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THE NEW ARMY ACT AND THE MILITIA
By ERIC FISHER WOOD, Author of "The Note-Book of an Attache." "The Writing on ihe Wall," etc. Leading Article in the Current Century Mr. Wilson, in his letter nf January 17, 1916, to Secre tary of War Garrison, endorsed Mr. Hay's House military affairs committee in the following wordsS "I dn not share flour opinion that the members of the House who are charged with the duty of dealing with mili tary affairs are ignorant of them or of the military necessi ties of the nation." Thereupon. Mr. Garrison, refusing to be a party to iU _ advised and dishonest legislation, resigned rather than sur ? render to the Pork Barrel. Mr. Garrison's reasons, and the truth ubout tlit"Hay" bill are fully explained for the first time in th1 following article.?THE EDITORS. The army reorganization bill was signed by the president on June and the administration devoutly hoped and prayed that the nation would sit back and consider itself adequately pre pared. Mr. Hay, of Virginia, is ad mittedly the fairy godmother of the bill. He made such effective use of his position as chairman of the com mittee on military affairs in the House that the bill as it stands is almost en tirely of his inspiration. Good or bad. it must be entered to his account. Its provisions are his provisions, and its spirit is his spirit Many Protest. Ever since he first led his bill out of the House of Representatives and railroaded it through the conference committee against the well-nigh sin gle-handed resistance of Senator Chamberlain, certain prominent Amer ican citizens whose records as faith ful public servants insure for their opinion a respectful hearing have per sistently and vehemently protested against it. Among these arc ex-Secre tary of War Hoot t Republican); ex Secretary of War Wright (Democrat i; ex-Secretary of War Garrison (Demo crat!. who tendered his resignation to the president as a protest against the bill; ex-Secretary of War Stimson (Re publican) ; ex-Assistant Secretary of War Breckenridge (Democrat), who resigned as a protest against the bill; and Secretnrv of War Haker (Demo crat). And there are many others. Their voices have been but faintly heard, however, through the hubbub of platitudes which heralded the bill. It is manifest to all that the pro test of these men means that the bill is worse than nothing, and thai it has been passed for petty political reasons, against the united opposition of our military experts. I have dis cussed the bill with the most author itative of these experts, and what fol lows is the result of my best efforts to present a composite of their views and beliefs. To begin with, Mr. Ilav's bill au-j thorizes an increase in the regular! army. This is an increase on paper, and will in actuality prove lagely fic-j titlous. For several years the regit- j lar army has had' an "authorized" strength of over one hundred thous- j ?ml, and yet the actual strength of ic army has been with dilllcultyl maintained at about ninety thousand.; Merely to increase the "authorized" strength will not necessarily alter this situation. The lack of recruits is I directly traceable to certain funda-j mental defects which Mr. Hay's army I bill makes no attempt to remedy. One fault lies in the continued maintenance of some forty useless lit tle army posts, which were estab-1 lished in various outlying congres sional districts for pork-barrel rea sons. Many congressmen strive to obtain army posts for their own dis tricts in order that their faithful con stituents may reap profits from the construction and maintenance there of. Ridiculous System. From a military point of view it is as ridiculous to divide our army among scores of isolated posts as it would bo to subdivide and scatter about the country a big manufactur ing concern. In foreign countries the troops are quartered in large cities in units of not fewer than twenty thousand, so that they may be cfll ciently trained, so that the overhead of fatigue duty performed by each individual soldier may be reduced, and so that the men may spend their spare j time profitably and pleasantly. America, on the contrary, has so many dreary and isolated posts that our diminutive army is scarcely able to garrison them all. In consequence our enlisted men devote more time to the care of buildings and grounds than to study the art of war. Each man must serve as a laborer and a scav enger, although he enlisted as a sol die. He spends a large part of his day in fatigue duty, which implies such tedious work as sweeping up. cutting grass and shoveling snow. Such occupations, which are scarcely alluring to young men ambitious of making the profession of arms their life-work, become unbearable when performed in small outlying