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West Virginia Democrat. [volume] (Charles Town, W. Va.) 1885-1890, March 25, 1887, Image 1

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v , . . FRIDAY, MARCH 25, 1887. Price 3 Cents
vol. III., No. 111. .
Your Liver?!
Is the Oriental salutation,
knowing that good health
cannot exist without a
healthy Liver. When the
Liver is torpid the How
cis are sluggish and con
stipated, the food lies
in the stomach undigest
ed, poisoning the blood;
frequent headache ensues;
a feeling of lassitude, de
s pond eucy and nervous
ness indicate how the
whole system is deranged.
Simmons Liver Regulator
has l>cen the means of re
storing more people to
health and happiness by
giving them a healthy
Liver than any agency
known on earth. It aets
with extraordinary power
and ellleacy.
As a genera! family remedy for Dvs
j«q>sia. Torpid Uver, Constipation, etc.,
t hardly ever use anything else, and
have never been disappointed In the ef
fect produced; it seeuisto is- almost a
perfect cure for ail disease* of the Stom
ach and Bowels.
W. J. Me Elroy, Macon. fJa.
feb.34 ,eo w -Jin.
Or Clack leprosy. is a disease which is considered
incurable, but It bas yielded to the curative prop
erties of Swifts mt< tru— now known all over
the world as S. S S. Mrs. Bailey, of West Somer
ville. Mass., near Boston, wasattackcd several years
agowuh ihui hideous black eruption, and wa» treat
ed bv the best medical tahnt, who could only aav
that the disease was a sj>ec!os of LEPROSY
and consequently iucurabk*. It is impossible to de
scribe her sufferings. Her body from the crown of
her bead to the soles of her feet was a mass of de
cay, the flesh rotting off and leaving great cavities,
ler Angers festered and several nails dropped off
>1 one time. Her limbs contracted by the fearful
alceralion, and for years she did not leave her bed.
Her weight was reduced from 125 to 6011*9. Sorv
faint idea of her condition can bo glean d fro.i
tne fact that three pounds of i 'omnotise or oint
ment were used per wreck In dressing her tores.
Finally the physicians ccfcnowlodged their defeat
by this Black Wolf, aud commended the tufferer
to her ail w i<o Cr< .dor
Her h:i*baiid hcai ii.g wonderful r< pert s of Swift’s
S; ct f S S . prevailed cu iur to try it a* a.
1: -t H-- it She h •! suu-<* under prut..-t, but
*-> .1 tuui.il i' i. r- ri w as bv.ng relieved of
the ; ou-ou. a> t ■■ r. r< * a 'i.n.cl u ted end hcrltiiy
col. as though the b’ d v ■■■* becoming pme And
a- ,.ir. Mrs bulky C'-ut-vurd theui til ia>t
Februar , tuiy t • v i healed; she d;-carded
chair and crutches »..! i ..s for the flirt time m h
.•ears a well w ... i- T hu-nand, Mr. V. A. Bai
ley, is m bti-a,. -s H'j Id-ck-loins Street. Bos
ton. aud v t i!-*; .• - ia tv- :ug the details ot
this w. i! -I i ? . i r i us f .r Treatise ufi
Boodaud^uuii mu.ltd free,
fur Swtrr Srt: im- Co., Drawer3, Allant* O*
ffeb, 25-lm
Violin, Flute anil Guitar
Having been solicited bv many musie
lovitig persons to give lessons on tho i
Violin, Flute and liuitar, 1 have eonelu- j
•led to accept a limited number of pupils \
for the above named Instruments. For
terms please call on me at my Jewelrv
Store on Main street, or address uie lavck
Box No. 4S, Charlestown.
Sp,*»-ial Kates for Clubs of 4.
Respectfully. E. BROWNOLD. 1
Charlestown. Jefferson County, W. Va.,
Offers bargains in Farms.Manufactories, !
Mills, stores. Town property and Im- j
proved Agricultural and Timber land. I
Has K.xchnng' - t > offer in several of the I
States. Member of sev eral city co-oper- ;
ative Immigrant associations. Buys and •
anils at contract ratns. s*>pt.i8,*85.
to sell for the IIOOKKK M K8KKIKS. j
Kstahlished iKti. Permanent employ- j
incut. Salarv and Expenses or IJtK'ral ■
Commissions paid. Experience not lie- •
• essarv. Applv at once.
fehiVJm. Rochester, N. ^ .
