Newspaper Page Text
The Negro in the Republican
Presidential Campaign, 1912 / Hj? George \V. KIliH, K. 11. G. 8. in the A. M. E. Review for July. During tho last fifty years the de velopment of Amciiean resources has proceeded with amazing rapidity. Along with the development of our ?natural resources has been the remark able growth of American industry. During recent ytears all the great lines of business controlling the neees-| saries of life 'nave b;en organized and I concentrated into corporations of stu pendous size. More and more convpe-! titio?a ha:- been destroyed and monopoly j established effecting most of :the com i mon necessaries consumed by the gen eral public. Through contributions toj campaigns and active participation in public affairs these big corporations and trusts have corrupted politics and given rise to all those economic and political evils growing out of the sin ister alliance between crooked big bus iness on the one hand and corrupt po- ( litical bosses 011 the other. So that the functions of government, state and' national,, have boon perverted almost' entirely from the protection of the ma- | ny and the general welfare to the. pro tection and the promotion of tlip spe-1 cial interests of the favored few. This abnormal economic and political situa- , tion <has justly alarmed the friends of the people and brought, forth a pro- 1 gressivc movement which threatens to ' * I control or destroy the two great ex-' listing political parties. N The Progressive Movement. ' This Progressive Movement is a fun damental attack upon the forms and administration of government as in terpreted by the servers of favored in terests and embraces the best reme dies offered by the advanced thought, j of the country for the existing indus-j trial and political evils. St rouge/ j than party tics it is linked with the real and vital welfare of t'he great} mass of the people and is inseparable from the future progress and happi ness of the nation. Through the bril liant advocacy of Col. William J. Bry an it has finally secured control of the Democratic party. In Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette gave the country an inspiring example jf what Progressive Principles enacted into law mean for the general social and political progress of the people. Provident Roosevelt introduced Pro gressive Principles into national affairs while in oflic? aud gave to the move ment its decided ascendancy when he openly champ.ioncd it. from the plat form. * j Progressive Principles. The chief Progressive Principles in chid? the revision of the tariff in till A interest of the people; the regulation of :t rusts and public-service corpora tions in behalf of the general public; the equalization of the burdens of tax ation by taxing thp itewer and more modern forms of wealt'h; the initiation of legislation by the people which the^ want, and which their representatives refuse to give because of the influence of special interests; the referendum to enable the people to defeat meas ures antagonistic to the public weal and which were put through by the combination of the political boss and the representatives of crooked busi ness; the recall to restore to the people the power to remove from office such officials as have proven recreant to the public good; the conservation of our natural lesourccs for the people in stead of selling them to private inter ests for private and personal gain; and t'he direct primaries for the nomina tion of such state a*nd national ofliccrs | as will restore to the people the pow er to effectively rule themselves and to destroy the financial and political , oligarchy%whose domination in politics has been attended with so mucfi in- 1 dustrlal injustice and political scan dal. ^ The I'rccon vent ion Campaign in the Republican Party. In 1908 President Taft entered upon | the duties of his office pledged to, carry out the Progressive policies of | President Roosevelt. He began to re- ( pudiate them in his inaugural ad dress when he1 announced that he 1 would not appoint black citizens to j office in H'he South whei'R the whites , objected. He surrender ^* the 'in fluenco of pupdatdVy we? " ' ur iff, the conservation of . y arces, / i the control of trusts, <tde such I mi- takes in his appoin .at s and with - reciprocity with Caiada, that when the campaign .opened he bad little or no- course open to him other than 10 fall under the open fjuidancs of those vhorn he had served secretly at such j a great sacrifice of the public inter est. It is believed by many