congres sional districts in Montana or north ern Vermont, where the sole amuse ments are watching desert sunsets or attending second-rate moving picture shows. Is it any wonder that enlist ment in our regular army has become the last resort of the desperate when ?ur troops are constantly reminded by their very environment that the regu lar army is maintained primarily to satisfy the personal ends of congress men and secondarily to serve its coun try? ^ However, it is perhaps unreasonable object because a bill which lnstl ^F(ites new forms of pork does not abol ish existing pork-barrel army posts. Upon careful examination of the army reorganization bll It appears to be most only a new vehicle for the conveyance of private pork from tho public treas ury through Individual congressmen to their personal henchmen, but also promises to institute a vast new sys .tem for the dispensation of political plums, a system outrivaling even th? present extravagant pension system and tho notorious "Rivers and Har bors." Mnkes Job for Friend. Its Section VIII has become fa mous as evidence that tho bill was conceived for pork more than for pre paredness. This section cannot be too often called to the attention of the American public, for it illustrates only too well the spirit which actuated MY. Hay. It reads in part as follows: "Provided further, that of the va cancies created in tho judge advocate general's department by this act, one | such vacancy, not below the grade of -Jo: shau be filled ?y Z a'ppoiM "eM thinf, ?rSnn " ClV" lif''' not tv V,,,, fui'.v-nvc nor more than ilf ' for,,, "Kc' Phu" llavc l>cen Zji " ' n J'"1*' the supreme have fli"J'!ipplno l8l?n"? "nail Tin in .1 r, ,w" mra as " <aP" and I, i egUl"r,or volunteer army, ?i l l nail proflelent In the .Spanish J Mn^uage and laws." Vnrh??i,?ni"B J?un,a'. of Richmond. >?., aftii quoting this section tin. burdens Itself a., follows: ' Un Just one person in Ihe world can comply with these conditions This person |g Judge Carson. of Virginia i i lausi wL"' T ,U*'" dlMrirl '"?use n.is drawn obviously ami i shamelessly to make a Job for Judge 10 ,llalJ'> " Impossible that anybody else, under any adminlstra I ?n ? P'aced 'n that job. Mr Hay. on the floor of the House, avowed I his responsibility for this clause 'nml practically acknowledged that its pur : V?r to provide for one of I s I "V,[ '' 'ends and constituents." ,lnLaC W?r ?--N'ews. of Roanoke, Va deals as follows with the subject to see .ho'en? p0SRlblc wo should like th( democratic (state) conven tion in session here this week go on record in some way as repudiating and condemning Congressman Hay's bin t? ',r,ickor5 111 ,,fllng the army Ion n u ?" '!fncp f,,r Judee far son. It is not pleasant to Virginia of ehie-thls """'"raenta! piece of chicanery go befbre the nation as! ! Kreasmnn"" ?f ,wh?t a Virginia eon-) . gressman stands for. The conven I I l""r?,"Id do nothing that would leave; nl'e ?r m ? ",p thoughts of peo-l Pie of this SUlte tha? ,ho adop'tfoun| Joker I n? rii?denouncing -Mr. Hay'sj term. it rlngi,'ls and unmistakable world th .f i , T, a,ln"lmcc to the I i? .. 1 debauching a great and1 ' the t ri,L,''P?frtan! P"blU' mcasurc with I [ cord ,u war heeler is not in ac cord with the spirit of convictions boast is?Th!!QnWfalt" who8c Proudest 1 ! Ila fcadcrs/' Unllnllead>a^ "?"> ' I'etly Pork. nclns.,01????,nple '!r ,,ctt>' P?, k suf I in wl el, >!V,f tl,c B<,noral spirit! ramed ??' , W2K conceived and' I,., 0 Ieavr Section Vlii and advance to a consideration of the vast I Hay'sPbilUPttHS>'S?? I"?vici(.<l i? .\Ir. niJleJi ? Her? thc details are more! me^ nrl J "0Se whlch concern I nicre private pork. I h?r?r ??0 hundred and forty vcars we' nave consistently, and wisely refused1 ?ran' Political power to our pro decTOHl" tb'?1'!' M? llave imt" now hohl ? i n * members should not hold public office; they are not al lowed to sit in legislative bodies ? they are not eligible as councllmen. may ors or governors; they are not ner-i or to "f.r,Ui"atc in I IV|1 business <>i to plattice any profession other than that of arms. In most eases the! n?.IZ nt "limi"'y life make It Im possible tor army men to vote at elcc lltieni gM"e ,bcm anv Po litical power has been so great that I we have denied the right of free speech to our regular army officers even in Tims'our' V'',al rati?n.H importance. ?!??, Professional standing army nag until now always been deprived of political power. Moreover, iis very existence lies at the mercy of our civil government, for to vo,.f,h?'S Ca"e(l- u,,on bi-annually to vote the appropriations which alone permit its continued existence. It ?n a' a"-\ ,lm'' be reduced or altogether abolished by the will of the people as expressed through Congress. in brief, has been our atti tude toward our paid