Bucklen’s Arnica Salve.
The l>est Salve in tin* world for Cutis, |
Bruises, Sores, Fleers, Sait Khenni. Fe- |
ver Sores, Tetter, Chapped Hands, Chii- j
blains. Corns, ami all Skin Eruptions, |
and positively cures Piles, or no pay re- ;
quired. It is guaranteo i to give perfect f
satisfaction, or money refunded. Price
go cents per lu>x. For sale by lieorge T. j
Light. ianl4-87.
by dealing in
explanatorTpamphlet |;
- I
850 Broadway (and branchet), I
The Old Methods of Samuel John
son and Noah Webster.
Interesting Facts About the New Cen
tury Dictionary.
Written for the Courier-Journal by
Julian Ralph.
The candle factory of oar grand
fathers’ days ecftnpares but poorly
with one of the grand electric light
establishments of to-day, and so
does a modern Pullman with the
old-time stage coach, or one of our
great American hotels with the tavern
where Christopher North held forth,
for instance. But, after all. none of
these comparisons arc so odious to
the past, to come to tuy subject, as
the contrast between the present
way of making a dictionary and the
wav in which the dictionaries of old
were made. Even if we go no further
back than Noah Webster’s first
effort, the illustration is amazingly
A great dictionary—which prom
ises to be the most perfect yet col
lated—is now being gotten up in
New York. It is to be called the
Century Dictionary, and is the pro
ject of the great magazine publish
ing house of the same name. It may
not be finished in years, so that the
illustration can be drawn without
serving an interested purpose. In
tact, tne information nere set ionn
was begrudgingly given, for the dic
tionary makers think the time is not
yet ripe for talking of what is so far
from completion and may be subject
to so many changes. I assaulted
their citadel earnestly for facts, be
cause I had just been reading Bos
well’s life of Johnson, aud was im
pressed with how painstaking that
useful sycophant described the man
ner iu which the great Johnson
made his famous book. As that
dictionary is unquestionably the
basis from which most of the Kng
lish dictionary makers of subse
quent times have drawn the greater
part of their information and ideas,
the picture of how Johnson did his
work is a valuable ene.
It was in 1740, in his little house
in Holborn, a part of London, that
Samuel Johnson began his work in
a bed room with probably a table or
two and two or three clerks. The
need of a dictionary had been point
ed out to him and he began the
work as a commercial venture to aid
him in making a living, dedicating
it to Lord Chesterfield to give it i
fashion. iie was sclt sufficient
enough to imagine himself capable
of pouring out of bis own brain
most of the material for the gigantic
work, and he managed to get a few
books—one of them a set of Finnish
Proverbs—for matters that even he
admitted he did not know himself.
With these facilities he wrote and
dictated his dictionary, taking a run
down to Oxford and visiting libra
ries in London occasionally to settle
points mooted iu his own mind. It
took him several years aud the re
sult was the most perfect dictionary
of his day, ns well as the satisfac
tion of having accomplished a work
heroic in its proportions, when it is
considered as the work of one au
But although it has served as a
model for more than a century it is
and was absurdly inefficient and un
reliable, lie pretended too much. !
He supposed that the uautical terms |
leeward and windward meant the;
same thing, and so he thus defined :
them, taking no trouble to find out
the truth. W. Clark Kussell, the t
writer of sea tales, has just written
to the 1’on temporary Jievietr a list
of scores of words similarly miscon
strued, many of which have been >
copied from Johnson by one lexico
grapher after another, and are still
wronglv defined in the dictionaries
of to day. Then Johnson didn t lies- j
itate to grind the ax of his own pre-!
judice whenever opportunity served; I
as, for instance, he assailed the ex- '
cise and pension systems in defining j
the words that gave them title. He j
yielded to wounded egotism in de i
scribing “Lexicographer" as “a i
writer of dictionaries—a harmless i
drudge;” and in many more ways i
belittled the value of his own pro
duction. Yet, his has been the cor
ner stone of English dictionaries, I
Let us read
if how he worked:
“While Johnson's dictionary was j
ijoing forward Johnson lived part of \
die time in Holborn, and part of the J
;ime in Gough Square, Fleet street, j
ind he had an upper room fitted up t
ike a counting-house for the pur- !
iosc, in which he gave the copyists 1
heir several tasks. The words j
partly taken from other dictionaries j
ind partly supplied by himself, hav- j
ng first been written down with l
ipaces left between them, he delved
n. writing the etymologies, defini
,ions and various significations.