that he nrant well but his refusal to with-: draw from the presidential contest in: compliance with popular demand re- , moves all foundation for such a be-: lief. He displayed a statesmanship of! sseing dimly what was obvious to oth- . ers and of acting only when it was too late. Ro that elected ?V h electoral votes of 30 states in lA<w?ident Taft's ' I administration after two years droVo 13 Republican states with 162 electo ral votes from th? Republican to the Democratic column, with a loss to the Republican party of something like 2,01)0,320 votes. Early in his admin istration he made the further mistake of giving an order making persona non grata in the departments' Pro- , grcsp.lve Republicans in Congress and then withdrew "after the Republican losses of 1910 with an admission of its folly. Demand for Roosevelt's Nomination. With such a record the Progressive Republicans of the country reached the conclusion that unless- they could sccure control of the Republican Par ty and nominate a Progressive the Demociats would win the presidential election in 1912. During the latter part of 1911 the Progressives met in conference at Chicago and indorsed Senator Robert M. La Follette as Iheir candidate for the Republican presi dential nomination. Senator La Fol lette began his campaign and after . several months it appeared that unless another Progressive 'was brought for ward President Taft would be renom inated with consummate .. ease. A. country-wide demand through six Re publican governors was presented to Colonel Roosevelt and he entered for the nomination with reluctance. The campaign at once took on new aspects and the two leading candidates began what has turned out to be a finish light. Importauco of Negro Voter. In at least a dozen Republican | states the Negro voter is not only the balance of power between the two I great parties, but is a very important and decisive factor in the Republican Party. In such a contest the eyes of ?the country were turned toward the colored citizen. His attitude in this I -? contest more than vindicates his citi zenship and is believed to have much bearing upon the future civil status of the American Negro. The average 'Negro voter t'hrcw off the leadership of the official Negro adviser and lined up with the advanced and Progressive forces of his party and his country. His action therefore in view of what ! happened at Ch.icago is decidedly im portant and significant. Both Colonel Roosevelt and Presi ? dent Taft had Negro policies. Both were president and the issues of the I preconvention campaign turned chiefly I on t .ieir official records and their atti tude toward the Progressive Move ment and the Negro race. The Example of Illinois Presidential primaries. In the beginning of the campaign Colonel Roosevelt announced bis will i ?ingness to abide by the will of the people as expressed in a popular and fair primary. President Taft through ?his supporters resisted the primary where it was not already established ' by law and in a nunibqr of states pre 'ven'.ed any expression of the will of the people. He failed, however, in Il linois where Colonel Roosevelt's friends obtained a presidential pri l mary lavv. Here the active campaign opened with Senator La Follette, Pres ident Taft and Colonel Roo-cvelt a!l .'peaking in the state. Colonel Roose velt defeated President Taft in 1 1 1 i t r.ois more than two to one with a plu rality of 164,436 and with 121,744 more votes t^an Taft and La Folic tte combined. The good example set by Illinois was followed with varying majorities by Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, California, and all the primary states cxcept IVlassacnusotts, where Roosevelt delegates won by 7,000 and Taft was declared to be the preference by less than 4,000, result ing in each getting the same number of votes from that state. It would seem that any man who had the least regard for trne wishes or welfare of the people "would have listened to the overwhelming voice of these primaries asking Presi dent Taft to retire. TVift nn<1 Roosevelt on Brownsville. The defeats in Illinois and Pennsyl vania worn so humiliating that Presi dent Taft nought in Ohio to alienato the Negro vote^ from Colonel Roose velt by parading the Brownsville iu cident in connection with some of the discharged soldiers. Colonel Roose velt promptly closed this feature of the campaign by exhibiting the print ed report in the matter of Secretary of War Taft in which report Secretary 'i aft recommended the discharge of the soldiers at Brownsville