armies until the present day. when .Mr. Hay lias r ed cunningly to pull the wool over our eyes and hopes to saddle upon us a mHitary'powcr? "nl?" I,?1U'Cal and He based his army reorganization vaHon= 'ho'assumptlon that our ibom' """dry state militias, al. though composed of the most admira ble citizen soldiers, are. as now con stituted of small military value. This Is a perfectly good assumption. The unnnt.M mlIitias have existed IffiP r. . present basis ever since the Declaration of Independence and throughout all our intervening his tory they have not rendered effective service in actual war until they have been removed from state control and been retrained, rearmed and reorgan ized nnder national supervision. >0 Discredit t? Guardsmen. The record of the militia, while far from Inspiring. Is no discredit to the men. They realized only too well how ineffective were the militia organiza tions to which they belor.g?d. Ilow SJ they !",cw' '?o. 'hat to send bad j prepared troops against a thorot.gh i> equipped, trained and organized army as they bad always been sent can lead only to their useless slaugh Our present-day state militia do not differ materially from those of the past. In 11,16 the total theoretical strength of our militias was nearly two hundred thousand. After two ml?, only forty-five thousand badly equipped milltamen had started for the Mexcan border, and a large pro portion of this small number were raw untrained recruits, who had nev er fired an army rltle. In 19A Ger many and Prance each mobilized one million trained, equlppou, and organ ized second-line troops along their borders In two weeks. In our militia mobilization of 1916 STE . ,tro?Pa started for the border Without horses or saddles. Thousands of men were despatched to the front before they had been racclnatcd or had completed their typhoid prophy laxis. In some states from forty to arty per ccnt of the militiamen were discovered, after mobilization to be physically until to withstand the hard ships of war In at least one slat* many rcglmouts were still without tents, blankets, first aid packcls, am munition. Intrenching tools, machino guns. medicines, pistols, knives, can teens or haversacks three weeks after mobilization had been ordered. An American infantry regiment at war strength should number two thousand men. Its minimum peace strength is nine hundred and ninety. When mobilization began most of the state regiments were below minimum peace strength, and many were un able to HU their ranks even with raw recruits. The following letter suggests what the conditions were: LAS CHUCKS, N. M., 5-27-16. Dr. J. Ji. llatismann (member of the American Legion), .New York City, j N. Y. ' . Dear Mr. Hausmann: ? ? ? We arc hopelessly short ot men and must have 300 as a minimum and *ould use 1.00(1 to advantage. Wo are losing many men becauso of phys ical disability, by which I mean that i the regular army surgeons are re jecting them, and we have to have i men to take their places within the next few days, it occurred to me likely that there must be among mem bers of the American Legion enough i men who are anxious to see some real service, of whtch they are assured, to respond to this call. This Is, of course, entirely unofficial, and only comes from an tinasslgned officer In the guard who has the wel fare of the guard as well as the digniti es the state very warmly ut heart. 1 may add. however, that I have Just had a conversation over the telephone with the adjutant-general of tho New Mexico national guard, and he tells me that if I can induce 300 men to enlist from New York or anywhere else I shall certainly have the honor of savins the state from being placed in the ignominious position of being unable to raise Its quota after the president has called upon It. If necessary, use the wires freely at my expense, and hoping that you inay be In a position to help us out, 1 am. with kindest personal regards, Sincerely yours, (Signed) A. FLEMING JONES. Colonel, N. G. X. M? unasslgned. j Formerly aide-de-camp to governor. I Militia Unprepared. .Many regiments reached the border without wagon-trains, ammunition, or medical supplies. They were incapa ble of moving more than a day's march from the point where they were detrained; tliey could neither have resisted nor cared for their wounded. They would have been] slaughtered by tho attack of any trained army. Chaos is only the logical result ot a system based upon dual allegiance and operated by foreiy-eight different groups of amaeturs. The local dally newspapers have not reported the glaring failures of the militia mobilization. Instead they have romanced about the noble boys In khaki and the girls they left behind them. Local papers seem to fear that any criticism of the faulty militia sys tem will