I'he authorities were copied fiom
he books themselves in which he
lad marked the passages with a
Jack lead-pencil, thetraees of which
-—— - ' 1
could easily be effaced. It is re
markable that he was so attentive j
in the choice of the passages in
which words were authorized that'
one may read page after page of his j
dictionary with improvement and I
Turning now to almost modern j
times, we find that Noah Webster !
practically collated his immcasura- i
bly superior work in much the same
way. He was less self-sufficient,
and drew generously from the best
printed authorities obtainable, but
he, too, practically made his diction
ary himself. His work no longer
stands uncorrected, however. After |
he died it will be remembered Prof. !
Goodrich, of New Haven, revised it
with the aid of a considerable syn
dicate of writers. Vet by no less
authority than the Publishers'
Weekly, of January 15th, it is re
corded that “when the unabridged
i edition of Webster’s Dictionary first
appeared the great scholar, Caleb
i Cushing, wrote a criticism on the
! stupendous work, saying that, for its
i size, it had as few errors as could
be expected. This puzzled the edi
tors, who asked an explanation of
Me. Cushing on the subject of those
errors. In reply, Mr. Cushing
marked five thousand mistakes in
the volume which had been present
ed to him and sent it back.” This
great and noble dictionary went to
press without the word “una
bridged,” which forms its popular
title being defined within its pages.
How natural an omission—yet it
was a mistake, and mistakes are not
condonable in woiks of reference
any more than in military matters.
The makers of
THE century dictionary
that is to be, proposed to make a
dictionary in the modern way, and
they have to cut out new paths for
themselves in order to do il. They
propose copying nothing from any
authority without verifying it, to
accept nothing in the oid authorities
that new and living ones will not
vouch for, in fact, to begin at the
bottom as if no dictionary had ever
1 been made and a perfect one was to
I be gotten out. The most curious
thing about the work is that they
did not iutcnd to do this at the out
I set, but have been led into it step by
, step. They owe the gigantic work
they have undertaken to a purchase
o''the plates of an Eoglishdictionary
called the Imperial—the new revision
1 of Dr. John Ogilvie’s master work.
In buying it they first proposed to
Americanize it by striking out the
purely Englishism in spelling,for in
stance. and by adding words or defi
nition in American usage. They
naw then that they had better cut
the plates and insert new matter to
a considerable extent. Finally, they
decided to throw the whole work
overboard and begin anew. 31 r.
lloswcll Smith, president of the com
pany, says that if they had known
what they were undertaking they
would have been appalled at the ex
pense and time required and might
not have gone into it The Imperial
dictionary is in four octavo volumes.
The Century may comprise ten.
they went so lar that it soon be
came too late to halt, and now for
nearly six years the work has been
on the way with the present belief
that it may be completed in two
years. The Imperial dictionary was
taken as a basis, as it was the most
elaborate and complete work extant.
A great force of women was employ
ed to cut up proofs of all the pages
of the. Imperial and reassort all the
headings under kindred classifica
tions—bringing all natural history
words together, all the terms in med
cine, in art, in the mechanical
branches, in archeology, all Ameri
canisms and, in fact, each sort of
words together under their own
heads. For each classification a liv
ing authority was then sought, the
highest one if possible, to take'
charge of the branch of the work that
he was master of. For example, Aus
tin Abbott is the expert by whom all
definitions of law terms arc finall}”
supervised. The very world of knowl
edge has thus been enlisted in the
gigantic work, and, over all the ex
perts, purely literary men have been
engaged to revise the English of the
definitions and monographs each ex
pert furnishes. Higher still, above
all these, is
the greatest authority in linguistics
in this country, who is the editor-in
chief of the work. But that is not all
that is needed to make the new die- |
lionary which is to take the place of
the once formidable work Samuel
Johnson produced in his bedroom in
Ilolborn. A little host of eminent I
literary men is also hard at work |
reading standard works simply to \
find words not defined in any dic
tionary. You would scarcely credit
it, but in the Encyclopedia Britanni
ca alone there have been found ten
thousand words not included in the
best English dictionaries. Father
still in this labyrinth of complicated ;
and minute detail, one finds that au
other set of literary men (and alto
gether these are the pillars of our
literature) is equally hard at work
reading both new and old authors,
from Smollett to Howells, iu one
branch, and from the first translators
of the Bible into English to the last
book by Cardinal Manning in anoth- ‘
er branch, simply to find apt illus
trative sentences to demons rate the
sense in which words are used,
and the sense in all its shadingf*
Not even the old quotations in the
standard dictionaries ijRe to be used,
but all are to be, like all else in this
book,original with it. Ben Jonson,for
instance, proves a wondrous mine
never worked, for information as to
the use and meaning of English
words in the brilliant epoach in
which he lived.