and went so far as to call them would-be mur derers. Attention was also called to the fact that President Taft had J*pcyi in office for three and a half years and had not reinstated a single sol dier. The campaign then, so far as. the Negro was concerned, fell back [ upon the Negro policies of the two presidents while in office. Taft and Negro Appointment*. President Taft had made the new appointments of Cottrell of Ohio, col- 1 lector of the port in Hawaii; White field McKkiley, collector of the port at Georgetown, and William H. Lewis, assistant attorney general of the Unit ed States, and besides a few usual Ne fc;ro appointmpnts had retained toe following Roosevelt . appointments: Ralph W. Tyler, auditor for the Nkvy Department; Charles W. Anderson, collector of internal revenue i*a New York City; James A. Cobb, assistant United States district attorney in Washington City; S. Laing Wiilliams, assistant United States district attor ney in Chicago, and young Matthews, assistant United States district attor ney 1m Bo.: ton, In an endeavor to in fluence the Negro voters in the Mas sachusetts primaries. Aside from t'h is the President diiring the campaign condemned lynching' in an address at Howard University and sent a bouquet to Madam Terrell. And -therefore it I was contended that the Neglo s'hould support Mr. Taft for rcnomkiatlon. Tttft DfscriminationvS Against Negro. On the other hand the Negro consid ered what was against the President: (1) in the" discharge of 128 Negro 4th class postmasters; (2) the dis charge of Henry A. Rucker, the last colored Georgia official, though en- j dorsed by the best whites of his s.tate; i (3) t'he dismissal of Joshua A. Wilson, colored postmaster at Florence, S. C..' i though endorsed by a majority of I white- in that section; (4) the dis missal of over 108 colored federal ap- I pointees in Texas; (5) the discharge I of Mr. Christian, colored postmaster for 25 years at Yorktown, Va'., over the protest of white business mtu; (6) | the reduction of Dr. Joan M. Prathgr j and Jere Brown in the immigration service because they wf:re colored; (7) the refusal of Benjamin Bundy a consular appointment because of color; (8) the order to Director Durand not to permit colored ^numerators to count white people in the South; (9) his statement in a letter to Fisk Univ ersity ihat the Negro race should be treated separate and distinct from the white race; (10) all this record of discrimination and more carried out in accord with V the Taft Negro policy announced in his inaugural address ?i'nat colored men would not be ap pointed to office over the objection of Southern prejudice. Roosevelt's Itecord on tiJie Negro. The record of Colonel Roosevelt on the Negro citizen w#s just the reverse. He announced as 'his Negro policy th^t he would treat colored citizens on their merits the same as other citizen.?. In accord with t'flis policy he abolished the postoffice at Ind.ianola because the white patrons refused to treat justly a, capable and efficient colored post mistress. He appointed Negroes to' of fice in the South as he did white men according to qualifications, character, &s. He forced a reluctant Republican Senate by repeated nomination to con firm Dr. William D. Crum, collector of the port at Charleston, S. C. He opened up new offices for the Negro ?citizens of the North when it took courage to do it by appointing Charles ?W. Ande'rson, .collector of iir|iernal revenue in New York City; "Ralph W. Tyler, auditor for the Navy Depart ment, a?nd three assistant United States district attorneys, in different sections of the countvy. He condemn ed lynching not for political purposes but to stop it and stated in a letter to Fisk University that the Negro should be educated as other people. He repeatedly announced to the coun try that the door of hope should not be closed agahist the Negro because of color, and that all men, black as well as- white, should have a square deal. The Judgment of Negro Masses. The great masses of Negro voters of the North and border states carefully con&idcrexl the race policies of Taft and Roosevelt, together with the fa(/i that Taft recommended the discharge of the Brownsville soldier.?, and reach ed the conclusion that Che Taft Negro policy was detrimental to the whole Negro race, and that. Colonel Roose velt was the real and tried friend of tli e Negro citizen. The Negroes, therefore, joined hands with the great masses of the white citizens avid em phatically announced in unmistakable terms as often as they had the oppor tunity