugar. Strain in the Juice of the orange; put in two sprays of mint; fill up the glass with food whiskey. A dash of glnxer Me may be added if desired. Iiaapberry STirub?This Is the way to make the shrub, which has to be bottled and kept In a dry, cool plnoe. A quarter of a glass, with cracked lea and spring or sparkling water, makes a delightful drink: Fotir quarts of red raspberries and one quart Ot vin egar. Let them stand four da}s, stir ring occasionally; then strain, and to each pint of Juice add one pound ot sugar. Boll 20 minutes, skim, bottle and seal. Orange Cup?Pare an orange, squeeze the Juice of half into a glass of cracked ice and slice the rest In. Add a tablespoon of sugar and a few drops of essenec of cloves and the Juice of half a lemon. As the Ice melts the drink Increases. Tea Punch?Pour one quart of boll-, lng water over three tablespoons of Ceylon tea. Steep five minutes, strain, and while . cooling add four table spoons of sugar, three slices of lemon, two cloves and four Maraschino cher ries. Pour In tall glasses half full ?t shaved ice and add a dash of Jamaica rum to each glass.