As the thousands of words sent
out to the experts are returned to
the publishers with the new defini
tions added and the new words in
cluded, the women who originally
scissored out of the proof-sheets the
snow-fall of clippings n>w copy the
work of the experts on type writers
so as to have it in clean unmistaka
ble type, and then this js compared
word” by word and all mistakes cor
rected. At the same time there arc
pouring in upon the publishers aud
experts the findings of new words
and new quotations, and these are
submitted to the experts and added
| to their work, and revised by the
! literary men who act as editors, in
never ending rotation and re-rota
tion. The first complete list of syn
onyms in the language is inciden
tally beiug added. Then again,
there are words that cannot be de
fined by words. Who cau describe
an alligator so that one cun see it
precisely in his mind’s eye—or what
words will convey a just idea of the
appearance of the periwinkle shell.'f
In all such cases pictures are used
to help in making the definition, and
after an expert has suggested the
picture he wants, and the art devel
opment has turned out the picture
it is sent to the expert and marked
“approved” by him over his own
signature, or else he disapproves of
it and has it changed until it is cor
rect. And all the time, as in the
weaving of a million threads into a
carpet pattern, the women who have
been clipping and type writing are
kept busy rearranging an i putting
hack into the old order what they at
first so diligently tore apart, so that
the words will fall in alphabetical
order, each with its definition, its
quotation, its synonyms, its picture,
or whatever, iu the proper place.
This constant accretion of im
measurably valuable .MSS. brought
up a new problem. What if it should
burn? It never could be reproduced
exactly. Prof Whitney, lor in
; stance, would never undertake the
work again. Insurance would not
* pay lor it. Of course the bulk of
the sheets, as they had been pre
pared, were put iu safe and sale-de
posit vaults, but there soon came a
time when they had to he taken, a
thousand or so at. once, to the print
ers, and they were in danger again.
Coni routed by this problem, the
publishers hit upon a new and ex
traordinary device for protecting
their property. They* caused each
sheet of finished copy- to be photo
graphed in reduced size, and now
the safe-deposit vaults hold thous
ands of negatives no larger than
nail toe size ot the oiu-iasuionea
carte dc finite, each representing a
page of the dictionary. These can
be enlarged back to the old size or
put in a magic lantern, thrown upon
a sheet, and copied over again, in
case the original MS. is lost.
How doe9 the old dictionary com
pare with the new? Look at John
son and his clerks scratching away
in a bed-room on the one hand, and
on the other a thousand homes in
stinct with the spirit of the modern
enterprise. Professors, novelists,
poets, civil engineers, doctors, law
yers, actors, astronomers,mechanics,
sailors, editors, in fact, at least one
representative of every following in
science, art and industry are all toil
ing to contribute to a compendium
of all the knowledge obtainable
about the words that form our lan
guage. Carrying out their works
are scores of busy women, the pa
tient type-setters, the pressmen, the
artists, the photographers, the ster
eotype founders, the hinders and
who can *.eli how many else? These
are what the men who are getting
up the latest dictionary foresaw, yet
they say it was only a feeble glance
ahead that they took. Among other
things they must copyright every
line, must obtain deeds of every
line supplied to them, must satisfy
other publishers for every line they :
borrow from American works, and
the last enterprise they undertook
was to write to all the missionary
stations all over the world for defi
nition of all the foreign terms in use
in English and American literature.
In the light of this explanation of
how a perfect diction *rv of our lan
guage is being constructed, docs not
the old wish of the prophet. “Would
that mine enemy would write a
book,” appear feeble anti narrow?