bo interpreted by the rela tives and friends of militiamen as de rogatory to the unselfish and alto gether admirable rank and file. That, however, is not the principal difficul ty. The chief obstacle is that intelli gent criticism must he aimed to a large degree at the state's adjutants- j general and at "amateur gcrkcrals ot i brigade, and these persons already i possess sufficient influence to muzzle their local press. The following Is an Illustration In point. On Friday, June 23, the first brigade of Pennsylvania state militia paraded in Philadelphia. A brigade a' war strength should number six thousand, but the First Pennsylvania brigade was only two thousand strong. Nearly a thousand were raw recruits who liad been hurriedly enlisted in a vain efforts to fill up the ranks and hundreds were so anemic and stoop shouldered that they were subsequent ly rejected as unfit to withstand the rigors of war. And yet one Philadel phia paper. In describing the parade, spoke ot "three, thousand grim-vtsaged fighting men!" In another city I questioned a re porter who was about to depart for the Mexican border as "war corre spondent" with a local militia regiment. I asked him If he had any intention of telling any unpleasant truth about the deficiencies of the mobilization. He replied with a cynical laugh: "Not on your life! I'm going to llo like hell.' Unanswerable Indictment, Ex-Assistant Secretary of War Breckenrldge. of Kentucky, who re signed rather than surrender to Mr. Hay. has said: "The history of the militia consti tutes nn unanswerable Indictment of tho militia system. It Illustrates the wickedness ot submitting good mili tary material to the disastrous influ ence of such a system. The same in individuals ? * ? who participated In writing the shameful history of the militia, if organized and trained under proper system, would have written annals of glory." We concur In Mr. Hay's premise as to the defects of the state militias as now constituted, but wo cannot logically Indorse his subsequent ac tion; for while pretending to place the militias upon a new and improved footing, in reality he "winks the other eye." nnd not only leaves thqjn upon the present basis of state control, but Intrenches and strengthens and per petuates them "with all their defects thick upon them. He proposed?and his proposal has now become law? to Tortify them in their present posi tion by authorizing the government to pay over fifty million dollars a year without exacting from them a binding guaranty that the nation will receive anything in return. Mr. Hay pretends to accord control over the militias to the nation by authorizing the presi dent to appoint militia officers, and prescribe their duties while in state service, and by empowering him to train the militias even when net in nntinnfti ?ervJc?. . But the constitution of the United States specifically, reserves all these rights, together with prior authority over the militias, to the governors of the several states. A state's xnUltia Is the foundation upon which the dig nity and authority ot the itate is l>a?ed* and upon which the law and order within the state ultimately depend. Mr. Hay argues that if a sta'e re fuse* 10 forest, its constitutional rivals i' can be deprived by the natlou.il gov ernment of it* slice of the annua! fifty j millionr. This is perfectly true, and! each s'ute ill begin by cheerfully sr.l milting, for the reason that Its shaie of the national funds makes it dccUcd ly 10 its interest to do bo. Each state will continue to submit during "pip-; Ing times of peace," and as long as no crisis arises to make it unprofitable I to submit. Knllcd in the Fast. As soon as such a situation arises,! the governor will promptly point out | ' his prior constitutional right, dory s'andiug 3rinks will be entitled to hold public office. Many of the mare al ready eouucilmcn. mayors, or govora menors. while others *lt in logisla tivo todies. They participate in civil businesres and practise the profes sions They ean bo mode hy their leaders to wield a powerful and wide spread iniluence over the press. More over eneh and every one is an otfej tlve voter, and in almost any congres sional district their eight liundrel col lective and organized votes will con stitute a political balance of powei. and bo n dangerous weapon rruly to the hand of their chief. An:l the guardsmen will he unable to save themselves, for the military machinery In the hauds of their military chiefs Going to the border without training or equipment: Han recruits of the Essex troop of New Jersey. the national government, ? and refuse to turn over his militia, exactly as so many governor have done in our past history. The uatlonal government, after sub sidizing tho Htate armies for years, will find itself deprived