that Roosevelt was the tin doubted choice of the rank and file of the Republican Party for the Republi can> nomination for president of the United States. Complexion cf Republican National ' Convention. By the time the convention met the Republican Party had been definitely divided into two bitter and hostile and waning ramps, representing the two great progressive and conservative forces of society. Tin convention was composed of 1073 delegates anWys- 1 tribnted in varying nmnl)c;s anKvig lour presidential aspirants. Those representing Colonel Koosev It and tbe other Progressives came mostly from Republican states and were se lect d by the Republican voters after a free and fair discussion of the is sno-! involved, . The great bulk of those favoring President Taft w^;e from machine-ridden states where the po litical bosses prevf.ii led presidential primaries and selected delegates to the convention without regard to the wishes of the Republican voters, or from the Southern stairs which give I . . I 9 ' . no Republican elector&l votes and on voting territories and where the fed eral olflee-holding trust selects the del egates under the Influence of national J patronage with little or mo regard for the issues at stake. . , Of this 1078 delegates thus select ed Roosevelt had uncontested and in structed for 'him1 from states in the main electing Republican presidents 411, Tal't ?01, I>a Follette 36 and Cum mings 10; 254 were contested by Roosevelt or Taft and the remaining 166 were un instructed, ? 540 being 'accessary to a choice. I Injustice of Republican National , Committee. From the foregoing it is plain that Roosevelt would be nominated unless, semehewj the completion of the con vention was materially changed. This was the work assigned by design to and consummated by t'iie National Re publican Committee. The only oppor tunity for the success of such a pro gram against the k'.iown verdict of the people was offered in the dispositior. of the 254 contests by the Nationa) Committee.. It began its hearing ol the contests June 6th and concluded June 15th, 1912. It decided as fol lows: 235 were given to President Taft and 19 to Colonel Roo-evelt. The contests were grouped together wher ever possible and disposed of without regard to the evidence with unbecom ing 'liasic and restriction. To understand something of the mo tive of revenge which seems to liavt such complete control over the Re publican National Committee it is nec lessary to know something of its per sonnel and their political .status, &c. On the committee, President Taft's voting strength was 3G at its mini mum, 14 of whom were from Republi can states that had repudiated Pres ident Taft and had declared decisive ly for Colonel Roosevelt; 6 of the re maining 22 were from states that give no electoral votes to Republican I candidates; and 4 of the 16 left w-ere ( from territories t'li at do not vote at all Many of the Taft committeemen had been discredited and retired by Col onel Roosevelt and their work shows that t'.iey had resolved to defeat him | for the Republican nomination even at the sacrifice of the Republican par ? ty. The Death Struggle in the ConvCn i" tioii. No sooner had the Republican Na tional Committee disposed of the con 'osly than an appeal in charge of Gov ernor Hadley was prepared for the Credentials Committee. In th^ncan time the Roosevelt forces lined up fo1 the struggle for temporary chairman Senator Root, of New York, was tlir candidate of the Taft. adherents. Sen ator Borah, of Idaho, was-tlre candidate ?of the Progiessives but Governor M * Govern, of Wisconsin, was substitutec in an endeavor to unite all the Pro gressive strength. Senator Root wa elected by only 18 more votes than were necessary to nominate tho can didate for president, the vote belnj; 553 for Root and 502 for McGovern the election of Senator Root being ac complished by the assistance of th delegates claimed to 'have been fraud ulntly seat-ed by the National Com mittce. The Roosevelt forces now determin ed to purge the roll of fraudulent del egates or to take no part in the ac tions of the convention. Of the 254 contests, at least 72 were -bo unjustly seated as to constitute ^fraud involv ing delegates from Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Indiana, Ken tucky, Texas and Washington. The Committee on Credentials like the Na tional Committee wa- under the do minion of the repudiated Republican bosses and it adopted such unjust rule? ?in its proceeding that many of tlu Roo-.evelt members withdrew, lit complexion