Let the phrase be altered hereafter
into “Would that mine enemy would
write a dictionary.” Thine enemy
might not then be so bitterlv and
generally assailed as if he had writ
ten a book, but he would have his
hands so full that bis enmity would
be robbed of all its sting, for he
would have no time to pursue it.
Philadelphia Ledger.
Besides the regular employments
of the world, which rightly form the
chief business of all healthy and ac
tive persons, there are a number of
good and desirable objects which
can only be accomplished by the
united efforts of private individuals,
whose business lies in other direc
tions. Such are the various chari
table enterprises for the relief of
poverty and ignorance, the cause of
education in its many branches the
various reforms of the day, the im
provements planned and executed
for the beauty of the city, or the
comforts of its inhabitants, the con
dilion of good government and the
paths that led to ;t, the advance and
spread of art, the assistance of ge
nius, the elucidation of social prob
lems, and many other things equally
valuable to the welfare of the whole
community. All these, if done at
all, must be done mainly by the peo
ple outside of their regular voca
tions. Each one has, or ought to
have, his own special employment
into which his full energies must be
thrown. Then his recreation, his
general culture, his famil}* duties,
his social needs, demand considera
tion. Beyond all these, however,
and including some of them, is the
duty devolving on each one to help
the community in which he lives,
and to fulfil his share of responsi
bility for its order, well-being and j
happiness. A part of the time
should be thus devoted; how large a
part can only be determined by each
for himself.
As, however, it is at the best but
a small contribution that can thus
be made by busy people, it becomes
a dillicult question in what direc
tion it should be made. The path
of business is usually distinctly
marked out and followed without
doubt or hesitation. Domestic du
ties are clear and plain, and social
claims are fairly definite. But this
mission of public benefaction is
somewhat vague and misty. Here
there is such a vast work open be
fore U6, there are so many good
things proposed to be done, many
of which we admit to be valuable,
; that it is not strange if we experi
i once a sense of confusion and dis
i couragement. Some retire from the
i scene under the very mistaken im
pression that amidst such a vastar
j ray of objects to be accomplished,
i the small mite of help they could
1 offer is not worth presenting. Still
more, however, fluctuate from one
thing to another, now working a lit
j tie lor this society and now for that;
now undertaking a little charitable
work and now a little political agita
tion; then leaving them al) to pro
mote some reform that they see is
needed, or to assist some struggling
talent to emerge from obscurity. It
is plain that thus to divide up a
small portion of leisure time among
many objects, however worthy they
may be, is to greatly impair its use- i
fulness. Wc may, if we please, dis
tribute our money in this way, and
trust to the wisdom of those who
control such expenditures to make
it effective; but time cannot thus be j
handed over. If it is to do any real
: good it must be intelligently con- j
centrated upon something of which |
we have at least a little knowledge, I
! and in which we are able to act with j
: a fair degree of wisdom.
Indeed, the very presence oi i
strong solicitude in any special form j
of human welfare invests us with a
certain responsibility in that (lirec- i
tion. Is one anxious about the con- j
dition and treatment of the criminal '
classes, and another about the un
fortunate little waifs cast on the
world with little or no parental love
and care? Is one keenly alive to the
need of good laws and wise admin
istrations, and another warmly •«
tercsled in industrial education?
Does one yearn f<>r the removal of
drunkenness from the land, and an
other for better relations between
labor and capital? Such longings
should be regarded as signals point
ing out the paths of action. They
say, in a small, still voice, *Tp and
he doing; work for this good thing
that you desire; labor for the result
von hope may come about: put your
practical energies into harmony
with your sense of human need, and
thus do your share toward the de
sired result.’"
There is much that is and must
be done for pay, and it i3 right that
it should be so; but there is also
much that can be best accomplished
without any thought of pay—even .
the pay of love—but simply from
the desire of doing good. If each
one will devote some regular portion
of his leisure to such of this work as
is most congenial to his taste and
nearest to his heart, striving to un
derstand its principles and to em
ploy wise methods with system and
order, success will crown his efforts,
his own character will develop har
moniously, and the welfare of the
community will be furthered in the
most speedy and effective manner.
If the seed is good the cutting of
l>otatoes to pieces with two eyes
should give good results. In cutting
always endeavor to leave as much of
the tuber to the eyes as possible, as
it serves as plant food in the early
stages of growth.