of their serv ices the moment a crisis arrives. Of j what avail, then, to cut off appropria tions? Mr. Hay perpetuates and builds up at great cost a system which has al ways fulled in the past, and which is certain to fail again as soon as the exigencies of a national calamity bring Into conflict the opposed author ities of nation and state. A hypothetical ease will serve as il lustration. New York Is believed to possess the most effective of tho sev eral state militias. Under the Hay bill the nation would count upon it | as an important part of the second line of defense. Let us suppose that a war becomes | imminent. The governor then realizes I that a successful attack upon New York City's water supply by enemy spies, armed with explosives would, entail more disastrous results than] the loss of a great battle. It requires! nearly all the New York militia ado-! quately to protect that single utility. The governor is thoroughly convers ant with this fact. The nation feeling It necessary to mobilize its socond line of defenses, calls upon New York's militia for federal service. Five niil-i Hon inhabitants of the biggest city in the world urge the governor to defy the order and to keep his militia at home for their protection. Whereupon the governor promptly exercises his prior constitutional right, and dis tributes his militiamen to guard public utilities. Can he be Justly blamed? Or canj the individual militiaman be blamed. | if having the two halves of a dual oath to choose between, he elects to obey the governor rather than the president? Governors have in the past frequently Insisted upon keeping their troops at home in time of war, very notably in the cases of Vermont in 1812 and Massachusetts, in 1861; and their militias obeyed and heartily in dorsed their orders. Governor Refuses. In the mobilization of 1016 no ser ious crisis existed, yet the governor of Michigan reaffirmed his prior right, and declared that the president could not order out the .Michigan militia unless it chose of its own accord to leave the state. He flatly refused to mobilize his troops for national serv ice until ho had obtained an expres sion of willingness from the militia men themselves. The futility of Mr. Hay's system will not become fully apparent until after the outbreak of war. Meanwhile the nation is urged to rely upon the mi lities as a second line of defense, and to pay over to them fifty million dol lars every year. The failure of the system is postponed until calamity Impends, but the payment of funds be gins immediately, and may even sur vive subsequent refusals of the state authorities to forego their constitu tional rights by obeying orders inju dicial to their own interests. Mr. Hay hopes to create the impres sion that he has federalized 1he mili tias. when the sole federalization he has brought about is the payment of federal funds to eight hundred hand picked constituents in each congres sional district. The governors will continue to con trol the militia, just as they have in the past. Doubtless they will In the future receive from politicians much "acceptable" advice as to the appoint ment of officers and the distribution of federal funds. Herein lies tho "joker," which threatens to make the army reorgani zation bill a vehicle for the distribu tion of pork by congressmen to an or ganized body of their henchmen. When citizen soldiers are paid for military service they cease to be citizen soldiers and become professionals, and the pro fessional character is commensurate with the scale of payment. Mr. Hay evidently does not believe in half mea sures ; he makes the professional char acter very marked. His bill provides for Instance, that each militia captain shall receive 5500 a year. Great Political Power. Thus !Mr. Hay has actually set up, and proposed to perpetuate, fortv eight new standing armies of small military value, but with great politi cal power; their members, although professional soldiers will neither bo invested with the disabilities which have" heretofore characterized our country's professional soldiers, nor will they be denied any of the privileges to which citizen soliders are alone entit'ed. ; The members of our forty-eight new I I furnish a weapon to destroy am- per son who mlnbohavea pniiircnUt In futuro Hie political bos.i ot ilii. I?fMantling army ran say io hit faithful eight hundred. "If you !,,?i put II over. I'll see thai you.