was 32 for Taf'c and lit for Roosevelt. However, the contests were presented to it with the result that the fraud of the National Com mittee was confirmed and all the con tested fraudulent delegates were per mitted !o remain on the roll ar,;? re vote in the convention on their own cases. Tire decision of the Committee on Credentials was brought up for review by the convention in the Deneen res olution to exclude thv fraudulently mi i oiled delegates from voting on their cases. The resolution wa 4 tabled b> a vote of 504 for to 510 against the tabling of the resolution. By this vote the convention sustained the fraud of the National Committee and the Committee on Credentials and be came itself a fraudulent convention by retaining upon its rolls a sufficient number of fraudui n: volrs to con trol the actions of thai body. The Roosevelt foices finally concluded to take no furthe/ part in the convention with some exceptions and to sit through the convention in silent pro test and : r; that no one but President Taft was nominated for president. The name of Colonel Roosevelt by di rection was not prevented to the eo li ven, ion and after ail of the nomina tions wei - mad? Taft and Sherman were nominated with substantially f V Taft strength in '.he convention. T.ie Roosevelt delegates adjourned to a Ihrge and enthusiastic mass nie?iing a: OvcfieStra Hall where Colonrl Uoose velt accepted a nomination tendered to him by the meeting. The air wa? | ladeiicd with the feeling that some- 1 Ihing important had happened for the people and the country. The Attitude of Negro Delegates. The aetiiAi of the iNegro delegates hi the convention was paradoxical.1 Notwithstanding that the great masses jf the Negroes, North aud South, were' .or Roosevelt, the N<gro delegates,' .vith a few exceptions, voted with the raft forces to sustain the fraud and .evengc of the discredited v aud de-s eated Taft political bosses. The OG t \Tegro delegates from the South were J Oiore t'lian the balance oL' power bo-r iwecn the pai-y divisions and could*, lave easily giv;,n effect in the convcu .ion to tie wishes of t.ie people in all <;etio;;s of the country, and especial y advanced the interest of the Ne ,_,ro race South, which suffers undr the same kind of a political oligarchy which had dominion at 'the convention, a is said that tliey were instructed .or President Taft and were bouud io ;arry out their instructions. Without violating their instructions be -it re jiemt:red tliat men, really at heart for Taft but instructed for Roosevelt, /oted in the convention for Root for emporary chairman and to table the Jencen resolution to purge the roll of Jraud, but who still intended to vote .'or Roosevelt as lustructed. Had the Negro delegates done .likewise andj voted for McGovern instead of Root md again t tabling the Deneen reso I lution, they would not only h^ve saved he Republican party frowf^fraud and perhaps from disruption, but Ki?ey'j would have availed themselves of the j 3est opportunity to servo their race that 'has been presented in mor? 'than i quarter of a ctwtury. Numerous mass meetings were held 1 jy the Negroes of Chicago where rep resentative Negroes spoke from all sections of the country, appealing to ?^egro delegates to vote for Roosevelt, .vho stood for 'the best interest of all .he people and the Negro race. T-icy ipparently turned the deaf ear to all ippeals, and it is generally believed ,.hat they were governed by the influ jnce of patronage and other personal ' and local considerations of far less Importauce than tiie civil and politi ?al interests of the Negro people, t Charles Banks, a Negro banker, dele-i gate from Mississippi in returning' $800 ? to Director William 13. McKin-' ley with a long statement which wa-: 1 not denied, throws a flood of 1 i g "i t upon the influence which were being employed 'to induec Negroes to stand out against their race. n 'The Negro Delegates and the Party Crisis. | The action of the gr?at majority of he Negro delegates in vq}.;-^ for the ? ;'raud of the Republican Nsftional Com* mittee, for ;V'.V3 Taft candidate for 'tem >orary chairman, and for the reten tion at least of 72 fraudulently seated delegates, puts them on record in a ' peculiar and conspicuous sense against ?eform in our political methods, Against tlu social and political prog ess of the great ma-ses of the Amer ican people .in all the states, aail challenges t'he Negroes of the country o come forward at once with a new ieadcrship, if they would preserve 'heir status as freemen and American ?itizens, entitled to the rights and privileges of oUer citizens, and free' (he race from the galling conditions of the South and th-3 increasing proj idiee L'.id discriminations of the na- ' tion. ft is true that the ,-amo number of vhile delegates 'had the same oppor tunity. But it is also true that the \egro delegates \v; re the representa tives of a people and class under spe cial suffering and injustice as were no ilher delegates in that convention. J \nd for I he act ion of t iv: Negro dele- , gates, as wc believe against the inte rs t of the black and white mas.es, the i white delegate had a clear and decid* 1 majority for dcccucy and honesty in politics and a square deal for (he Negro as for otlicr citizens. And for f'.ieir decisive support these delegates did not even get in the Republican platform the usual Negro pianks oi'i any substitutes in the interest, of the race. What did they get for such an opportunity to tfcrve the race? The Negro delegates in the main, therefore, cho-e not only to go against the interest of their own race and tho expressed popular will of tlui Repub lican party, but to be counted with the. most daring and baneful element In American politics. The only consola tion is that they misrepresented the Negro rat 3 But they did more. By tiicir hands the Republican party was rendered a fatal blow. The party of j a long line of splendid a*. 1(1 IPu. trious Republican statesmen was brought lo an untimely death. And a iuw party must arise and take up the unfinished work which tlie Republican' party a. nobly began. The opportunity is too great for the people to falter. Their cause is too just for them 'o fall. lu nmj/rs. Not only did Friend Williams, in his first game of professional bail, J hold his opponents to no hits in full i nine innings, but ho did not. allow one of them to rcach lirst base throughout the contest. The game was played bv Bridgeport against the Steuben ville team, both in the Ohio and Pennsylvania League.- Williams went to Bridgeport from Moundsvillc. His first professional appearance as a A. NT. EAG AN jeweler 806 QllARRlEK ST. CHAR! ESTON, W. VA. RIGHT PRICES ON DIAMONDS, WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY FINE WATCH REPAIRING A SPECIALTY Mutual Loan & Jewelry Co. H. GALPERIN, Prop. MONEY ADVANCED ON DIAMONDS, WATCHES,. JEWELRY, BICYCLES AND OH ALL 6000$ OF VALUE GREAT BARGAINS IN UNREDEEMED PLEDGES 720 Kanawha St. - - Chnrleston, W. Va. IH THE KANAWHA VALLEY BANK BUILOIH0 DR. B. A. CR1CHLO Wj OFFICE 805 1-2 Kanawha SI. Charleston, W. Vb. J RESIDENCE 304 DONNALLY ST. I Oflice Phone 1102 - - Residence Phone 1118 I Office Hours: 9-11 a. m.; 2-4 p. m.; (j-8 p. m. I twirler afforded him the chance which he took to make a record the like of which is .not recorded in baseball history. The game result ed in a score of two to nothing. INDIANA llOR/TICUIv TUItlSTS MEET. " Orleans, Ind., Aug. 20 ? The two days' summer meeting of the In diana Horticultural Society openev here today with an unusually large attendance. The visiting members were entertained at luncheon this noon at the home of Mr. J. A. Bur ton and after luncheon they were taken by him through the society's experimental orchard. At the busi ness meetings tonight and Wednes day morning Senator Joseph Dun lap of Illinois; Prof. Wendell Paddock, of the horticultural department of the Ohio State University; Thomas ?P.' Littlepage of Washington !' D. C., and several other experts will deliver addresses. VKTKIMNAKIANS IX) MEET Indianapolis, Ind., 'Aug. 23 The annual convention of t.lie American Veterinary Medical Association, which is to be held in this city 'the coming week, is expected to attract about 2,000 members from all sec^ tions of the United States and Canada. Among those who will take part in the convention program are Dr. M. F. Brenton of Detroit, president of the association; Dr. J. W. Klotz, of Noblofcjville, lnd., who 'will have charge of the surgical clinics; Dr. Harry D. Gill of New 'York, who will have charge of the medical clinics, and Dr. D. E. Sal mon, who was the first veterinary to become a member of the United States bureau of animal industry. ? THE BAUER MEAT AND FISH CO. 28 and 30 Capitol St. Beef, Veal Mutton, Pork Fresh Pork Sausage, Our Own Make % ? Fry Our. Machine Sliced Hams and Bacon OYSTERS, FISH, P0?JRY ; : ; 1 'v i r sgg 4 ? * . 9 * The best qualities in all the popular kinds of CHEESE *?' ? ? 1 - 1 ' ? r ^ 11,1 -? 11 1 r.'-saags We want your patronage for we have complete stock in our lines and you can get it when you want more.