Expert Work in the Ring by a Mexican
Girl. A Wonderful Thrust.
City of Mexico Letter to Indianapolis
Just prior to the taking effect of
the decree against boll fighting I
was fortunate enough to witness a
contest in which one of the most
skillful, daring and expert of the pro
fessional fighters of Mexico took a
leading part. This performer was a
young woman, whose equal has prob
ably never appeared in the “Plaza
da Toros.” In this her farewell ex
hibition Senorita Hernandez adver
tised for the wildest and fiercest
bulls that the country could produce,
and agreed to fight them while wear
ing stilts. The novelty of a young
girl engaging in a bull-fight handi
capped by having stilts fastened t >
her feet was sufficient to attract a
vast crowd, and on the day fixed for
the event fully 5,000 persons found
places to sit or stand in the large
amphitheatre. The animals pro
vided for the occasion were small ac
tive and wholly untamed, each hav
ing bis horns trimmed and polished
until the points were as bright and
almost as sharp as needles. Never
was more expert work done in this
cruel sport than was performed by
the Mexican girl that day. As the
bull, mad with rage, would make his
furious charge, she would stand un
til he had approached within a dis
tance of about three feet, when, sud
denlj springing to one siae, sue
would, as the animal rushed furious
ly by, with one hand slap him in the
face with the red cloak with which
his anger had been first aroused,
while with the other hand she dex
terously thrust into his neck a gaudy
barbed “banderilla,” causing him to
roar with pain and rage. Charge
after charge was made by the mad
dened brute, only to be eluded by
the active girl, while the bull met
the same treatment as before. The
little senorita played with him,
plagued him, and tortued him as a
cat would a mouse, until the animal,
bleeding and sore and worn out with
; fatigue and pain, gave np the con
test and. would fight no more. He
' had met his conqueror, and was ta
ken from the ring.
In the next contest the fair Cas
tilian was under an advertised obli
gation, while yet wearing the stilts, ;
to kill the bull with a sword scarce
ly more than two feet in length.
This was to be done by the toreadora
at the time the animal was making
the charge, the fatal thrust to be I
given while she was directly in front j
of and fairly facing the bull.
The animal selected for this con- ;
test was a beautiful s(>ecin)cn of bis '
race. Black as a coal, agile as a cat,
savage and wild, he was no sooner !
within the arena than he was ready
for the battle. After he had been j
permitted to make a charge or two
to warm him up to his work, the Gov
ernor, who presided on the occasion,
gave a signal and trie bogie sounded
the “death call.” The senorita, with ■
stilts of one foot in height securely j
fastened to- her limbs, received the j
short sword, saluted the Governor, j
and, turning to her enemy, gave a i
shout of defiance and waved her j
scarlet cloak to rouse his anger.
At this time the distance separating !
the antagonists was almost 200 feet.
Toro, quivering with excitement and
pawing the earth in his rage, waited j
for no second invitation. With flash- !
ing eyes and head lowered to the i
ground he started at full speed for j
the object of his hate. The brave ;
girl waited until the beast was with- ,
in twenty feet, when, bracing herself i
firmly, she held her sword at ghoul- !
der height ready for his coming.
When within about four feet she
threw herself suddenly forward, gave
a quick thrust with the sword, and,
without waiting to see the effect of
the blow, swung quickly around and
again saluted the Governor. In the
twinkling of an eye she turned to
face the bull, and as she did so be
dropped dead, mi* close to her that,
without moving from her |K>sition,
she placed one foot upon the neck of
her now helpless enemy.
The sword, directed by a stiong
arm of the self-possessed girl,had sev
ered the spinal cord, and death was
instantaneous and probably painless.
It was a perilous feat, skillfully and
fearlessly performed, and the slight
est nervousness on the part of the
performer would probably have re
suited in her death. The great au
dience, in recognition of the skill of
the brave toreadors, rose to its feet
and for several moments there was a
shower of gold and silver coins fall
ing around the victorious girl.
Land that has been cultivated for
a series of years with special grain
crops will sooner or later lose its
fertility, and in order to restore it
quite an outlay is reqnirei of both
time and money. It is not a diffi
cult matter to secure good yields on
worn-out soils, provided special fer
tilizers be used, but when the soil
... > — . V..JJ, 'v%
reaches such a condition it does not
pay to attempt to recuperate it and
compel it to produce a crop at the
same time. The greatest difficulty
with farmers in such cases is, that
while they are willing to invest in
fertilizers they hesitate at the loss
of time and the products that would
necessarily be expected from the
land. And therefore while the pro
per plan for recuperating the soil is
to omit cropping it for a season, the
method is not generally adopted.