- wag-s aro raised." And what candidate for ofl] ?? wilj f .i r he courageous enough lo prtp mm any ilccrcase In the pay of the Innil mllllla, nr to demand in military serv ice rendered any proper return for the national funds expended" Anil what militiaman will dare he politi cally disobedient to his military com mander? The following edllortal from "The tw ,V>rk Times" makes one suspect that the writer has seen a light and Is even a trifle pnnlc-strlekcn: f * * * Alert and progressive guards-' men are not In favor of converting their military body into a powerful political machine. They do not In tend to vote as guardsmen or to place the Interests of the guard above those or the state or nation. Slum Id Itepndlale J,etler. "Yet (hey must be awnro that there Is a well-directed movement afoot tn use the machinery of the national guard organization to gain purely po litical ends. Some of them must al ready have seen a circular letler ad dressed to his "comrades" by General A. II. Crltchflold, of tile Ohio niliiiln congratulating the guard on Hs re C.'0r; ,n f8co "trenuous efforts to destroy It by substituting another body of voluntcors." and de claring that "much absolutely neces sary for Ihe development and future success of the guard Is yet to be se curod. General Crltchflold commands a majority of the senators and repre sentatives in Congress for willingness ' and friendliness, but points out thai they w-ere unable to do all that they mikh have dono^f they had been moro MMlhc guard n'"' "b Wherefore he urges that no national eimi! l"?0nf "lm" vo,? '10r?after for a has' ,'nli Congress who is not or nas not neon a guardsman. ? * ? "The national guardsmen themselves should he the first lo repudiate this letler and its political advice. They should unite in condemnation or all such 'attempts lo degrade their mlli nomir??l " "10y "'"'"Sly Piny the political game suggested hv Crltch ""'J' w"l Inevitably lose public respect With 800 guardsmen proB trict ther (?VCry COIJgresslonal dls 'rn?f- 'hcr??ls no doubt that the or Kanizcd militia could temporarily ex ert an intolerable inlluence In na tional politics ? ? ? t'nless the guards 'n.? themselves check this outrageous plot in Its inception, they will see lhc day when their organization will be held In contempt In every part or the republic, when It may even be swept out or existence by the force or pub lic opinion The country has already tndured all the national guard poll u? 11 ran endure with patience." Hie guardsmen themselves" did try to "check this outrageous plot in its very Inception"; the more far sighted among them began to prolest against the Hay bill while It was still In committee. I have Interviewed many of the offi cers and men who make up the pa triotic rank and (lie of the militias, and most of them disapproved the Hay army bill on the very grounds I have !lCTCv"!U"ned- They foresaw that If the bill passed they w?uld either he forced lo become political henchmen or be superseded by henchmen. An Instance Cited. That metamorphosis had already bo gun before the bill became a law. One instance will suffice. in western Pennsylvania there lives a young law yer named Churchill Mchard. He is a graduate of tho Pennsylvania military college, where he was senior cadet captain. He passed successfully the examination tor a commission in the regular army. He has served ralth fully in the slate militia for fourteen He reached the rank of major i i ; vT "lildy of thc art of war is his hobby and his recreation. His reputation as an exceptionally effi cient officer extends even beyond his own state. Therefore bis appoint ment in 3912 as adjutant of the brlgl ade to which his regiment belonged met with wide approval. His services in that capacity had for four vears been highly, satisfactory. Last April u? ?,!l,ltl!a"p,T clBUS0 of the pending Hay b became a vital issue. Although the bill would give him Ave or hi* hundred dollars a year for merely con tinuing to do In the future what he had unselfishly done In the past. Ma jor Mehard nevertheless opposed its passage, and, like many others of tho rank and file, Indorsed the federal Platlsburg camps and a national mili tia as provided in Section LV1 of the Chamberlain bill. Hut tho militia general commanding Ins bri^dc was an ardent advocate of the Hay bill. "It was intimated" to Major Mehard tluit ho had hotter re consider and change his views. He replied that his conscience would not permit him to do ho. Ah a- result he was within a month informed that his services an brigade adjutant were no longer desired. At the date of writing it is rumored lie is in danger of court martial because ho at ill continues to oppose the bill . "Either becomo po litical hencltmau or be superseded by henchmen." It was not the rank and tile of the guard which maintained that Ravage "militia lobby" at Washington during the early, months of the present year. That lobby was maintained by the high otllcers and adjutants-general of mili tia, who Haw a golden opportunity to take unt?i themselves great political power. Cole Disapproves 11111. It is Impossible to federalize the militia by act of Congress. The con