The soil can be rested from labor, as
is done under the fallow system, but
such a plan is too slow. Something
should be added to it, in order to
assist the process of recuperation.
As an impoverished soil is supposed
to be too poor to produce anything,
it is not an easy matter to resort to
green manuring, but green manuring
(the turning under of some special
crop for that purpose) is the oulv
lasting and permanent method of
Ae a beginning, lime, which is tin*
cheapest fertilizer, should be used
as a dressing in the fall, broadcas
ting it over the ground after plowing
it Then rye should be thickly
sown and the ground* harrowed.
There will be but little benefit do
rived from the lime before spring,
its action being slow, nor will the
rye make much progress, but when
the spring opens the lime will have
liberated sufficient nourishment from
the soil to induce a moderate growth
of the r$*e. As the rye may be
plowed under at any time, it should
be turned under as soon as it shows
signs of failure. A beginning will
nave Deen inane, tor meyoung green
rye will have quickly decomposed,
while the lime will still continue to
be beneficial. The rye may be fol
lowed by a mixture of oats and field
peas, which will derive their nour
ishment from the lime and decaying
rye, and a fair growth may be ex
pected. As it is not necessary U»
mature the crop, it should also bo
turned under in time for a crop of
buckwheat or millet, the former be
ing preferable, which will make suf
ficient progress to thickly cover the
ground by fall, when it should also
be plowed under, the land again
broadcasted and re-seeded to rye.
It will not require a large quantity
of lime. Ten bnsbels of air slacked
lime per acre, in a fine condition, nt
each application will he sufficient on
a majority of soils.
The rye will make sufficient
growth to be turned under when the
season for planting corn ariives.
and, as a year's time will have been
lost in growing the mannrial crops,
the farmer will be desirous of secur
ing something to recompense him
for his loss. If, however, instead of
so doing, ho will hurdle sheep upon
the land, thereby deriving the bene
fit of their droppings, and also turn
ing under the ground as fust as the
hurdles arc moved, other crops may
be seeded down for the use of tile
sheep, and the land may be sown to
wheat in the spring. By thus do
voting the first year to the growth
of mammal crops, and pasturing
sheep with hurdles the second year,
the land will be permanently restor
ed to fertility, and may be rendered
annually productive with good man
ngement, while the sheep will not
only pay for the expenses the second
year, but give profit as well. Con
sidering the value imparted to the
land in Ireing rendered more fertile,
and the increasing yields which it
will offer, the method is really' eco
nomical, as the gain the third year
will more than repay the loss of time
and labor incurred in its restoration
to fertility.
Boston Traveler.
Not the least of the grades of so
cial life is the swift conversational
touch and go unconsciously acquired
in changing social currents. The art
of expressing a thought in a scntem«.
of stating a fact in a word, is a i:*i
art of the highest value. It ina\ he
set down as an axiom that nolMedi
cares for details; no one wants pro
cise and faithful hiograpical ac
counts sprung apon their defenseless
heads; no one cores a straw for mi
mite experiences. Kor one j*ers«m
in a group to insist on detail5ng
some long story is to be a Imre ol t he
first magnitude. Let us appreei»» <
the value of the touch and goof lift*,
the fine art of condensation.
• «■ -W-s
The Sccrixo Pig, Baked.—After
the pig is cleaned wipe it thoroughly
inside and out and t!i*n wake :«
forcemeat thus: Chop up finely -i
half pound of beef suet and mis
with the same quantity of grat>- i
bread crumbs, adding a half doz n
of chopped tage leaves, a tablespoo;.
ful of chopped parsley and a litre
salt and pepper. Now bind
forcemeat with the beaten yelks ».(
two eggs, and fill the pig with it.
sewing up the opening secnndv.
then beat up the white of an egg
and brash it over the pig until every
part is covered; then put it in tb *
oven and bake from one and a lis
to two boars. It will need no bn#in r
to render the crackling crisp, *» li-•*
white of an egg answers the ssn.u
purpose.—The, Caterer.
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