stitution specially and repeatedly re serves to each state the control of Its own militia. Nationalization must come either through a constitutional amendment or h> act of the state's own legislature, by moans of legisla tion similar to that recently passed In Massachusetts. AdJutaiiM5enor.nl Cole, of Massachu sets. who differs widely from most ad jutants-general In not coveting politi cal power through militia pay. disap proved the present hill. The rank and 11 le of his Massachusetts militia agreed with him. It is significant of the po tential political power of tho state militias that ho was able to obtain the Immediate passage through the Massa chusetts organizations, together with their nrmories and equipment, were to be unreservedly turned over to the national government as a gift as soon as a nnct of Congress shall authorize their acceptance. (Jeneral Cole fully comprehends tho need for undivided national control over all troops intend ed for national defense. He refused to yield to the temptations of personal ambition. National troops under exclusive na tional discipline and controt are nec essary for adequate national defense. Our own history and the histories of other nations have repeatedly proved this. In the IMattsburg training camps, we have the germ of a nation al militia. Section IA'1 of the Senate's army hill provided for a national vol unteer reserve. Through Jealousy it was opposed by the ""militia lobby." and was defeated. In Its stead Congress has saddled upon us an incubus which will bo a si sir FOR SENATE III H DISTRICT G. 0. P. Nominee Says Condi tions Are Particularly Good in Nicholas County. (?PCCIAL TO THK 1ILIOKAMI RICiQ'OOD; Oct. 21.?Robed Itnone, or en publ icr county, tho Republican nominee fur mate senate in this, rtic Ninth Konatorlol district, wan Bore this week looking the situation over. lie seemed well pleased with conditions, not only here but elsewhere in the dis trict, and said that prospects were good for redeeming tho district. Mr. Boone appears to belong to the old school of politicians, but has the elements of a mail of ability, and no one doubts but what ho will prove to be a power in tho upper house of the legislature. Labor Troubles Settled. The labor troubles that have existed here, to Bome extent, for the last month or bo, have been practically settled, as all tho planta have resumed operations and apparently cvcryttilim has been moving along smoothly and well. il. c. Corcoran, of Wheeling, claiming to represent tho American Federal ion of ! -abor, came here a few days ago for the purpose, he main tained. of adjusting labor conditions at the Dodge clothespin factory. This plant had bcon operating as usual, and Mr. Dodge, the superintendent and general manager of tho concern, re fused to recognize or have anything to do with Mr. Corcoran. It is under stood lhat tho city council refused to allow Mr. Corcoran the ubc of the city bail for the purposo of holding meet ings. A number of meetings have, howovor, been held at tho union hall but bo far no strlko has been called. J. II. Xlchtlngaic, state labor commis sioner, wob callcd by representatives of the American Federation of Labor and after a careful inspection of con ditions at the Dodge plant, reported thing?-in good Bhapc there. Quick Watson, the Needle. Two weeks ago a stranger camo to Justice Hutchinson here, who keeps a livery stable, and asked to havo a pair of mules taken care of for a day or two. He was riding one and leading the other by a lialter. He came across Cold Knob and said ho was from Vir ginia. He claimed to have lOBt his pocketbook coming across tho moup laln and struck the squire for a loan of J2. To make a long story short, the fellow left and tho mules are still in the custody of Mr. Hutchinson. What tho Justice would very much like to know Is what has become of the owner of the mules and how much longer he will have to keep them. Attend Convention. A. B. -McCutcheon and L. A. Thomas have returned from Columbus, 0., where they attended the National Funeral Directors' Association. They report a big convention and a most pleasant time. Jacksonville, Fla., was. chosen as tho next place of meeting. Resumes Work. Mrs. Ida Carry, who was called to Akron, O., a week or bo ago on account of her Bon-ln-law's having/mot with a serious accident, has returned, and has i ? i." I mighty financial burden and a suro I source ?f political corruption. What Is even more serious in our present j national crisis. It tends to prevent the j attainment of any military system ? | adequate for defense against invasion. The present mobilization of the mlll i tins places their patriotic rank and ! tile under federal control where they 'J? belong, and where they can effectively serve their country. It removes them : from the sphere of the states' ndju j tnnts-general and of state political 1 i control. It delays their political ab- ' i sorption. liet us devoutly pray that by the time the militias return from the border and pass again under state *** control Air. Hay's bill win have been ' superseded by newer legislation. Not Ilay's Invention. It is interesting to noto that Mr. ^ May's system for distributing pork . whs not invented by himself. Tt was first conceived In 1012 by certain lie- <ur? publicans. The Democratic minority .y? of the committee on military affairs in ?a-> the 1 louse vehemently and wisely pro tested against it. It is to tho credit* - jj of the Republican party that Mr. ;i Taft followed the recommendations of the Democratic minority of tho com mlttoe on military affairs and used his Influence to defeat a bill containing the mil It la pay clause which has to day, under Mr. Hay's sponsorship, bo- :::* came a law. "I appeal froiy Philip drunk to ?? Philip sober," for It would be difllcult , to find a more concise statement of Mr. Hay's bill than the one contained j*': I In the above mentioned minority re- .. ? port, which was written by Mr. Hay , f himself, who was then leader of thfi minority! (Report 117. part II, Sixty- .JJI second Congress, Third SeBsion). It ,1 reads as follows: ' JH "The minority making thin report ~ Ik convinced tlinl tlio legislation pro- -r posed by tho ponding bill l? not only , unwise, but that It In dangerous in the ! extreme. Hatlier than enter upon a ,?>) j legislative course that will Inevitably -<? I entail upon the general government an enormous expense, which may ho .|a found In (lire emergency to have boen wasted, ? comae that will surely load to tho croailon of a great military force that will become no powerful po litically that Congress will be no moro ' able to resist tho demands of a far ' less compactly organized and manage- .'GJ able nrmy of pension applicant* and Ihelr friends. Ibis minority would fa vor a reasonable Increase of Ibo regit Inr army, leaving the atatcs to main- , ? lain their own troops In their own ^ way and at their own expense without "Kj any aid whatever front tho United 'r'? States. ? resumed her work a? music teacher. Home Wedding. Marvin Smith, assistant cashier ot the First National llnnk here, and Miss j Mary Alderaon. of Hiimmorvllle, were | married at tlio brldo'a homo last Wed- j, nesday morning. Tho happy couple will go to housekeeping hero In the 1 1 near future. 1 *i7Xtt SM.t Is III. Miss Zoo Anderson, linotype oper ator In the office of tho Nlcholaa Re- *3 ? publican bore, was called to Parkers- -it burg on account of the serious Illness J*at of her sister. -UrKt \ y.mi. Preaches First Sermon. :aor Dr. U B. Itcsseggor, tho now district 'I** superintendent of the Elkins district, "" ? Methodist Episcopal Conforenco, '' preached Ills flrst sermon hero Sunday ' ' ; ovonlng to a largo and appreciative '.i>w audience. -!l3 Personals. nsin Fred L. Space, chlof counsel for the 2 Cherry Illvor Boom and Lumber Com- ''I* puny, of Scranton, Pa., has been here ">? for a few days looking after business VI ; (or the company. ? sIT Marry Smith was at i'arkcrsburg -dWI ami Fairmont last week consulting an '30J occullHt for eye trouble. IN LOVnfiTH % j PHOTO, 300N I 10 WED GIRL i -nb Minnesotan Comes AH Way to ?>"; Chicaqo to Find Original of ttie Picture. CHICAGO, Oct. 21.?A marriage U- ^4 cense, luckily, la not to bo classed as perishable property. Fernley R. Harris, of Austin, Minn., '' bought one, and It Is to bo kept fresh until October 25, when It will serre at his marriage with Miss Ruth J. Babcock. of Evanston. It was only a few months ago tha^, Mrs. Harris first knew that iMlss Bab cock was beautiful. She was a model ?wearing bats and gowns of the new est mode so that others might see Tiow beautiful they were. One day she pose# tor a photograph?she was weaxlci 4 new Paris hat. A copy of the photograph found lt? way to Austin. Mr. Harris saw the photo and his outlook In life was In stantly changed. There was no name on the photo except the name of the Chicago com pany for "whom it was made. ' Mr. Harris came to Chicago and made it, his business to get acquainted with the heads ot the company, until he had Influence enough to get the name he wanted. Ho found hor at last, obtained an introduction and was permitted to call at the Babcock home. He wanted to marry the girl at once, but she made him wait a few moths. The wedding will be solfen&ed In the home of the bride's parents; Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Babcock. Mr. Bab cock Is general manager of "a lift int suranco company. CEtEjrr^crar Lime, p.'aster, cement, sand, sewer pipe, etc. Prices right, quality and service oar specialty. Both phones, a M. WEST, Feed Supply Store.